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SSHIG^.^-     Jz')^ 


HARVARD  COLLEGE  LIBRARY 
JUL    1   1914 

«HARLES  ELLIOTT  PER.CINS 
KIEMORIAL  COLLECTIOU 


.1   ^-       - 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


Improvcncnt  Era, 


oacmti  or 


Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement 
associations. 


VOLUME    II. 


PUBLISHED  BY  THE  GENCRSL  BOARD. 


JOS.  F.  SMITH, 
^Sdltors. 


JOS.  F.  SMITH,  ) 

B.  H.  ROBERTS.  >  1 

BDW.  H..ANDHRSON.  1 

THolVuf^^^^'  I  ^"^^  Manager.. 


SRLT  L\KC  CITY,  UTAH: 
1695-9. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


IMPROVEMENT  ERA,  VOLUME  U. 

INDEX  TO  SUBJECTS. 


PAGB. 

Abdallah  and  Sabat 260 

Across  the  Pacific 46 

Acts  of  Special  Providence  in 
Missionary  Experience  229, 

263,361,45a.  534 

Agnosticism,  What  A.  is 100 

Agnostics,  Inconsistency  of...  ^  301 

"America" 926 

Anecdotes  of  St.  John,  Legend- 
ary   459 

Animal  Life  and  Pishing,  Cur- 
ious   887 

Answers  to  Interesting  Ques- 
tions  275,  467 

Articles  of  Faith,  The 623 

Aspirations  of  Youth 613 

Association  Officers,  To 957 

As  to  Music 155 

Attitude  of  the  Church  towards 

Reform-Political  Parties 310 

Autumn  Days 317 

A  Word  about  the  Bra 394 

A  Word  to  Missionaries 156 

A  Word  to  Young  Latter-day 

Saints 614 

A  Word  with  Young  Men 601 

Aziola,  The 418 

Battle  of  Trafidgar 659 

Beautiful  Thing,  A 547 

Bible  as  a  Factor  in  Bducation, 

The 370 

Bible,  Modem  Value  of  the 230 

Bible,  What  Version  to  Buy  of 

the 620 

Bigotry  Opposed  to  Progress...  368 

Book- Companions 138 

Book  Review 549 

Boy's  Faith,  A 454 

Brahmo-Somaj 401 

Buddhism 81 

Building  of  a  Man,  The 21 

Case  of  Miraculous  Healing,  A  815 
Change  of  Heart,  The  Neces- 
sity of  a 527 

Character  of  our  Assailants 817 

Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Lat- 
ter-day Saints  at  the  Parlia- 
ment of  Religions,  The  584, 

673.750.831,  893 

Civilization  vs.  Barbarism 854 

Clyde,  Scenery  of  the 3^4 

Comfort  to  the  Afaicted 690 


PAGE. 
Conference,  Annual  Y.  M.  and 

Y.  L.  M.  I.  A 707.  789 

Conference,  The   Recent  Im- 
provement   701 

Conference,  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A. 620 

Confucianism 338 

Continuity  in  Character 927 

Conversation 54i 

Cottage,  a  Highland 920 

Course  of  Study,  Our 157 

Cowdery,  Oliver 90 

Creation 18 

Curious  Animal  Life  and  Fish« 
ing 887 

Daybreak.^ 866 

Death  of  Col.  Ingersoll 862 

Dream  Fulfilled,  A 686 

Dream  of  Youth,  A 258 

Dre3rfus  and  the  Administra- 
tion of  Law  in  France 321 

Drink  and  Tobacco,  Evils  oL...  881 
Duty 166 

Early  Scenes  and  Incidents  in 
the  Church  187, 267,  347.419. 

529.  590.  652,  729,  8oi 
Edison,  A  Story  of  the  Inventor  373 

Editor's  Table: 
Acts  of  Special  Providence  in 

MissMMiary  Experience,  229 
Answers  to  Interestmg  Ques- 
tions    467 

Articles  of  Faith,  The 623 

Attitude  of  the  Church  To- 
wards   Reiorm-Political 

Parties , 3W 

Beautiful  Thing,  A 547 

Book-Companions 138 

Book  Review 549 

Icarian  Community,  The  New  135 

Improvement  Era 69 

L^fe-Influencing  Maxims.....  227 

Long  Live  the  Prophet 67 

Modem  Value  of  the  Bible...  230 

Official  Announcement 467 

Philippine  Problem,  The 381 

Place  ofMan  in  the  Universe, 

The 785 

Power  of  Religion,  The 545 

Prompter,  The 382 

Rebate  on  Subscriptions  to 
Stakes i43 


Digitized  by 


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INDEX  TO  SUBJECTS, 


ttt. 


PAG9. 

Recent  Imwovement  Confer- 
ence, The 701 

Reformation  by  Religion 624 

Return  of  the  Volunteers.....  870 
Talks  to  the  Young  Men: 

Fruits  of  the  Spirit 699 

I/eam  A  Trade 867 

Tendency    to  Deify  Evil, 

The 944 

Tithing,  Some  Words  on...  781 
What  Version  of  the  Bible  to 

Buy 620 

Where  Virtue  is 384 

Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  Conference...  620 
Education,  The  Bible  as  a  Fac- 
tor in 370 

»  Education,  The  Mormon  Point 

oi  View  in 119 

Emperor  William's  Visitto  Pal- 
estine    302 

Evening  Star,  The 597 

Events  of  the  Month,  79,  159, 
236,  318.  398.  477>  556»  638. 

716,  7?9»  878.  959 
Evils  of  Drink  and  Tobacco, 
and  Some  Remedies  There- 
for   881 

Expansion,  Territorial 425 

Faith,  The  Justification  of 194 

Finish  the  Course  of  Study 393 

France,  Two  Claimants  to  the 

Throne  of. 513 

Free  Agency  Philosophy  of....     38 
Friendship,  Love  and  Truth...    27 

From  Faith  to  Faith 332 

From  the  Arabic 107 

Fruits  of  the  Spirit 699 

Fulfillment  of  Dreams 263 

Garcia,  A  Message  to 909 

General  Improvement  Fund...  315 

Get  More  Manuals 232 

Gift  of  Healiiig,  The 819 

Giits  of  the  Gospel 97>324,  447 

God  Knoweth  Best 829 

God,  The  Personality  of. 15 

Gospel,  Gifts  of  the 97,  224,  447 

Gospel  Studies: 
Inward  Kingdom  of  God  Ne- 
cessary to  Salvation,  An  217 
Outward  Kingdom  of  God 
Necessary  to  Salvation, 

An 291 

Reality  and  Significance  of 
Heaven  and  Hell,  The 

443,  518,  606,  841  . 


PAGB. 

Gospel,  The  Leaven  ofthe 504 

Government  and  Leadership, 

Groundwork  for 486,  617,  693 

Groundwork  for  Government 

and  Leadership 486, 617,  693 

Habits 280 

Hail  Columbia 485 

Hearts  of  Oak 697 

Heaven  and  Hell,  The  Reality 
and  Significance  of  442,  518, 

606,  841 

"He  Shall  Perish,''.. 801 

Hinduism 176 

Highland  Cottage,  A 921 

His  Light 886 

History  of  the  Old  School  Mas- 
ter, The 936 

Honor  thy  Parents 734 

Hope  Thou  in  God 922 

How  to  Get  a  Testimony 691 

Icarian  Community,  The  New  135 
Iceland  Republic  and  its  Legal 

System,  The 167 

I  Hear  it  Yet 290 

Improvement  Era j59 

Improvement  Association  Offi- 
cers to  be  Set  Apart 154 

Improvement  Association,  The 

Far  East 152 

Incident  of  the  Black  Forest, 
and  the  Apache  Indians  of 

Arizona,  An 366 

Inconsistency  of  A^ostics 301 

Influence  of  Religion  on  the 

Mind 779 

Ingersoll,     Death    of   Robert 

Green 862 

In  Lighter  Mood,  74,  148,  314, 
389»  473»552,  628,  706,  873,  950 

Inspiration,  Philosophy  ofl 38 

Inward  Kingdom  of  God  Neces- 
sary to  Salvation,  An.. 217 

Islam,  The  Spirit  of 490 

James  and  John 281 

Judaism,  Historical 28 

Justification  of  Faith,  The 194 

Just  a  Hint  or  Two 955 

Lake  at  Sunset,  The 489 

Lamentation  on  the  Death  of  a 

Father 331 

Last  Hours    of  Dr.  Harry  A. 

Young 641 

^Law  of  Tithing,  The 299 


Digitized  by 


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tv. 


INDEX  TO  SUBJECTS. 


PAGB. 

Laws  of  Religion,  The 303 

Leayen  of  the  Gospel,  The 504 

Learn aTrade 867 

Legendary    Anecdotes   of  St. 

John 459 

Life  and  Character  Sketch  of 

Lorenzo  Snow ^  561 

Life-Influencing  Maxims,  229, 

539»  690 

Life'sChase 503 

Life's  Obstructions 907 

Lighter  Mood,  In  74,  148,  314, 

389.  473,  55a.  628.  706.  873,  950 
Liquified  Air,  The  Wonders  of  497 
Lives  of  the  Apostles: 

Simon  Peter 208 

James  and  John 281 

Paul 351 

Longfellow's  Bridge  at  Mid- 
night, On 579 

Long  Live  the  Prophet 67 

Lorenzo  Snow,  Life  and  Char- 
acter Sketch  of. 561 

Man,  The  Building  of  a 21 

Manila  and  the  Part  Taken  by 
the  Utah  Batteries  in  its  Cap- 
ture   161 

Manual  for  1897-8,  A  Third  Edi- 
tion of„ 397 

Manual  for  1899,-1900 798 

Manual,  Life  of  Jesus. 71 

Meeting  After  Absence 496 

Meetings  by  Returned  Mis- 
sionaries^   875 

Membership  Permanent 233 

Message  to  Garcia,  A 909 

Ministering  to  the  Afflicted 692 

Midnight  Musings 933 

Miraculous  Interpositions  of 
Providencence  Against  the 
Bnemies   of  Righteousness, 

Some «...  534 

Missionary  Experiences 598 

Acts  of  Special  Providence  in 
Missionary  Experience,  229, 

263,  361  >  452.  534 
Case  of  Miraculous  Healing 

A 815 

Character  of  Our  Assailants, 

The 817 

Dream  PulfiUed,  A 686 

Gift  of  Healing,  The 819 

Temptation,  or  Godsend 687 

Way  Opened  Through  Faith, 

The «  818 


PAGB. 
Missonary  work  in  the  South,  A 

Sample  of.. 456 

Missionary  Work  in  Utah  Stake  554 

Model  Stake  Report,  A 631 

Modem  Value  (»  the  Bible 230 

Mormon  Church,  The 241 

Mormon  Point  of  View  in  Edu- 

cation,The , 119 

Moral  Qualities  of  Milton^ 359 

More  About  Tithing 464 

Morning  Star,  The 201,  605 

Music, 

See  the  Mighty  Angel  Ply- 
ing« 240 

My  Life 814 

Mysterious  Visitor,  A 409 

Napoleon 571 

Nature 175 

Necessity  of  a  Change  of  Heart, 

The 527 

Night 266 

Notes,  72,  144,  231,  312,  387, 
472,  550.  627.  704,  788,  872.  947 

Oliver  Cowdery «.    90 

Old  Schoolmaster,  The  History 
ofthe 936 

On  a  Faded  Violet. 672 

On  Longfellow's  Bridge  at  Mid- 
night   579 

Oriental  Religious  Faiths: 

Brahmo-Somaj 401 

Buddhism 81 

Confucianism .*..  338 

Hinduism... 176 

Historical  Judaism 28 

Origin  and  Nature  of  Man  from 
the  Standpoint  of  Revelation 
and  Reason 767,  820,  914 

Our  Course  of  Study 157 

Our  Work: 
Annual  Conference  of  the  Y. 
M.  and  Y.L.M.L  Asso- 
ciations  707,  789 

As  to  Music 155 

Association  Officers,  To 957 

Correspondence  Bureau  Pro- 
posed, A 76 

Far  feast  Improvement  Asso- 
ciation, The 152 

Finish  the  Course  of  Study,  393 
General  Improvement  Fund,  315 

Just  a  Hint  or  Two 955 

Get  More  Manuals^ 232 

Manual  for  1899 798 


Digitized  by 


Google 


INDEX  TO  SUBJECTS. 


V, 


PAGB. 

Meetings  by  Returned  Mis- 

sionaries^ 875 

Membership  Permanent 233 

Missionary    Work  in    Utah 

Stake «  554 

Model  Stake  Report   A 631 

Mutual  Improvement  Asso- 
ciation Officers  to  be  Set 

Apart 154 

Our  Course  of  Study 157 

Raiding  Newspapers »  316 

Report  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Missionary  Work.  395 
Report  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Missionary   work 

for  1899 553 

September  Work 877 

Statistical  Report  of  the  Y. 

M.M.I. A.. 796 

Summer  Lectures 716 

Third  Bdition  of  Manual  for 

1897-8  A 397 

Trainmg  Young  Men  to  Smg 

475.  629 

Use  of  Missionary  Bras,  The  232 

Word  About  the  Era,  A 394 

Word  to  Missionaries,  A 156 

Writing  as  a  Means  of  Im- 
provement  952 

Young  Men's  Association  in 

Old  Syria,  A. 635 

Pacific,  Across  the 46 

Palestine,  Emperor  William's 

Visit  to 202 

Parliament  of  Religions,  The 
Church  of  Jesus    Christ    of 

Latter-day  Saints  at  the 

584,  673.  750,  831,  893 
Parting  and  the  Meeting,  The  850 

Past  and  Future 126 

Past  Year,  The 222 

Paul 351 

Personality  of  God,  The 15 

Philippine  Crime,  The  Story 

of  a. 481 

Philippine  Problem,  The 381 

Philosophy  of  Inspiration,  Free 

Agency  and  Revelation 38 

Place  of  Man  in  the  Universe, 

The 785 

Plea  for  Mormon  Civilization, 

^  A 775,  85^ 

Poetry: 

Aspirations  of  Youth „  613 

Autumn  Days 117 

Aziola,  The 418 


PAGB. 

Creation 18 

Daybreak 866 

Dream  of  Youth,  A 258 

Duty.. 166 

Evening  Star,  The 597 

Friendship,  Love  and  Truth    27 

From  the  Arabic 107 

God  Elnoweth  Best. 829 

Hearts  of  Oak 697 

His  Light 886 

I  hear  it  Yet 290 

Lake  at  Sunset,  The 489 

Lamentation  on  the  Death  of 

a  Father 331 

Life's  Chase 503 

Meeting  After  Absence 496 

Midnight  Musings 933 

Ministering  to  the  Afflicted..  692 

Morning  Star,  The 201,  605 

My  Life 814 

Napoleon 572 

Nature 175 

Night 266 

On  a  Faded  Violet 672 

Parting  and    the    Meeting, 

The 850 

Past  and  Future 126 

Past  Year,  The 222 

Prayer 14 

Sacred 463 

Song  to  Sorrow,  A 434 

Sonnet 369,  913 

Souvenir,  A 441 

Spring 424 

Sword,  The 346 

Time  512 

To  Blossoms 526 

To  the  Husbandman 517 

Wars's  Drum 892 

Winter  Thoughts 226 

Why  Must  it  be 860 

Political  Samoa 435 

Polysophical  and  Mutual 741 

Power  of  Religion.  The 545 

Prayer 14 

Progress  of  the  War 56,  128 

Prompter,  The 382 

Promptings  of  the  Still  Small 
Voice 452 

Questions,  Answers  to  Interest- 
ing   275.  467 

Reading  Newspapers 316 

Reformation  and  Religion 624 


Digitized  by 


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tn. 


INDEX  TO  SUBJECTS. 


PAOB. 

Reality   and    Significance   of 
Heaven  and  Hell,  The  442, 

518,  606,  841 
Rebate   on    Subscriptions    to 

Stakes 143 

Religion  as  a  Comfort  in  Old 

AjB^  and  Adversity ^  934 

Rebg^on,  The  Laws  of. 303 

Remarkable  Case  of  Religious 
Devotion  and Self-Sacrince...  748 

Report,  A  Model  Stake 631 

Report,  Annual  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A. 

Statistical 796 

Report  of  Mutual  Improvement 

Missionary  Work 395 

Report  of  Mutual  Improvement 
Missionary  Work  for  1899....  553 

Return  of  the  Volunteers 870 

Revelation,  Philosophy  of  In- 
spiration, Free  Agency  and    3S 

Sacred 463 

Samoa  and  her  Neighbors 335 

Samoa,  Political 435 

Samoa,  The  Eden  of  the  Pacific  733 
Sample  of  Missionary  Work  in 

the  South,  A 456 

Scenery  of  the  Clyde 304 

Scotch  Characteristic,  A 309 

See  the  Mighty  Angel  Flying, 

(Music) 240 

September  Work 877 

Simon  Peter 208 

Sister's  Sentiment,  A 692 

Soil,  A  Voice  from  the 108 

Song  to  Sorrow,  A 434 

Sonnet  369,  913 

Some  Selections  Worth  Study- 
ing   930 

Souvenir,  A 441 

Spain,  Progress  of   the    War 

with :...56,  128 

Spirit  of  Islam,  The 490 

Spring 424 

Star  Spangled  Banner,  The 583 

Statistical  Report  of  the  Y.  M. 

M.  I.  A.. 796 

Story  of  a  Philippine  Crime, 

The ^  481 

Story  of  Edison,  The  Inventor,  373 

Storyofthe  War,  A 850 

Stranee  Dwelling,  A 942 

Stumbling  Blocks 721 

Summer  Lectures 716 

Sword,  The 346 

Syria,  a  Young  Men's  Associa- 
tion in  Old 635 


PAGB. 

Tale  for  the  Twilight,  A 409 

Talks  to  Young  Men, 

Fruits  of  the  Spirit ^  699 

Learn  a  Trade 867 

*  Tithing,  Some  Wordson 781 

Temptation,  or  Godsend? 687 

Tendency  to  Deify  Evil,  The...  944 
Tennessee  Massacre,  An   Un- 
published Letter  on  the i 

Territorial  Expansion 425 

Testimony,  How  to  get  a 691 

Tide  of  Life,  The 775.856,  923 

Time....«. 512 

^Tithing,  More  About 464 

^^thing.  Some  Words  on.. 781 

Tithing, the  Law  of...-. 299 

To  Blossoms 526 

To  the  Husbandman 517 

Trafalgar,  The  Battle  of. 659 

Training  Young  Men  to  Sing, 

475»  629 
Two  Claimants  to  the  Throne 
of  Prance 513 

UniversilT  Association,  The....  241 
Unpublished    Letter    on     the 

Tennessee  Massacre,  An i 

Use  of  Missionary  Eras,  The...  232 
Utah  Batteries,  The  Part  Taken 

by,  in  the  Capture  of  Manila  161 

Voice  from  the  Soil,  A 108 

Volunteers,  Return  of  the 870 

War,  The  Progress  of  the.. .56,  128 

War's  Drum  892 

Way  Opened  Through  Faith. 

The 818 

What  Agnosticism  is 100 

What  is  Man? 377 

What  Version  of  the  Bible  to 

Buy 620 

Where  Virtue  is 384 

Why  Must  It  Be? 860 

Winter  Thoughts 226 

Wonders  of  Liquified  Air,  The  497 

Word  About  the  Era,  A 394 

Word  to  Missionaries,  A 156 

Word    to    Young    Latter-day 

Saints,  A 614 

Word  with  Young  Men,  A 601 

Writing  as  a  Means  of  Improve- 

*  ment 952 

Young,  Last  Hours  of  Dr.  Harry 
A 641 

Young  Men's  Association  in 
Old  Syria,  A 635 


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IMPROVEMENT  ERA,  VOLUME  IL 

INDEX  TO  AUTHORS. 


NAMB.  PAGB. 

Adams,  Samuel  L 97 

Anderson,  Edw.  H ^ 623 

Anderson,  Nephi 332,  561 

Andrus,  Robert 691 

BeU,  Henry  G I75 

Bjomson,  Bjomstjeme 936 

Brimhall,  Dr.  Geo.  H 927 

Buckley,  E - 243,  244 

Burdick,  Arthur  J 489 

Campbell,  Thos 597 

auflf.Prest.W.W.  363,454,687,  748 

Crockett,  Fred  W 15,  45^ 

Crocheron,  Geo.  W 692 

Cowdery,  Oliver 187,  267, 

347>  4I9»  529. 590»  652,  729,  807 
Cowley,  Apostle  M.  F 263,  447 

Davis,  K.  R 866 

Davey,  Sir  Humphry 779 

Davis,  John  H 224 

Daybell,  William. 686 

Dharmapala,  H 81 

Done,  Prof.  Willard...2o8,  281,  351 
Dutcher,  Edward  William 942 


NAMB.  FAGS. 

Lama8ter,W.  H 100 

Landon,  Miss 346 

Lee,  W.  0 335,  435.  735»  887 

Lester,  William 540 

Lyman,  Cha8.R 554 

Madsen,    Bishop  Christian  A 

486,  617,  693 

Marshall,  MariaA 814 

Maycock,  Philip  S 636 

Mendes,  Rev.  Dr.  H.  Periera...    28 

.  Montgomery 27,  613 

Mont^ue 303 

Moore,  D 201,  605 

Morris,  Nephi  L 459 

Morgan,  C.  B 463 

Mozoomdar,  Protab  Chunder...  401 
Musser,  J.  W 817 

Naisbitt,  Henry  W 21, 741  955 

Neeley,  Enos  A 818 

Nicholson,  John 38,  767  820  914 

Nelson,  Prof.  N.  L  ....217,  291, 

443, 518,  606,  841 
Nye,  Ephraim  H 815 


Eckart,NinaWinslow 117      Esmond,  Alfred 850 

Palmer,  William  R 692 

Parry,  Edwin  F 301 

Pearson,  Sarah  E 226,  331,  697 

Penrose,  C  W 275 

Perry,  Lilla  C 496 

Preston,  Bishop  W.  B 299,  464 

Reynolds,  Geo 801 

Reynolds,  Sidney  S 456 

Ricks,  Hon.  Hyrum 690 

Richards,  Apostle  Franklin  D. 

241,  243.  244.  601 

Richards,  Samuel  W 18,90,  377 

Roberts,  Hon.  B.  H....119,  194, 

504.  »*»  584.  673,  750,  831,  893 

Robison,  Willis  E i 

Rodgers,  Andrew  L 366 

Schultz 503 

Scott  of  Am¥rell 892 

Seaman,  Geo.  A 46,  152 

Sears,  J.  S 538 

Shelley 418,  672 

Snow,  Prest.  Lorenzo 467 

Smith,  The  Prophet  Joseph 189 

Somerville  Jooxnal 441 


Famsworth,  Mary  A 860 

Fitzfferald,  M.  D 310 

Freddeton,  John  0 539 

Goddard,Geo 614 

Goethe 517 

Herrick 526 

Hiffginson,  Ella 3^ 

Hi^Geo.  E 497 

HoKuneHsien 338 

Hubbard  Elbert 909 

Hull.  Thos 79,  I59„  236,  318, 

398.477.556,638,717,799, 

878,  959 
Hunt,  Leigh 424 


Ingebretson,  James 126 

819 


Jensen,  Parley  P.. 

Johnson,  Albert  J 

Jones,  Geo.  M 155 

Kazinczy 913 

Kennedy 290 

Kimball,  Elias.. 534 

EInox 512 


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m%%. 


INDEX  TO  AVTBORS. 


NAME.  PAOB. 

Southey 659 

Stephens,  Prof.  Evan 240 

Stohl,  Oleen  N 631 

Stanford,  T.  Y 513 

Sundwall,  Peter,  Jr 76 

Tanner,  Prof.  J.  M 202, 321,  425 

Tennyson 14 

Torgeirson,  John 167 

Vivekananda,  Swami 176 

Walker,  C.  L 933 


NAME.  PAGB. 

Ward,  J.  H 775,  856,  923 

Webb,  Mohammed 490 

Whitney,  Bishop  O.  F 571 

Whittier  J.  G 886 

Widtsoe,  Prof.  John  A 108 

Wilberforoe 934 

Wolfe,  Walter  M 721 

Wootton,  A...280, 368,  527, 854,  907 

Young,  Maj,  Richard  W.  161, 

481,  641 
Yoang,  Dr.  Seymour  B 881 


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IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 


Vol.  n.  NOVEMBER,  1898.  No.  1. 


AN  UNPUBLISHED  LETTER  ON  THE  TEN- 
NESSEEsfMASSACRE* 


A^THRILLING  NARRATIVE. 

BY  WILLIS  B.  ROBISON,  PRESIDENT  OP  THE  WAYNE  STAKE  OP  ZION. 


[Prefatory  Note.— On  the  10th  of  August,  1884,  Elders  John 
H.  Gibbs  and  Wm.  S.  Berry,  together  with  two  Condor  brothers,  were 
murdered  at  the  Condor  farm,  Cane  Creek,  Tennessee,  just  as  they 
were  beginning  Sabbath  morning  services.  They  were  killed  by  a 
mob  of  armed  men,  some,  if  not  all,  of  whom  were  masked.  The 
number  of  men  in  the  mob  has  been  variously  estimated  at  from 
fifteen  to  thirty.  The  leader  of  the  mob  was  killed  by  one  of  the 
Condor  brothers  after  the  Elders  were  shot.  Mrs.  Condor,  the 
mother  of  the  two  boys,  was  savagely  [wounded  after  the  others 
were  killed. 

A  few  days  after  the  killing,  and  after  the  visit  to  the  scene 
of  the  massacre  related  by  President  Robison,  Elder  B.  H.  Roberts 
went  to  the  perilous  place,  exhumed  the  bodies  with  his  own  hands, 
and  took  them  to  Nashville,  where  they  were  placed  in  the  care  of 


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2  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Elder  Robison.  He  brought  them  to  their  homes,  where  the  last 
sad  rites  were  performed  in  their  honor,  amid  general  mourning 
throughout  all  Hon. — Editors.] 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah, 

March  12th,  1895. 
Elder  B.  E.  Roberts, 

Dear  Brother: — ^In  accordance  with  a  promise  made  by  me  at  yonr 
request,  I  will  write  for  your  benefit  a  brief  account  of  the  part  I  took 
in  the  State  of  Tennessee  at  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  Elders  John  H. 
Gibbs  and  William  S.  Berry,  and  also  some  few  items  connected  with  the 
journey  home  with  their  bodies,  after  you  had  secured  them.  The  length 
of  time  that  has  elapsed  since  then,  and  the  entire  absence  of  notes  of  refer- 
ence at  my  disposal,  will  make  my  account  perhaps  a  little  faulty  as  to 
minor  details,  and  perhaps  as  to  exact  dates  as  well.  Should  you  find  in 
the  latter  errors  that  are  apparent,  please  make  the  proper  corrections. 
And  in  these  few  words  of  preface  permit  me  to  say  that  I  am  thankful 
that  I  was  considered  worthy  of  being  entrusted  with  the  responsibility 
of  bringing  the  bodies  of  my  martyred  brethren  home  to  Zion;  and  in 
my  life's  history  there  is  no  page  of  which  I  feel  more  proud,  than  the 
one  which  records  the  faithful  performance  of  that  trust.  And  in  the 
great  beyond  where  I  hope  to  meet  them,  I  trust  this  act  may  be  another 
cementing  bond  between  us,  for  I  believe  they  will  not  be  unappreciative 
of  anything  that  tended  to  bring  their  mangled  remains  home  and  re- 
store them  to  their  families,  and  that  the  lustre  emitted  from  their  Mar- 
tyr's crown,  may  shed  a  few  glimmering  beams  across  my  pathway. 

Yours  in  the  Gospel, 

Willis  E.  Robison. 

PRESroENT  ROBISON'S  NARRATIVE. 

Sunday,  August  10th,  1884,  is  a  date  that  will  be  ever  memor- 
able in  my  life.  On  that  day  Elder  Willard  H.  Robinson  of  Salina, 
Utah,  and  myself  held  a  meeting  according  to  previous  appoint- 
ment at  the  house  of  Brother  George  W.  Seals,  on  Cedar  Creek,  in 
Dickson  County,  Tennessee.  At  that  meeting,  and  during  the  whole 
day  a  spirit  of  sadness  prevailed  that  I  never  before  witnessed  in 
my  labors,  and  on  account  of  which  our  meeting,  so  far  as  the 
preaching  was  concerned,  was  a  failure.  After  the  dispersion  of  the 
people  I  went  out  into  the  peach  orchard  and  sat  down  under  a 
tree  where  I  could  be  alone,  not  caring  to  talk  to  anyone,  and 


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A  THRILLING  NARRATIVE.  3 

my  companion  felt  much  the  same  as  I  did.  While  sitting  there 
Sister  Seals  came  out  and  hunted  me  up,  and  with  tears  streaming 
down  her  cheeks,  asked  me  what  they  had  done  that  I  was  offended 
at  them;  said  she  and  her  husband  knew  something  had  transpired 
that  had  wounded  my  feelings,  and  desired  to  know  what  it  was, 
that  they  could  make  reparation.  I  could  with  difBculty  make  her 
believe  otherwise  than  that  such  was  the  case.  I  make  mention  of 
this  to  show  the  spirit  of  sadness  that  was  prevalent  at  that  time. 

I  had  not  seen  Elders  Gibbs,  Jones,  Berry,  and  Thompson  for 
some  time,  and  according  to  appomtment  made  by  mail  they  were 
to  meet  Elder  Robinson  and  myself  at  McEwen  on  the  next  Tuesday, 
and  get  their  mail,  which  had  been  accumulating  for  some  weeks, 
and  then  we  were  to  spend  a  day  together  on  Blue  Greek,  close  by^ 
where  we  had  many  friends. 

On  the  11th  Brother  Robinson  and  I  walked  over  to  Blue  Greek, 
where  we  waited  for  the  other  Elders,  stopping  at  J.  L.  Ghoats'. 
I  think  we  waited  there  all  day  Tuesday,  and  then  the  brethren 
not  having  arrived,  we  concluded  something  had  detained  them. 
We  felt  that  we  could  wait  no  longer,  as  we  had  been  opening  up 
a  new  field,  and  felt  we  should  return  to  it  agam.  So  we  bade  Mr. 
Ghoats'  family  good-by,  and  leaving  a  message  for  the  Elders,  when 
they  should  come,  started  for  our  field  of  labor.  Thinking  that 
something  regarding  their  delay  might  be  learned  at  the  post  office, 
we  went  by  McEwen  to  inquire,  when  we  got  to  town,  where  we 
were  somewhat  acquainted.  We  then  heard  first  of  the  sad  event 
— of  the  murder  of  some,  or  all,  of  the  Elders  we  had  been  waiting 
for.  The  papers  contained  the  account  of  the  meeting  at  Brother 
Gender's,  the  attack  of  the  mob  and  the  [killing  of  the  Mormon 
preachers;  but  the  accounts  were  very  conflicting.  One  statement 
was  that  all  were  dead,  another  assumed  the  fact  that  only  one  or  two 
were  killed,  and  the  others  were  hid  in  the  woods,  but  desperately 
wounded.  In  fact  no  two  rumors  seemed  to  agree,  to  give  us  any 
definite  information,  but  it  was  very  patent  there  was  something  in 
the  report.  Our  depression  of  spirits  the  Sunday  previous,  the 
failure  of  the  Elders  to  appear  at  the  time  agreed  upon,  and  above 
all  the  fact  that  we  knew  they  intended  holding  meeting  on  Gane 
Greek  at  the  time  the  killing  was  alleged  to  have  occurred,  gave 
an  air  of  credibility  to  the  whole  affair.    I  will  not  attempt  to  de- 


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4  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

scribe  how  I  felt  under  the  chrcomstances;  language  is  insufBcient. 
Suffice  it  to  say  I  had  labored  with  those  brethren  and  formed  at- 
tachments snch  as  Mormon  missionaries  alone  can  form.  And  with 
one  of  them  (Elder  Thompson)  I  had  left  home,  and  together  we 
had  labored  with  no  feeling  except  that  of  perfect  harmony  ever 
existing  between  us;  and  now  to  think  of  some  of  them  lying  dead, 
shot  down  like  dogs,  and  some  of  them  lying  fatally  wounded  in  the 
woods,  with  no  one  to  minister  to  their  dying  wants,  or  give  them 
a  cheering  word,  was  more  than  I  could  stand.  Then  a  hope  pre- 
sented itself,  that  after  all  the  rumor  might  be  an  exaggerated 
one,  and  matters  might  not  be  so  bad  as  represented.  The  only 
way  I  knew  of  to  relieve  myself  of  the  suspense  was  to  go  and  see 
for  myself.  Believing  I  could  do  better  by  going  alone  I  went  back 
to  Mr.  Cheats  with  my  companion,  and  left  him  there,  and  notwith- 
standing the  protests  of  my  friends,  started  for  Cane  Creek.  I 
wore  an  old  shirt  and  some  jeans  pants  and  a  pair  of  heavy  boots 
to  give  me  the  appearance  of  a  laborer.  That  day  I  walked  to  a 
station,  the  name  of  which  I  have  forgotten,  (Gillem)  but  it  was 
where  the  little  narrow  gauge  raibroad  ran  down  to  Centerville.  I 
stayed  at  a  hotel  there  that  night,  partly  to  pick  up  some  informa- 
tion and  partly  because  I  could  ride  part  way  down  on  a  train  in 
the  morning.  I  claimed  to  be  going  down  to  Wayne  County  to  get 
a  job  of  cotton  picking.  The  next  morning  I  rode  to  Centerville 
on  the  tram.  I  will  here  digress  and  state  that  I  had  heard  very 
much  about  the  murder  by  this  time;  everybody  was  talking  about 
it,  and  it  was  justifiable  in  their  opinion,  as  the  Elders  were  repre- 
sented as  being  a  low-down  lot  of  scoundrels  and  blacklegs;  and  I 
learned  that  the  people  residing  there  were  determmed  to  stamp 
Mormonism  out  of  their  midst.  I  want  to  state  that  I  had  fully 
weighed  all  these  things,  and  the  chances  of  being  able  to  make 
the  journey  in  safety,  and  of  course  relied  on  a  power  superior  to 
man,  to  guide  my  actions.  After  leaving  Centerville  and  walking 
a  few  miles,  I  did  something  that  I  have  often  wondered  at,  and  to 
this  day  whether  I  did  right  or  wrong  is  not  clear  to  my  mind. 

Knowing  that  the  citizens  of  the  country  were  acquainted  with 
the  fact  that  we  wore  our  garments  as  underclothing,  and  fearing 
if  I  fell  into  the  hands  of  amob  and  my  body  was  searched  for  evi- 
dence of  my  identification  my  garments  might  give  me  away,  I 


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A  THRILLING  NARRATIVE.  5 

took  them  off,  rolled  them  up  in  a  neat  package  and  climbing  a 
bushy  tree,  concealed  them  among  the  branches. 

My  course  now  lay  along  an  old  unused  raibroad  track  leading 
from  Centerville  to  Buffalo.  This  track  had  been  torn  up  during 
the  war,  and  had  never  been  repaired.  It  ran  through  a  wild,  heavily 
timbered  country  with  no  habitations  visible  for  some  miles.  While 
passing  along  through  this  part  my  eye  caught  sight  of  two  men 
partially  concealed  just  ahead  of  me.  Had  there  been  any  doubt  in 
my  mind  as  to  their  having  seen  me  I  would  probably  have  made 
a  detour,  and  gone  around  them.  But,  like  a  flash  it  came  to  me, 
that  they  were  there  to  intercept  any  Elders  that  might  be  going 
to  Cane  Greek;  and  knowing  that  I  was  in  for  it,  I  walked  boldly 
forward.  As  I  came  up  they  met  me  with  the  usual  ''Hello,  thar, 
stranger !  ^  to  which  I  answered,  'Hello  yourselves  ! "  They  asked 
me  to  sit  down  with  them  on  the  track,  as  they  wanted  to  talk  to 
me.  With  this  I  complied,  and  they  then  began  to  ply  me  with 
questions,  as  to  my  business,  where  I  was  from,  and  where  I  was 
going,  and  the  reason  I  was  traveling  afoot.  I  answered  their 
questions  by  stating  I  was  going  down  towards  Wayne  County 
in  search  of  a  job  of  cotton  picking,  that  I  was  somewhat  ac- 
quainted there,  etc.  And  in  reply  to  their  questions  as  to  whom  I 
knew  there,  I  told  them  the  Praters,  the  Rileys,  the  Jobs,  New- 
bums  and  some  others,  taking  care  to  select  the  names  of  such  as 
from  a  previous  acquaintance  I  knew  were  hostile  to  the  Mormons. 
As  was  customary  among  laborers  there  in  warm  weather  I  had 
thrown  my  shirt  open  in  the  front,  which  fact  they  were  not  slow 
to  notice,  as  my  breast  was  [exposed;  and  one  of  them  remarked 
that  I  wasn't  tanned  up  very  badly.  I  said  my  health  had  been  poor 
and  I  had  not  done  much  out-door  work  of  late.  They  still  seemed 
suspicious  and  offered  me  some  tobacco  to  chew.  I  acccepted  it, 
and  having  been  formerly  a  user  of  the  weed  before  going  on  my 
mission,  it  did  not  make  me  sick.  The  men  now  suggested  that  as 
they  were  out  hunting  they  might  as  well  walk  along  a  little  way 
with  me;  and  so  we  started  out  slowly,  talking  as  we  went.  Just 
ahead  of  us  was  a  high  trestle  work,  that  we  had  to  walk  over. 
They  asked  me  if  iwalking  over  trestles  made  me  dizzy.  One  of  them 
said  it  made  him  dizzy,  but  it  didn't  affect  Joe;  and  suggested  that 
Joe  go  ahead  and  I  should  follow  him  while  the  other  fellow  brought 


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6  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

up  the  rear.  I  thought  it  was  perhaps  a  plan  to  push  me  off,  and 
claim  it  to  have  been  an  accidental  fall  on  my  part,  as  in  all  proba- 
bility such  a  fall  would  have  killed  me  instantly;  but  to  have  shown 
any  fear  or  suspicion  of  them  at  that  time  would  have  been  fatal 
to  the  character  I  was  assuming,  therefore  I  agreed  to  the  propo- 
sition, and  we  started  out  in  the  order  named  with  a  full  determi- 
nation on  my  part  that  if  I  went  over  one  of  them  should  accom- 
pany me.  After  walking  some  distance  we  stopped  and  held 
another  parley  in  which  they  came  out  and  frankly  told  me  that  I 
could  go  no  further;  that  if  I  was  not  a  Mormon  Elder  myself, 
people  would  take  me  for  such,  traveling  afoot  as  I  was,  and  I 
would  be  killed  as  the  others  had  been;  that  the  whole  country  was 
ablaze  with  excitement,  that  the  killing  of  Gibbs  and  Berry  was  a 
justifiable  act,  as  they  had  been  seducing  all  the  women  they  had 
baptized,  etc.,  and  the  Mormons  must  be  rooted  out.  If  I  chose 
I  might  go  back  but  I  could  not  proceed.  I  laughed  at  what  they 
said  and  told  them  if  I  was  liable  to  be  killed  for  a  Mormon  preacher 
I  would  stay  with  them  a  few  days  until  the  present  excitement  was 
allayed,  or  perhaps  I  might  get  a  job  of  work  in  their  neighborhood 
as  I  was  not  particular  if  I  secured  employment  of  some  kind. 
After  some  further  talking  they  said  I  might  proceed  but  to  go  by 
the  way  of  Hoenwall  instead  of  Cane  Creek.  I  thanked  them  for 
the  suggestion  and  we  separated,  I  to  resume  my  journey,  and  they 
to  resume  their  watch  for  some  Mormon  Elder  (B.  H.  Roberts,  I 
presume)  who  would  be  bold  enough  to  try  to  reach  his  friends 
on  Cane  Creek. 

When  I  reached  Buffalo  River  I  was  at  a  loss  just  which  way 
to  go,  as  the  road  was  not  at  all  familiar,  I  having  traveled  it  but 
once  before,  and  that  in  the  winter  when  there  were  no  leaves  on  the 
trees;  and  I  dared  not  make  enquiries,  for  be  it  remembered  that  I 
had  been  warned  to  goby  the  way  of  Hoenwall,and  should  some  party 
be  still  watching  to  see  if  I  followed  the  suggestion,  and  find  that 
I  did  not  intend  to  do  so,  I  might  not  be  allowed  to  proceed.  But 
I  knew  enough  of  the  country  to  know  that  I  was  not  more  than 
four  or  five  miles  from  Cane  Creek,  and  so  turned  aside  in  the 
woods  to  wait  until  darkness  came  to  hide  me,  as  1  did  not  dare  to 
go  farther  in  daylight.  When  night  had  come  I  started  out  again 
and  selecting  what  seemed  to  me  to  be  the  best  route  or  trail,  I 


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A  THRILLING  NARRATIVE.  7 

proceeded  very  cautiously,  and  at  about  eleven  o'clock  came  to  a 
little  creek  that  seemed  somewhat  familiar  to  me  on  account  of 
its  peculiar  looks.  It  was  named  Slippery,  and  flowed  into  Cane 
Greek  as  I  remember  about  two  miles  below  Brother  Condor's 
house.  I  followed  this  creek  down  until  it  came  to  the  larger  creek 
(Cane)  and  then  I  knew  where  I  was.  I  can  assure  you  I  felt  much 
better  than  when  rambling  through  the  woods  uncertain  as  to 
whether  I  would  come  to  the  proper  place  or  not.  I  now  pro- 
ceeded quietly  up  the  creek  until  I  came  to  the  house  of  Brother 
Talley,  and  thought  it  would  be  a  good  idea  to  wake  him  up,  and 
get  him  to  go  to  Brother  Condor's  with  me,  or  at  least  to  give  me 
some  information  of  the  true  condition  of  affairs  so  I  might  know 
just  how  to  proceed.  So  I  knocked  at  the  door  and  his  dogs  barked 
around  me,  (as  only  southern  dogs  can  bark)  and  made  noise 
enough  to  have  wakened  any  one,  but  I  could  get  no  reply  to  my 
knocking.  I  told  them  who  I  was,  what  I  wanted  of  them,  and 
asked  that  I  might  be  allowed  to  come  in  and  at  least  talk  with 
them,  but  all  to  no  avail.  I  could  get  nothing  from  them  although 
I  could  hear  them  at  times  whispering  among  themselves.  Not 
daring  to  remain  in  argument  too  long  for  fear  of  being  overheard 
by  some  one  else,  I  finally  left  just  as  wise  as  when  I  came,  with  this 
conviction  firmly  settled  in  my  mind,  that  they  dared  not  come  to 
the  door  for  fear  of  being  killed.  I  learned  afterwards  that  this 
was  the  case;  they  thought  it  was  the  mob  trying  to  test  their 
loyalty  to  the  Elders,  and  felt  if  they  opened  the  door  to  let  in  a 
supposed  Mormon  Elder  they  would  all  be  killed. 

Prom  Brother  Tally's  I  went  on  up  the  creek  to  the  Condor 
homestead,  my  experience  having  convinced  me  that  it  would  be  a 
useless  waste  of  time  to  try  to  wake  any  one  else  to  go  with  me. 
Arriving  at  the  house,  I  saw  a  glimmer  of  light  underneath  the 
door  and  heard  an  indistinct  murmur  of  voices  inside.  You  may 
remember  a  large  stump  just  outside  the  gate.  I  got  behind  this 
to  be  protected  from  stray  shots  from  the  house  should  I  again  be 
mistaken  for  a  mobocrat  by  some  unseen  watcher  inside,  who  might 
be  rendered  desperate  by  what  had  been  suffered  by  the  family. 
I  then  threw  a  handful  of  gravel  against  the  door  to  attract  atten- 
tion, when  immediately  all  became  quiet  inside.  I  now  went  to  the 
door  and  told  them  who  I  was  and  asked  to  be  admitted.    A  wom- 


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8  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

an's  voice  then  replied  and  told  me  to  go  away,  that  I  had  caused 
enough  suffering  already  there  to  satisfy  the  fiends  of  the  infernal 
regions.  ^That  thejiElders  had  been  killed,  the  two  sons  of  the 
family  as  well,  and  the  'aged  mother  now  lay  wonnded  seriously 
and  might  die  at  any  time,  and  she  begged  me  to  go  away  and  leave 
them  alone.  But  I  had  come  too  far  to  be  out-argued  this  time, 
and  boldly  told  them  that  I  would  not  do  it;  I  was  not  a  mobocrat, 
but  what  I  claimed  to  be,  and  insisted  on  giving  details  of  my  visit 
to  them  in  the  previous  winter  to  substantiate  what  I  said.  By 
this  time  Brother  Condor,  who  had  been  asleep  up  stairs,  had  been 
awakened,  and  came  down  and  began  to  talk  to  me,  recognized  my 
voice  and  let  me  in.  On  entering  all  were  glad  to  see  me  for  a 
minute  and  then  fear  came  over  them.  Brother  Condor  said  the 
roads  were  all  guarded  and  the  mob  would  know  I  had  come  in 
and  would  soon  be  there,  and  I  would  be  killed  and  perhaps  some 
of  them  as  well.  In  fact  I  never  saw  people  so  badly  frightened 
as  they  were,  and  also  the  kind  neighbors  who  were  sitting  up 
with  Sister  Condor.  But  I  told  them  there  was  no  danger;  that  I 
had  been  very  careful,  and  in  coming  down  Slippery  Creek  (which 
Brother  Condor  said  was  guarded)  not  even  a  dog  had  barked  at 
me.  I  wanted  to  know  just  how  matters  stood,  who  was  killed  and 
who  was  wounded,  and  all  connected  with  it.  Then  they  told  me, 
the  first  facts  I  had  received.  That  Elders  Gibbs  and  Berry  and 
the. two  boys  were  all  killed  and  had  been  buried;  that  Elders 
Jones  and  Thompson  were  unharmed  and  safe  among  friends;  that 
my  visit  could  do  no  good  and  they  were  anxious  for  my  safety  and 
wanted  me  to  go  as  soon  as  I  would.  I  had  had  nothing  to  eat 
since  early  in  the  morning  and  it  was  now  one  o'clock  in  the  night; 
so  they  prepared  me  something  to  eat,  and  a  lunch  to  take  with 
me,  and  after  staying  just  one  hour  at  their  house,  I  left.  I  will 
not  give  the  details  of  the  killing  of,  the  Elders  as  told  me  there, 
as  you  are  fully  acquainted  with  them.  But  I  will  say  that  when 
I  fully  understood  that  all  was  done  that  had  been  done,  the  dead 
buried,  the  others  unharmed  and  in  a  place  of  safety,  I  felt  to 
leave  the  enemies'  country  as  soon  as  possible.  I  will  say  for 
Brother  Condor,  although  he  felt  very  bad,  yet  his  faith  in  the 
Gospel  was  not  weakened  by  what  he  had  passed  through;  he  ac- 
knowledged the  hand  of  the  Lord  in  his  bereavement.    His  wife, 


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A  THRILLING  NARRATIVE.  9 

who  was  propped  up  in  bed  smoking  ^a  cob  pipe,  did  not  seem  so 
resigned  as  he  did;  but  I  could  overlook  that  in  her,  suffering  as 
she  was  both  in  body  and  spirit.  Brother  Condor  insisted  that  in 
going  away  I  should  follow  no  road  or  path  for  fear  of  being  cap- 
tured by  the  mob.  The  moon  was  just  rising  above  the  tree  tops 
when  I  bade  them  all  good-by  at  the  house.  Brother  Condor  went 
a  short  distance  with  me  to  the  edge  of  the  timber,  and  then  in 
parting  told  me  to  keep  my  face  in  the  direction  of  the  moon,  and 
in^about  four  miles  I  would  come  to  Ithe  Buffalo  River  somewhere 
near  the  old  railroad  bridge,  and  as  I  knew  the  track  was  on  my 
left,  I  need  not  get  lost. 

I  need  not  tell  you  of  my  journey  in  the  night  through  that 
four  miles  of  woods,  with  neither  road  nor  path  to  guide  me;  of 
the  briers  and  brambles  I  came  in  contact  with;  the  fallen  trees 
to  clamber  over;  the  thickets  to  penetrate;  and  last  but  not  least, 
the  dew  that  soaked  through  my  clothes  and  wet  me  to  the  skin, 
and  made  my  boots,  which  were  new  and  unbroken,  draw  my  feet 
up  till  I  could  hardly  walk.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  just  as  day  was 
dawning  I  came  to  the  river,  close  to  the  bridge.  Hunters  were 
out  hunting  game  with  their  hounds.  I  could  hear  the  dogs  bay- 
ing in  all  directions,  and  the  road  to  the  bridge  ran  through  a  lane 
for  about  a  mile,  with  farm  houses  close  on  either  side.  I  did  not 
know  just  what  to  do;  to  go  ahead  would  mean,  perhaps,  discovery 
by  some  one  not  jfriendly,  and  my  appearance,  to  say  the  least, 
would  excite  suspicion;  and  to  remain  concealed  for  a  whole  day 
and  wait  till  night  did  not  suit  me,  because  I  knew  Elder  Robin- 
son and  my  friends  on  Blue  Creek  would  be  full  of  anxiety  for  my 
safety.  While  hesitating  just  what  course  to  pursue,  one  of  those 
heavy  river  fogs  suddenly  settled  down  on  the  scene  before  me 
and  seemed  almost  to  have  come  on  purpose  for  my  benefit.  I 
hastily  pulled  off  my  wet  bopts,  and  with  one  in  either  hand  I 
struck  the  railroad  ties  in  my  stocking  feet  like  a  professional  tie 
counter,  only  I  went  on  the  double  quick.  I  could  hear  the  people 
talking  while  doing  their  chores,  sometimes  but  a  few  rods  from 
me,  but  I  passed  through  the  lane  and  across  the  bridge  unchal- 
lenged and  unobserved;  and  worn  out,  I  plunged  into  the  woods  on 
the  other  side  to  rest  for  a  short  time.  I  will  say  that  the  fog  only 
lasted  long  enough  for  me  to  get  into  the  woods,  and  then  rose. 


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10  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

and  the  morning  came  on  as  beautiful  as  bright  sun  shine  could 
make  it.  I  had  now  walked  steadily  for  nearly  twenty-four  hours, 
and  thought  to  get  a  little  sleep  before  resuming  my  journey;  but 
anxiety  was  too  great  on  my  mind.  I  could  not  close  my  eyes;  my 
thoughts  kept  wandering  from  my  present  situation  to  the  Elders  in 
the  field,  and  what  effect  the  murdering  of  them  would  have  among 
the  people,  and  I  thought  of  their  families  at  home,  and  kindred 
subjects  connected  therewith,  until  I  gave  up  all  idea  of  sleep  and 
concluded  to  go  on.  I  now  made  the  discovery  that  my  feet  were 
swollen  so  badly  that  I  could  not  get  my  boots  on,  pull  hard  as  I 
could,  so  I  took  my  knife  and  split  them  open  in  front  and  suc- 
ceeded in  getting  them  on  in  that  way. 

Resuming  my  journey,  I  had  not  gone  far  when  in  turning  a 
curve  in  the  road  I  was  suddenly  brought  to  a  stand-still  by  three 
men  stepping  out  of  the  woods  in  !my  path,  and  I  realized  that  I 
was  again  hailed  as  a  suspicious  character.  Although  these  men 
were,  neither  of  them,  the  ones  whom  I  had  met  the  previous  day, 
they  were  fully  posted  in  relation  to  the  interview  that  occurred 
at  that  time  and  boldly  charged  me  with  either  being  a  Mormon  or 
a  spy,  and  asked  my  reasons  for  .returning  so  quickly,  instead  of 
proceeding  further  south  as  I  claimed  was  my  intention  the  day 
before.  I  replied  that  I  was  unfortunate  enough  to  be  compelled 
to  travel  on  foot  because  I  had  no  money  to  travel  otherwise;  that 
I  found  the  people  very  much  excited  over  the  event  that  had  lately 
occurred  on  Cane  Greek,  and  a  fear  of  being  mistaken  for  a  Mor- 
mon, who  I  understood  always  went  on  foot,  had  caused  me  to 
hesitate  on  the  risks  to  be  run;  and  further  that  walking  had  used 
me  up;  that  my  feet  were  so  badly  swollen  that  I  could  scarcely 
travel  and  had  been  obliged  to  cut  my  boots  to  accommodate  them 
(which  fact  showed  for  itself);  and  that  I  had  concluded  to  go 
back  home  and  let  cotton  picking  go  for  the  present.  Now, 
whether  my  experience  of  the  day  before  had  enabled  me  to  get 
up  a  better  line  of  defense  to  justify  my  proceedings,  or  whether 
these  men  were  less  suspicious  than  the  others,  I  do  not  know.  But 
I  succeeded  with  less  difficulty  than  upon  the  other  occasion  in 
maintaining  the  character  I  had  assumed.  Finally  with  many  ad- 
monitions of  caution  lest  I  be  taken  for  a  Mormon,  they  allowed 
me  to  proceed.    My  walk  from  there  to  Centerville  was  uneventful. 


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A  THRILLING  NARRATIVE.  11 

I  crippled  along  until  I  reached  Centerville,  then  took  the  little  nar- 
row gauge  back  to  Gillem,  At  Gillem  I  would  have  to  wait  for 
about  four  hours  for  the  regular  express  to  come  along  to  take  me 
on  to  McEwen,  and  as  I  had  but  three  dollars  in  money  and  I  knew 
my  companions  had  none,  I  thought  I  would  walk  a  few  miles 
and  stop  with  a  friend,  and  then  walk  through  the  next  day  and 
save  my  money  to  buy  some  new  boots.  But  after  going  a  mile 
or  two  a  feeling  came  over  me  not  to  proceed  but  to  go  back  and 
take  the  train  and  go  on  to  McEwen  that  night.  The  more  I  thought 
of  it  the  more  convinced  I  was  that  such  would  be  the  proper 
course  to  pursue,  and  I  acted  accordingly.  I  went  back  to  Gillem 
and  waited  for  the  train  and  arrived  at  McEwen  about  eleven 
o'clock  at  night.  It  was  still  four  miles  to  Mr.  Cheats  where  I  had 
left  Elder  Robinson,  but  I  walked  out  there  in  about  an  hour,  waked 
up  the  family,  and  found  him  gone.  You  may  remember  that  you 
wrote  me  a  letter  from  Nashville,  askinfir  us  to  come  there  as  soon 
as  we  could  and  meet  you  at  Gilchrist's  Hotel.  I  had  been 
gone  longer  than  I  anticipated,  and  Elder  Robinson  and  Mr. 
Cheats'  family  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  I  had  met  with 
the  fate  of  the  other  Elders,  and  he.  Elder  Robinson,  had  gone  on 
that  night  to  Billy  Hooper's  with  the  intention  of  proceeding  im- 
mediately to  Nashville  in  the  morning,  having  guessed  from  the 
writing  and  postmark  the  letter  was  from  you  and  opened  it.  I 
now  could  see  the  reason  why  I  was  impressed  to  go  back  to  Gil- 
lem and  wait  for  the  train;  if  I  had  not  done  so  all  the  next  day 
I  would  have  been  traveling  west  towards  McEwen,  and  he  would 
have  been  traveling  east  towards  Nashville.  As  it  was,  Mr. 
Cheats  mounted  a  boy  on  a  horse  and  had^ihim  go  to  Hooper's 
and  stop  him  until  I  came  along.  I  will  say  nothing  concerning 
our  walk  to  Nashville,  over  one  hundred  miles,  which  we  made  in 
two  and  a  half  days,  although  if  time  permitted  there  might  be 
several  items  of  interest  connected  with  it.  But  suffice  it  to  say, 
that  at  the  end  of  that  time  two  travelers,  one  of  them  at  least, 
tired,  weary,  and  foot-sore,  might  have  been  seen  walking  along 
the  pike  that  passes  by  the  penitentiary  and  leads  into  the  city  of 
Nashville.  I  had  been  at  the  Gilchrist  hotel  and  was  somewhat 
acquainted  in  the  city  and  had  no  difficulty  in  finding  the  place 
where  you  requested  me  to  meet  you.    But  when  the  clerk  re- 


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12  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

f  erred  to  the  hotel  register  he  announced  that  yon  had  been  there 
some  three  or  f  onr  days  ago,  but  had  gone  and  he  knew  not  whither. 
Of  course  this  news  was  quite  a  disappointment  to  us  and  left  us 
in  a  quandary  how  to  proceed.  But  remembering  there  was  a 
branch  of  the  Church  at  Baird's  Mills,  in  Wilson  County,  we  con- 
cluded to  go  there  for  the  present  as  we  had  no  money  to  wait  at 
the  hotel.  Elder  Robinson  was  for  going  on  that  night  by  train, 
as  we  had  enough  money  between  us  to  pay  our  fare  there,  but  I 
felt  otherwise.  I  said  I  was  worn  out  with  the  journeying  of  the 
last  few  days,  and  that  we  would  stay  in  town  that  night  and  have 
a  good  rest  and  then  start  the  next  morning  and  walk  the  distance, 
so  we  bought  a  big  melon  for  our  dinner,  having  had  none  as  yet, 
and  then  to  loiter  away  the  balance  of  the  day  went  down  to  the 
depot.  We  asked  at  what  time  the  train  left  for  Wilson  County, 
(Baird's  Mills)  and  were  told  that  it  would  be  about  six  in  the  even- 
ing, and  if  we  wished  we  might  remain  in  the  waiting  room  until 
that  time.  Now  that  is  just  what  we  did  wish,  for  some  place  to 
lounge  around  and  spend  the  day  instead  of  going  to  a  hotel 
where  we  would  have  to  pay  for  lounging  around.  After  awhile  I 
left  the  waiting  room  and  sauntered  out  for  no  apparent  object  or 
purpose,  and  seeing  a  crowd  gathered  at  some  (^stance  curiosity 
prompted  me  to  see  what  was  attractmg  them.  After  elbowing 
my  way  among  them  I  found  they  were  viewing  two  caskets,  and 
heard  the  words  "Mormon  Elders,  killed  on  Cane  Creek,"  and  upon 
investigation  found  it  to  be  really  the  bodies  of  Elders  Gibbs  and 
Berry,  that  had  been  buried  at  Cane  Creek  only  a  few  days  before. 
And  then  I  knew  you  or.some  one  else  was  with  them.  I  hastened 
back  and  found  Elder  Robinson  and  told  him  what  I  had  discovered 
and  we  put  ourselves  on  duty  as  sentinels  to  await  developments. 
Nor  had  we  long  to  wait  until  we  saw  Elder  Thompson  approach- 
ing, who  seeing  us  at  the  same  time,  motioned  us  to  follow  him 
and  then  turned  and  left  the  depot.  I  need  not  dwell  upon  our 
meeting  and  the  subsequent  meeting  of  you  and  me  in  the  waiting 
room,  where  you  were  waiting  in  disguise,  nor  to  other  events,  in- 
cluding a  visit  with  you  to  the  newspaper  oflSces  to  try  to  get  the 
true  condition  of  the  affair  before  the  public,and  your  final  conclusion 
to  send  me  home  with  the  bodies  of  our  brethren,  instead  of  com- 
mg  yourself  as  you  had  anticipated.    All  this  you  will  remember. 


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A  THRILLI^G  NARRATIVE.  13 

and  I  will  not  refer  to  them,  and  only  say  that  that  same  night  abont 
twelve  or  one  o'clock,  if  my  memory  serves  me  right  I  left  Nash- 
ville on  my  homeward  trip.  Nothing  of  importance  occurred  un- 
til I  arrived  at  Cairo,  Illinois.  There  a  drunken  fellow  came  aboard 
the  train  who  claimed  to  be  a  nephew  of  the  preacher  that  headed 
the  mob  at  Cane  Creek,and  who  was  killed  by  young  Hudson  or  Condor 
at  the  time,and  swore  he  would  kill  me,f  or  you  will  know  that  on  the 
train  I  was  a  noted  character.  '%ome  Mormon  preachers  had  been 
killed  down  in  Tennessee.  They  were  said  to  be  guilty  of  all  the 
crimes  imaginable,  including  seduction  and  adultery,  which  was 
part  of  their  religion,  and  the  people  down  there  stood  it  as  long 
as  they  could  and  then  killed  them  as  they  ought  to  have  done, 
etc.,  etc.,  and  this  fellow  is  now  taking  their  dead  bodies  back  to 
Zion." 

These  and  other  remarks  of  a  similar  kind  greeted  my  ears 
every  few  minutes,  so  that  everybody  knew  who  I  was.  Conse- 
quently when  the  preacher's  nephew  came  aboard  he  had  no  diffi- 
culty in  finding  me.  But  the  officers  prevented  any  hostile  demon- 
stration on  his  part  further  than  cursing  and  swearing  at  me  in  par- 
ticular and  the  whole  Mormon  Church  in  general.  We  had  to 
cross  the  river  and  change  cars  at  Cairo  and  the  conductor  would  not 
allow  ihe  corpses  again  to  be  put  aboard  the  cars,  but  they  were 
set  on  the  ground,  and  the  people  yelled,  '*Throw  them  in  the  river." 
I  produced  and  pointed  out  the  certificates  of  death,  showed  they 
had  died  from  gun-shot  wounds,  and  not  from  any  contagious  dis- 
ease, and  showed  the  tickets  to  Kansas  Cityland  demanded  my  rights, 
and  defied  them  to  proceed  without  me  and  the  bodies  of  the 
Elders.  Finally  when  they  saw  they  could  not  bluif  me  and 
after  wrangling  for  a  few  minutes  with  the  train  waiting  to 
start,  I  was  allowed  to  put  them  on  the  cars.  At  Kansas  City  you 
will  remember  you  were  to  have  a  man  meet  and  assist  me,  and  gave 
me  his  address.  But  I  could  find  no  such  person.  I  bought  tickets 
for  the  Elders  (dead  men's  tickets)  and  myself  from  here  to  Utah.  We 
had  to  change  depots,  and  I  had  a  repetition  of  the  Cairo  scene. 
Notwithstanding  the  certificates  of  death  and  the  exhibition  of  their 
tickets  the  trainmen  would  not  allow  me  to  put  them  on  the  cars, 
the  conductor  declaring  he  would  quit  his  job  first  if  the  company 
wanted  them  taken.    Here  a  compromise  was  worked  up.    I  was 


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14  IMPROVEMENl  ERA. 

aUowed  to  put  them  on  the  platform  and  lash  them  with  ropes  to 
prevent  their  shaking  off.  The  night  came  on  wet  and  rainy  and 
I  felt  that  perhaps  the  ropes  might,  by  getting  wet,  break,  and  so  I 
took  another  turn  at  the  baggage-master  and  succeeded  in  getting 
permission  to  put  them  inside  at  the  next  station.  Thus  matters 
went  on  until  I  arrived  at  Pueblo,  Colorado,  where  I  met  the  first 
kind  word  that  I  had  received  on  the  whole  trip,  from  a  big  yard- 
master,  with  a  Cleveland  badge  on  his  breast.  You  will  remember 
it  was  just  previous  to  Cleveland's  first  election. 

I  had  to  lay  over  in  Pueblo  for  a  few  hours  and  also  change 
cars,  and  this  man  insisted  that  I  go  in  the  office  and  rest  myself 
and  he  would  wire  Brother  Morgan  as  to  my  whereabouts  and  also 
see  the  cofiins  were  properly  transferred,  all  of  which  he  did  as 
promised.  I  soon  after  fell  in  with  Sheriff  John  Turner,  of  Provo, 
and  was  also  met  the  next  day  by  the  special  car  that  came  to  meet 
the  bodies,  and  I  was  once  more  among  my  friends. 


PRAYER. 


More  things  are  wrought  by  prayer 
Than  this  world  dreams  of.    Wherefore  let  thy  voice 
Rise  like  a  fountain  for  me  night  and  day, 
For  what  are  men  better  than  sheep  or  goats 
That  nourish  a  blind  life  within  the  brain, 
If,  knowing  God,  they  lift  not  hands  of  prayer 
Both  for  themselves  and  those  who  call  them  friend? 
For  so  the  whole  round  world  is  every  way 
Bound  by  gold  chains  about  the  feet  of  God. 

Tennyson. 


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THE  PERSONALITY  OF  GOa 

BY  ELDER  FRED.  W.  CROCKETT. 


What  kind  of  being  is  God?  To  this  question  there  are  diver- 
sities of  answers  and  opinions,  so  far  different  that  one  shudders  at 
the  thought  of  reconciliation.  One  contends  that  He  is  mere  spirit, 
while  another  dives  deeper  into  absurdity  and  as  a  result  of  his 
explanation  establishes  the  inconsistent  theory  that  God  has  neither 
parts  nor  passions;  that  He  is  not  a  substance  and  is  everywhere 
and  nowhere  at  the  same  time.  Thus  we  see  the  many  conJBicting 
ideas  with  respect  to  the  make-up  and  nature  of  God.  At  this 
juncture  the  question  may  be  asked,  since  the  matter  is  of  vital 
importance  to  our  future  welfare,  as  we  have  seen  from  the  above 
statements,  how  are  we  to  ascertain  the  true  character  of  God  and 
thus  determine  the  correctness  or  erroneousness  of  the  above  men- 
tioned theories?  To  this  I  reply  let  us  go  to  His  witnesses  and 
from  them  glean  the  necessary  information. 

God  created  man  in  His  own  image.  This  must  be  counted  as 
a  collateral  evidence  that  there  is  at  least  a  striking  similarity 
between  God  and  man.  When  we  behold  man,  we  behold  also  the 
likeness  of  the  Creator  Himself.  In  the  book  of  Genesis  we  are 
told  that  after  the  great  deluge  when  man  was  destroyed  for  his 
disobedience,  the  earth  resumed  its  natural  beauty.  The  Prophet 
Noe  by  way  of  gratitude  and  appreciation  for  the  great  kindness 
and  favor  of  which  he  had  been  the  recipient,  built  an  altar  to  the 
Lord  and  offered  up  burnt  offerings  demonstrative  of  his  thankful- 
ness. The  Lord  smelled  the  sweet  savor  that  arose  from  the  altar 
and  said  in  His  heart,  I  will  no  more  smite  everything  living  as  I 
have  done  (Gen.  8:  21).    We  are  forced  to  conclude  from  this  part 


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16  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

of  scripture  that  God  has  at  least  one  of  the  senses  possessed  by 
man,  namely,  the  sense  of  smell.  These  evidences  may  appear  to 
some  as  weak  and  insignificant,  but  how  can  they  be  explained 
away?  Some  no  doubt  will  assert  that  the  evidence  is  taken  from 
the  Old  Testament,  and  that  renders  it  invalid  and  unreliable  because 
it  is  said  that  Christ  nailed  the  old  scriptures  to  the  cross.  This 
argument,  however,  is  not  only  unreasonable,  but  absurd  and  illogi- 
cal. Christ's  doing  away  with  the  old  law  does  not  rob  it  of  its 
divine  origin  or  establish  the  fact  that  it  is  not  the  word  of  God. 
The  Old  Testament  is  just  as  much  the  word  of  God  as  the  New. 
The  same  God  that  created  Adam  lives  today,  and  instituting  a  law 
through  His  only  begotten  Son  does  not  take  one  iota  of  divinity 
from  the  old  law.  Christ,  Himself,  said  before  the  New  Testament 
was  extant,  ''Search  the  scriptures,  for  in  them  ye  think  ye  have 
eternal  life,  and  they  are  they  which  testify  of  me"  (John  5:  39). 

We  are  told  that  Moses,  Nadab,  Abihu  and  seventy  of  the 
elders  of  Israel  saw  God  and  there  was  under  His  feet  as  it  were  a 
paved  work  of  sapphire  (Ex.  24:  10).  Further  along  in  the  same 
book  we  read  that  when  Moses  had  made  an  end  of  communing  with 
the  Lord  upon  Mount  Sinai,  two  tables  of  testimony  were  given  him 
which  were  written  by  the  finger  of  God  (Ex.  24:  21).  Moses  tells 
us  that  the  Lord  spoke  to  him  face  to  face  as  a  man  speaks  to  his 
friend. 

Thus  far  we  have  obtained  all  of  our  evidence  aflSrmatory  of 
the  personality  of  God  from  the  Old  Testament.  Let  us  now  turn 
our  attention  to  the  New,  and  perchance  it  may  afford  additional 
proof  that  will  strengthen  the  testimony  already  produced. 

After  feeling  the  keen  agonies  of  torture  and  the  heart-bursting 
pains  of  the  cross  our  Savior  died,  was  buried  and  was  resurrected. 
They  who  gazed  in  tender  sympathy  and  in  awful  sorrow  upon  the 
inspiring  countenance  as  it  languished  upon  the  cross  and  as  the 
last  shade  of  life  faded  away,  also  beheld  the  body  reanimated  and 
the  glorious  victor  shining  with  immortal  light.  Three  days  after 
the  crucifixion  the  beloved  Son  arose  and  for  many  days  waDced  and 
communed  with  His  chosen  subjects.  They  to  whom  He  manifested 
Himself  after  His  resurrection  stood  in  awe  and  wonderment.  They 
had  witnessed  His  life  ebb  away  on  Mount  Calvary,  but  they  had 
quite  forgotten  what  He  told  them  on  one  occasion  while  in  Galilee, 


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THE  PERSONALITY  OF  GOD.  17 

that  on  the  third  day  He  would  arise.  Nevertheless  He  who  had 
died  was  now  before  them.  They  stood  in  an  attitude  of  fear, 
supposing  they  had  seen  a  spirit,  and  the  Master,  fully  understanding 
the  situation,  made  the  following  reply:  ''Behold  my  hands  and 
my  feet,  that  it  is  myself;  handle  me  and  see,  for  a  spirit  hath  not 
flesh  and  bones  as  ye  see  me  have." 

This  proving  insufficient  to  convince  their  skeptical  minds.  He 
asked  for  meat  ''and  they  gave  Him  a  piece  of  broiled  fish  and  honey 
comb,  and  he  did  eat  before  them"  (Luke  24).  Here  was  the  Savior 
— a  resurrected  being — eating  before  His  disciples  to  convince  them 
that  though  He  had  suffered  death  He  still  lived  with  a  body  of 
flesh  and  bones.  Let  us  not  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  it  was  with 
this  identical  body  of  flesh  and  bones  that  He  ascended  to  heaven. 
Paul  the  apostle  declares  in  writing  to  the  Hebrews  that  Christ  was 
the  brightness  of  His  Father's  glory  and  the  express  image  of  His 
person  (Heb.  1:  3). 

Taking  the  foregoing  in  its  literal  and  true  sense  we  plainly 
see  that  God  is  as  Christ  was  after  His  resurrection,  a  personal  being, 
with  a  body  of  flesh  and  bones. 

As  further  evidence  corroborative  of  the  matter  under  con- 
sideration, we  read  of  Stephen  at  the  time  he  was  stoned  looking  up 
into  heavoQ  and  beholding  Christ  at  the  right  hand  of  the  Father 
(Acts  7).  Who,  I  ask,  can  in  front  of  this  mass  of  testimony  now 
produced,  deny  the  personality  of  God?  Is  any  man  so  incredulous 
and  bereft  of  discernment  that  he  sees  no  beauty  or  grandeur  in 
the  divine  fact  of  the  personality  of  God?  After  this  abundance 
of  incontrovertible  testimony  who  can  advocate  the  illogical  theory 
that  God  is  a  mere  spirit? 

In  my  estimation  it  seems  that  no  heart  susceptible  to  the  en- 
tertainment of  divine  truths  can  in  any  way  avoid  the  acceptance 
and  advocacy  of  the  facts  arrived  at  in  the  above  argument. 


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18  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 


CREATION. 


What  field  for  thought  this  word  supplies. 
O'er  which  to  range  'mid  earth  and  skies; 
Nor  can  the  great  Creator's  plan 
Be  fathomed  by  the  mind  of  man. 

Wonders  in  science,  art,  and  skill. 
Combine  the  ethereal  space  to  fill 
With  worlds  and  systems  eternized, 
For  spirit  homes  celestialized.] 

Sun,  Moon,  and  Stars  have  worshiped  been. 
And  fabled  into  fancied  gods; 
By  sons  of  Him  who  made  them  all, — 
His  works  adored,  but  not  His  words. 

This  earth  was  once  in  beauty  dress'd 
Celestial  hands  arranged  it  all. 
For  perfect  man,  and  happiness. 
In  which  he  dwelt  before  the  fall. 

Painters  may  sketch  with  rarest  skill, 
In  all  the  fairest  colors  known; 
And  yet  the  lily  of  the  field. 
Surpasses  aug)^t  that  they  have  shown; 

The  sculptor  too  in  faultless  form. 
May  shape  the  image  of  his  mind; 
And  yet  how  worthless  when  compared. 
With  life  in  forms,  by  God  enshrined! 

The  chemist  may  the  air  dissolve. 
And  all  the  gases  separate; 
Its  vital  power  for  man  destroy. 
Disease  ax^d  death  thus  generate. 


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CREATION.  19 

No  other  science  makes  pretense, 
Nor  can  so  well  all  natnre  scan; 
Twill  analyze  and  synthesiie 
All  componnds  known  to  search  of  man. 

For  life  all  elements  designed, 

Onr  God  created — ^then  ordained; 

By  skill  dissolved,  transposed,  and  changed, 

They're  means  of  death— life  is  not  gained. 

Thus  there  is  proof  that  all  God's  works» 
By  loftiest  science  are  combined; 
To  earth — to  man,  this  law  applied. 
Will  bring  perfection  as  designed. 

The  streams  of  water  in  the  earthy 
Like  veins  and  vital  blood  in  man, 
Ck>nvey  life's  thrill  to  all  its  parts>. 
Tis  in  the  great  Creator's  plan. 

Each  change  of  seasons  on  the  earth 
Gives  vigor  to  prodnctive  powers; 
From  day  and  night,  to  human  life. 
Comes  vital  strength  from  restful  hours. 

The  air  we  breathe,  is  food  to  earth, 
Like  man,  it  could  not  live,  but  in  it. 
And  viewed  in  every  thoughtful  light, 
Is  type  of  men  who  dwell  upon  it. 

It  lives,  and  moves,  and  honors  law, 
Sustains  humanity  and  others. 
In  bearing  and  in  feeding  life, 
Becomes  the  very  best  of  mothers. 

How  well  its  author  must  have  known 
The  wants  of  those  for  whom  created! 
How  well  intelligence  divine 
Knew  earth  and  man  must  be  related. 


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20  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Nay  earth  hath  more  than  honored  law. 
Has  borne  the  corse  and  sins  of  others. 
And  with  its  like  in  all  the  spheres, 
Shall  e'er  in  kinship  be  as  brothers. 

So  mnch  like  man  is  earth  itself, 
That  bom  again  they  both  mnst  be; 
By  water  cleansed,  by  fire  refined. 
From  taint  of  sin  shall  both  be  free 

Earth,  air,  and  water  all  agree — 
Their  powers  of  element  combine. 
And  act  in  perfect  harmony. 
To  consummate  the  grand  design. 

The  heavens  are  high  above  the  earth. 
But  earth  than  they  shall  higher  be. 
And  with  exalted  worlds  on  high. 
Shall  dwell  in  glory  numbered  three. 

All  living  things  thus  joined  in  life, 
Naught  can  exist  with  power  to  sever, 
For  man  and  worlds  shall  being  have. 
And  by  God  crowned,  be  His  forever. 

Samuel  W.  Riehardi. 


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THE  BUILDING  OF  A  MAN. 

BY  BLDEE  H.  W.  NAKBITT. 


In  all  divme  procedure  as  seen  or  revealed  there  is  nothing 
saperflnons;  everything  has  its  uses,  and  where  human  observation 
has  failed  as  yet  to  apprehend  this,  the  conclusion  from  things  known 
is,  that  final  discovery  is  inevitable. 

Now  man,  it  is  said,  is  the  highest,  the  most  important  product 
of  this  earth  at  least;  to  him  all  things  are  subservient;  for  him  all 
things  were  made.  So  far  as  other  creations  are  concerned,  he 
may  be,  is,  ''a  little  lower  than  the  angels,"  and  Shakespeare's  im- 
mortal apostrophe  may  not  be  strictly  applicable  to  every  phase  of 
tribal  or  national  development;  yet  the  highest,  the  brightest,  the 
best,  are  simply  the  outgrowth  of  faculty  inherent  in  the  lowest, 
however  dormant  or  incapable  of  present  manifestation;  for  through- 
out the  fleeing  centuries  it  has  not  been  found  that  any  new  faculty 
has  been  engrafted  into  man's  constitution  or  forced  upon  him  by 
any  outside  pressure;  the  normal  powers,  faculties,  etc.,  have  but 
been  quickened,  cultivated,  enlarged  by  necessities  and  use. 

It  is  easy  to  perceive  that  while  the  Creator  ''made  man  up- 
right, he  hath  sought  out  many  inventions,"  and  the  legitimate 
action  of  personal  endowment  has  been  dwarfed,  perverted,  or  abused 
at  the  instance  of  power,  whatever  form  that  power  might  assume. 

Holy  writ  afSrms  that  ''God  hath  made  of  one  blood  all  the. 
nations  of  the  earth,"  but  Science  presumes  to  classify  and  by  in- 
ference at  least,  would  establish  a  series  of  creative  efforts,  ignor- 
ing all  the  forces  of  ages  and  conditions  which  with  isolation  and 
fostered  enmity  between  the  parts,  made  new  types  possible  in  the 
human,  as  mocUfications  and  types  within  the  memory  of  a  genera- 


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22  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

tion,  have  been  made  easy  in  the  animal  kingdom.  Not  that  new 
forms  of  animal  life  have  been  evolved  or  created,  but  variety  at 
the  instance  of  intelligence  has  established  the  type. 

The  farther  inference  follows,  that  when  the  primitive  nnity  or 
homogeneity  of  humanity  was  infringed  upon;  when  sin  entered  into 
the  world  and  human  passions  began  to  exert  themselves;  when  war 
and  collision  suggested  dispersion;  isolation,  climate,  diet,  king- 
craft and  priestcraft  operating  upon  sensitive  faculty  created  bias, 
prejudice,  hatred,  and  war,  even  to  the  death. 

Is  it  then  possible  that  the  present  diversity,  while  subject  to 
and  no  doubt  utilized  in  the  divine  purpose,  is  it  possible,  we  ask, 
that  the  nationalities  and  tribal  relations  of  the  earth  are  truly 
artificial,  the  product  of  human  device,  and  sustained  today  by  the 
plausible  theories  of  nationalities?  Or  do  they  exist  at  tiie  in- 
stance of  conquest,  of  which  there  are  quite  modem  instances  in 
plenty,  where  power  has  overthrown  old  institutions,  compelled  the 
change  of  language,  and  subjected  past  loyalty  to  strain  so  severe 
and  far  reaching,  that  a  later  generation  would  be  unfamiliar  with 
the  tongue,  the  habits,  and  the  institutions  of  their  fathers? 

For  men  are  the  product  of  institutions.  The  Mongolian, 
Americanized  for  a  generation,  is  unlike  his  fathers;  the  Hawaiian 
is  not  what  he  was  before  the  advent  of  Captain  C!ook;  our  aborig- 
ines are  but  a  shadow  of  what  they  were  when  the  Pioneers 
crossed  the  plains.  The  processes  of  modification  and  amalga- 
mation are  going  on  in  these  United  States  under  the  same  law  that 
operates  in  Alsace  and  Lorraine  under  German  rule,  in  Hungary 
and  Poland  under  Russian  domination,  and  everywhere  else,  as  ob- 
servation will  establish. 

The  agencies  of  modem  civilization,  however,  are  only  begin- 
ning to  be  felt  in  the  breaking  down  of  the  antiquated  barriers 
erected  by  usurpation;  schools  and  culture,  the  printing  press  and 
books;  facilities  of  travel  and  the  attrition  of  contact,  are  demon- 
•strating  on  a  colossal  scale,  that  there  is  no  essential  enmity  be- 
tween the  varied  sections  of  mankind.  World's  fairs,  international 
exhibitions,  conmierce  and  barter,  travel  and  experience  are  the 
alchemists  which  are  dissolving  the  crust  formed  of  craft  and  solidi- 
fied by  age;  men  are  appearing  before  each  other  in  the  guise  of 
friends;  free  intercourse  and  interchange  of  products  are  impressing 


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THE  BUILDING  OF  A  MAN.  23 

upon  the  tmiyersal  mind  the  idea  that  humanity  is  one,  that  the 
hitherto  isolated  individualities  and  nationalities  are  a  necessity, 
and  can  be  a  blessing  to  each  other. 

Even  the  preaching  of  persecuted,  emasculated  Christianity, 
has  been  a  potent  factor  in  creating  international  comity;  in  up- 
rooting superstition;  in  broadening  the  thought;  and  preparing  the 
way  under  Providence,  for  the  revealment  and  propagation  of  that 
higher — ^because  purer  and  more  potent — doctrine  of  the  Gospel, 
which  alone  presents  the  unity  of  divine  purpose  and  of  divine 
procedure,  and  applies  this  to  [the  almost  obsolete  idea  of  man's 
unity  by  creation  and  brotherhood.  Hence  the  irrefragable  con- 
clusion that  revelation  from  the  Creator  is  absolutely  needed  for 
the  working  out  of  human  destiny  as  it  appears  to  the  prescient 
mind  of  "Him  with  whom  we  have  to  doP 

All  the  organizations  and  institutions  of  man's  wisdom  have 
been  the  outgrowth  of  special  intention  to  perpetuate  a  special 
type.  French  institutions  and  rule  have  been  used  expressly;  Eng- 
lish methods  have  been  used  successfully;  and  our  young  nation 
prides  itself,  as  its  predecessors  did,  in  securing  the  love  and  alle- 
giance of  the  subject,  his  loyalty  and  life,  to  the  support  and 
furtherance  of  this  nationality.  Even  the  iconoclast  in  either 
country  evinces  no  intention  of  nullifying  but  rather  of  increasing, 
establishing,  perpetuating,  consolidating,  or  extending  this  local 
national  thought  beyond  the  boundaries  of  its  original  domain. 

In  all  this  there  is  little  thought  of  manhood  buUding  in  the 
abstract,  but  the  Englishman  per  se,  the  German,  the  Frenchman, 
the  American  is  the  desired  product  of  friction,  discipline,  training, 
and  education.  Travel  and  experience  obliterate  this  narrowness, 
and  the  intelligent  man  of  opportunity  becomes  generous,  cosmo- 
politan, "a  man  of  the  world,"  assimilating  to  the  type  of  a  veri- 
table child  of  God,  although  early  association  may  have  woven  its 
poetic  tendrils  into  the  very  fibres  of  his  heart. 

It  would  appear  to  the  looker-on  as  if  these  ideas  should  be 
fundamental  in  this  glorious  country  of  ours,  and  that  in  the 
education  of  its  future  citizens,  every  part  of  man  or  woman 
nature  should  be  certain  of  all  needed  culture;  not  the  mental  only, 
but  the  industrial;  not  the  two  combined  alone,  but  the  spiritual 
or  religious  also;  because  the  religious  faculty  is  imbedded  in 


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24  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

human  nature.  It  is  this  which  gives  man  preeminence  over  the 
animal  kingdom;  it  is  the  crown  of  humanity;  perverted,  it  be- 
comes superstition;  enlightened,  it  becomes  Christian,  or  why 
boast  ourselves  as  being  a  Christian  nation?  Why  engage  in  a 
war  the  essence  of  which  was  declared  to  be  Christianized  hxunani- 
tarianism?  Besides,  if  God  is  a  myth,  if  religion  is  a  nonentity, 
if  there  is  nothing  beyond  local  responsibility  differing  in  China 
and  America,  in  Spain  and  Cuba,  upon  what  does  the  superstructure 
of  social  morality,  integrity,  and  righteousness  rest,  or  can  society 
simply  fall  back  upon  the  heathenish  thought,  ''Let  us  eat  and 
drink,  for  tomorrow  we  die"? 

Not  only  should  "man-building"  be  based  upon  the  culture  of 
his  whole  nature,  but  all  his  preceptors,  his  educators  should 
understand  this  nature  and.  what  he  hopes  to  accomplish  by  its 
culture.  A  teacher  who  is  deficient  or  ignorant  of  this,  is  hardly 
fitted  for  his  high  and  sanctified  office.  If  great  things  can  be 
compared  with  meaner  ones,  the  question  might  be  asked,  if  a  wise 
man  would  entrust  a  valuable  farm  to  one  knowing  nothing  of  land 
or  crops?  Would  he  entrust  the  building  of  a  house  to  one  un- 
acquainted with  lumber,  brick,  mortar,  and  the  intended  uses  of 
that  house?  Or  in  the  arrangement  and  completion  of  a  dwelling, 
would  an  architect  be  justified  in  overlooking  the  room  or  rooms 
which  typify  best  the  meaning  of  the  word  home?  Or  would  it 
be  wisdom  to  spend  all  a  person's  means  in  embellishing  the  upper 
parts,  if  the  foundation  was  defective,  neglected,  or  unsafe? 

The  comer-stone  of  a  magnificent  edifice  always  commands 
special  attention;  the  comer-stone  of  man-building  in  the  image 
of  God,  is  the  intelligent  cultivation  of  the  religious  sentiment. 
And  it  may  be  asserted  broadly,  without  fear  of  contradiction,  that 
no  man  is  a  thoroughly  competent  educator  unless  he  understands 
the  nature,  the  purpose,  the  destiny  of  that  rare  element  of  man- 
hood which  he  may  direct  or  pervert  as  jus  ignorance  or  intelli- 
gence may  determine. 

It  is  a  pleasant  thing  to  contemplate,  it  is  a  grand  thought  to 
cherish,  it  will  be  sublime  when  universal  and  heavenly  in  its  full 
fruition,  for  it  can  hardly  be  appreciated  or  realized  now.  But  the 
Church  Schools  of  Utah  have  sei^  upon  this  idea  in  the  spirit 
thereof.    Many  professors  and  teachers  are  now  grappling  with 


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THE  BUILDING  OF  A  MAN.  25 

this  essential  dogma;  theology  is  being  tanght  systematically; 
young  men  and  women  are  learning  the  alphabet  of  life;  ''the 
powers  of  the  world  to  come"  are  being  invoked  in  the  acquisition 
"of  knowledge;  they  now  see  (if  dimly)  the  outlines  of  their  earthly 
mission.  A  few  are  ''seeking  wisdom  as  for  hidden  treasure  f'  im- 
pressions are  being  f  ormed,  and  there  are  ahready  indications  of 
the  development  of  a  new  type  of  manhood  and  womanhood,  ihe 
product  of  new  and  effectual  institutions,  because  divine.  The 
day  is  not  far  distant  when  traversing  the  continents  and  isles  of 
the  sea,  men  shall  say  of  such,  "that  man  (or  woman)  was  bom  in 
ZSon,"  just  as  the  world  have  said,  "that  man  is  a  Jew,"  or  of  Israel. 
The  influence  of  Grod-given  institutions  is  written  on  his  forehead 
where  faithfulness  and  obedience  have  been  the  maxim  of  his  gen- 
erations. 

It  is  religion  (true  religion)  that  must  save  the  world;  sectar- 
ianism cannot  do  it;  education  (intellectual)  cannot  do  it;  super- 
stition cannot  do  it;  nor  science,  nor  politics,  nor  wealth.  God 
hath  determined  that  it  shall  be  done  by  Jesus  Christ;  by  the 
preaching  of  His  Gospel;  by  the  aid  of  His  Priesthood  and  the 
growth  of  His  Church,  with  the  aids  and  auxiliaries  thereof;  among 
which  are  all  organizations  "from  the  kindergarten  to  the  univer- 
sity," each  breathed  upon  by  His  Spirit,  illuminated  by  inspiration, 
guided  by  principles  revealed  from  heaven,  and  applied  to  every 
condition  of  man  upon  the  earth,  from  "the  hewer  of  wood  and 
drawer  of  water"  to  the  statesmen  and  rulers  in  the  high  places  of 
the  earthi 

It  is  a  great  thing  to  have  made  a  beginning;  to  hold  the  keys; 
to  con  the  alphabet,  and  to  study  the  science  of  eternal  life.  The 
intelligent  workers  may  be  few;  they  may  only  know  from  hour  to 
hour  what  they  shall  do  next,  yet  if  they  know  the  voice  of  God, 
if  susceptible  to  the  whisperings  of  "the  still  small  voice,"  there 
will  be  advancement,  "slow  but  sure,"  "without  observation,"  yet 
like  the  temple  of  Solomon  "rising  like  an  exhalation,"  "without 
even  the  sound  of  ax  or  hammer  or  any  tool  of  iron  being  heard 
therein." 

It  is  the  mission  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints  to  solve  this  educational  problem.  It  was  no  empty  boast 
made  by  the  Prophet  when  he  said,  "/  combat  the  errors  qf  ages;  I 


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26  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

meet  the  violence  of  mobs;  I  cope  with  illegal  proceedings  from 
executive  authority;  lent  the  Gordian  knot  qf  powers;  I  solve  mathe" 
maiical  problems  (f  universities  with  truth — diamond  truth,  and  God 
is  my  right  hand  man!" 

There  is  a  mania  for  enlightenment  which  is  one-sided,  in  that 
it  only  considers  material  things.  The  world  is  becoming  ''heady, 
highminded,  lovers  of  themselves,  rather  than  lovers  of  Godf  self- 
laudation  and  personal  aggrandisement  is  the  spirit  of  the  age; 
''great  /  and  little  u"  foreshadows  trouble;  men  are  left  to  them- 
selves, having  no  use  for  God,  for  faith,  for  religion,  for  truth,  or 
their  fellow-man,  only  as  he  may  be  used  as  a  lever  to  lift  themselves 
to  power. 

Mormonism  is  God's  protest  against  this  drift;  the  teachings 
of  His  servants  are  a  protest  against  selfishness,  and  the  asserted 
shrewdness  of  worldly  wisdom.  The  Church  Schools  are  a  protest 
against  education  without  religion,  against  the  cultivation  of  the 
head  and  neglect  of  the  heart;  and  (shall  it  be  deemed  presump- 
tuous to  say)  unless  "the  little  leaven  can  leaven  the  whole  lump," 
the  boasted  education  of  this  age,  scholastic,  political,  financial, 
and  religious,  will  fail  to  stem  the  flood  of  immorality  which  threat- 
ens us  this  very  day.  Our  institutions  will  go  down,  our  liberties 
will  be  overthrown,  and  our  example  will  perish  from  the  earth. 
The  homes,  the  schools,  the  pulpits,  the  forums  of  the  land  must 
stand  for  purity,  for  honor,  for  manhood,  for  faith  and  God,  or 
catastrophe  is  as  inevitable  as  the  fate  of  the  nations  of  old,  who 
gave  themselves  up  to  pleasure  and  "perverted  the  right  way  of 
the  Lord." 


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FRIENDSHIP,  LOVE,  AND  TRUTH. 

When  friendship,  love,  and  truth  abound 

Among  a  band  of  brothers, 
The  cup  of  joy  goes  gaily  round, 

Each  shares  the  bliss  of  others. 
Sweet  roses  grace  the  thorny  way 

Along  this  vale  of  sorrow; 
And  flowers  that  shed  their  leaves  today 

Shall  bloom  again  tomorrow. 
How  grand  in  age,  how  fair  in  youth. 
Are  holy  friendship,  love,  and  truth! 

On  halcyon  wings  our  moments  pass. 

Life's  cruel  cares  beguiling. 
Old  time  lays  down  his  scythe  and  glass, 

In  gay  good-humor  smiling; 
With  ermine  beard  and  forelock  gray, 

His  reverend  front  adorning. 
He  looks  like  winter  tum'd  to  May, 

Night  soften'd  into  morning. 
How  grand  in  age,  how  fair  in  youth, 
Are  holy  friendship,  love,  and  truth! 

From  these  delightful  fountains  flow 

Ambrosial  rills  of  pleasure; 
Can  man  desire,  can  heaven  bestow, 

A  more  resplendent  treasure? 
Adom'd  with  gems  so  richly  bright. 

We'll  form  a  constellation. 
Where  every  star,  with  modest  light. 

Shall  gild  his  proper  station. 
How  grand  in  age,  how  fair  in  youth, 
Are  holy  friendship,  love,  and  truth! 

Montgomery. 


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ORIENTAL  REUGIOUS  FAITHS- 

I. 

fflSTOmCAL  JUDAISM. 

BY  REV.  DR.  H.  PEREIRA  IfENDES,  NEW  YORK. 


Our  history  may  be  divided  into  three  eras, — ^first,  the  Biblical 
era;  second,  the  era  from  the  close  of  the  Bible  record  to  the  pres- 
ent day;  third,  the  future. 

The  first  is  the  era  of  the  announcement  of  those  ideals  which 
are  essential  for  mankind's  happiness  and  progress.  The  Bible 
contains  for  us  and  for  humanity  all  ideals  worthy  of  human  effort 
to  attain.    I  make  no  exception. 

The  attitude  of  historical  Judaism  is  to  hold  up  these  ideals 
for  mankind's  inspiration  and  for  all  men  to  pattern  life  ac- 
cordingly. 

The  first  divine  message  to  Abraham  contains  the  ideal  of 
righteous  Altruism — "Be  a  source  of  blessing."  And  in  the  mes- 
sage announcing  the  Covenant  is  the  ideal  of  righteous  ego- 
ism, "Walk  before  me  and  be  perfectf*  "Recognize  me,  God;  be  a 
blessing  to  thy  fellow-man;  be  perfect  thyself  r  Gould  religion 
ever  be  more  strikingly  summed  up? 

The  life  of  Abraham,  as  we  have  it  recorded,  is  a  logical  re- 
sponse, despite  any  human  failing.  Thus  he  refused  booty  he  had 
captured.  It  was  an  ideal  of  warfare  not  yet  realized — ^that  to 
the  victor  the  spoils  do  not  necessarily  belong.  Ghildless  and  old, 
he  believed  Grod's  promise  that  his  descendants  should  be  numerous 
as  the  stars.    It  was  an  ideal  faith!    That  also,  and  more,  was  his 


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ORIEhTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  29 

readiness  to  sacrifice  Isaac, — a  sacrifice  ordered  to  make  more  pub- 
lic his  God's  condemnation  of  Ganaanite  child  sacrifice.  It  revealed 
an  ideal  God,  who  would  not  allow  religion  to  cloak  outrage  up- 
on holy  sentiments  of  humanity. 

To  Moses  next  were  high  ideals  imparted  for  mankind  to  aim 
At.  On  the  very  threshold  of  his  mission  the  ideal  of  ''the  father- 
hood of  God**  was  announced, — 'Israel  is  my  son,  my  first  bom,'' 
implying  that  other  nations  are  also  his  children.  Then  at  Sinai 
were  given  those  ten  ideals  of  human  conduct,  which,  called  the 
**  Ten  Commandments,"  receive  the  allegiance  of  the  great  nations 
of  to-day.  Magnificent  ideals!  Yes,  but  not  so  magnificent  as  the 
three  ideals  of  God  revealed  to  him, — ^first,  God  is  Mercy!  second, 
God  is  Love!    third,  God  is  Holiness! 

"The  Lord  thy  God  loveth  thee!"  The  echoes  of  this  are  the 
commands  to  the  Hebrews  and  to  the  world:  'Thou  shalt  love  the 
Lord  thy  God,  with  all  thy  heart,  with  all  thy  soul,  and  with  all 
thy  might;"  "Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thyself."  "Thou 
shalt  not  hate  thy  brother  in  thy  heart;  ye  shall  love  the  stranger." 

God  is  Holiness!  "Be  holy!  for  I  am  holy; "  it  is  God  calling 
to  man  to  participate  in  His  divine  nature. 

To  the  essayist  on  Moses  belongs  the  setting  forth  of  other 
ideals  associated  with  hinu  The  historian  may  dwell  upon  his 
"Proclaim  freedom  throughout  the  land  to  its  inhabitants."  It  is 
written  on  that  Liberty  Bell,  which  announced  "Free  America  P' 
The  politician  may  ponder  upon  his  land-tenure  system;  his  decla- 
ration that  the  poor  have  rights;  his  limitation  of  individual  wealth; 
the  relation  he  established  between  church  and  state.  The  preacher 
may  dilate  upon  that  Mosaic  ideal,  Sebright  with  hope  and  faith, — 
wings  of  the  human  soul  as  it  flies  forth  to  find  God, — that  God  is 
the  God  of  the  gpiriU  of  all  flesh!  It  is  a  flash-light  of  inmiortality 
upon  the  storm-tossed  waters  of  human  life.  The  physician  may 
elaborate  his  dietary  and  health  laws,  designed  to  prolong  life  and 
render  man  more  able  to  do  his  full  duty  to  society. 

The  moralist  may  point  to  the  ideal  of  personal  responsibility. 
The  exponent  of  natural  law  in  the  spiritual  world  is  anticipated 
by  his  "Not  by  bread  alone  does  man  live,  but  by  obedience  to  di- 
vine law."  The  lecturer  on  ethics  may  enlarge  on  moral  impulses, 
their  correlation,  free  will,  and  such  like  ideas;  it  is  Moses  who 


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30  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

teaches  that  the  qaickening  cause  of  all  is  God's  revelation — ''our 
wisdom  and  our  understanding,"  and  who  sets  before  us  ""Lif e  and 
death,  blessing  and  blighting/'  to  choose  either,  though  he  advises 
''choose  the  life."  Tenderness  to  brute  creation,  equality  of  aliens, 
kindness  to  Servants,  justice  to  the  employed!  What  code  of  ethics 
has  brighter  gems  of  ideals  than  those  which  make  glorious  the 
law  of  Moses? 

As  for  our  other  prophets,  we  can  only  glance  at  their  ideals 
of  purity  in  social  life,  in  business  life,  in  personal  life,  in  political 
life,  and  in  religious  life.  We  need  no  Bryce  to  tell  us  how  much 
or  how  little  they  obtain  in  our  commonwealth  to-day. 

So,  also,  if  we  only  mention  the  ideal  relation  which  they  hold 
up  for  ruler  and  people,  that  the  former  ''should  be  servant  to  the 
latter,"  it  is  only  in  view  of  its  tremendous  results  in  history. 
For  these  very  words  licensed  the  English  revolution.  From  that 
very  chapter  of  the  Bible  the  cry,  "To  your  tents,  0  Israel,"  waa 
taken  up  by  the  Puritans  who  fought  with  the  Bible  in  one  hand. 
Child  of  that  English  revolt,  which  soon  consummated  English  lib- 
erty, America  was  bom,  herself  the  parent  of  the  French  Revolu- 
tion, which  has  made  so  many  kings  the  servants  of  their  peoples. 
English  liberty!  America's  birth!  French  Revolution!  Three  tre- 
mendous results  truly!  Let  us,  however,  set  even  these  aside,  great 
as  they  are,  and  mark  those  three  grand  ideals  which  our  prophets 
were  the  first  to  preach. 

First,  universal  peace,  or  settlement  of  national  disputes  by  ar- 
bitration. When  Micah  and  Isaiah  announced  the  ideal  of  univer- 
sal peace,  it  was  the  age  of  war,  of  despotism.  They  may  have 
been  regarded  as  lunatics.  Now  all  true  men  desire  it,  all  good 
men  pray  for  it.  And  bright  among  the  jewels  of  Chicago's  cor- 
onet  in  1893,  was  her  Universal  Peace  Convention. 

Second,  universal  brotherhood.  If  Israel  is  God's  first-bom, 
and  other  nations  are  therefore  his  children,  Malachi's  "Have  we 
not  all  one  Father?"  does  not  surprise  us.  The  ideal  is  recognized 
to-day.  It  is  prayed  for  by  Catholics,  by  Protestants,  by  Hebrews, 
by  all  men. 

Third,  universal  happiness.  This  is  the  greatest.  For  the 
ideal  of  universal  happiness  includes  both  universal  peace  and  uni- 
versal brotherhood.    It  adds  being  at  peace  with  God,  for  without 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  31 

that  happiness  is  impossible.  Hence  the  prophet's  bright  ideal 
that  one  day  ''All  shall  know  the  Lord  from  the  greatest  to  the 
least,"  ''Earth  shall  be  full  of  the  knowledge  of  the  Lord  as  the 
waters  cover  the  sea,"  and  "All  nations  shall  come  and  bow  down 
before  Grod  and  honor  his  name." 

Add  to  these  prophet  ideals,  those  of  our  philosophers.  The 
"Seek  wisdom"  of  Solomon,  of  which  the  "Know  thyself"  of  Socra- 
tes is  but  a  partial  echo;  Job's  "Let  not  the  finite  creature  attempt 
to  fathom  the  infinite  Creator,-"  David's  reaching  after  God!  and 
then  let  it  be  clearly  understood  that  these  and  all  ideals  of  the 
Bible  era  are  but  a  prelude,  an  overture.  How  grand,  then,  must 
be  the  music  of  the  next  era  which  now  claims  our  attention!  The 
era  from  Bible  days  to  these. 

This  is  the  era  of  the  formation  of  religious  and  philosophic 
systems  throughout  the  east  and  the  classic  world.  What  grand 
harmonies,  but  what  crashing  discords,  sound  through  these  agest 
Melting  and  swelling  in  mighty  diapason,  they  come  to  us  to-day  as 
the  music  which  once  swayed  men's  souls,  now  lifting  them  with 
holy  emotion,  now  mocking,  now  soothing,  now  exciting.  Above 
them  all  rang  the  voice  of  historical  Judaism,  clear  and  lasting, 
while  other  sounds  blended  or  were  lost.  Sometimes  the  voice  was 
in  harmony;  most  often  it  was  discordant  as  it  clashed  with  the 
dominant  note  of  the  day.  For  it  sometimes  met  sweet  and  elevat- 
ing strains  of  morality,  of  beauty,  but  more  often  it  met  with  the 
debasing  sounds  of  immorality  and  error. 

Thus  historical  Judaism  would  harmonize  with  Confucius'  in- 
sistence of  belief  in  a  Supreme  Being,  filial  duty,  his  famous  "What 
you  do  not  like  when  done  to  you,  do  not  unto  others,"  and  with 
the  Buddhistic  teachings  of  universal  peace.  But  against  what  is 
contrary  to  Bible  ideal,  it  would  protest,  and  from  it  it  would  hold 
separate.  If  future  research  should  ever  reveal  an  influence  of 
Jewish  thought  on  the  three  great  Oriental  faiths,  Buddhism,  Zor- 
oastrianism  and  Confucianism,  all  originally  holding  beautiful 
thoughts,  however  later  ages  have  obscured  them,  would  it  not  be 
partial  fulfillment  of  the  prophecy,  so  far  as  concerns  the  East — 
"that  Israel  shall  blossom  and  bud,  and  fill  the  face  of  the  earth 
with  fruitr 

In  the  West,  as  in  thj9  East,  historical  Judaism  was  in  harmony 


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32  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

with  any  ideals  of  classic  philosophy  which  echoed  those  of  the 
Bible.  It  protested  where  they  fdled  to  do  so,  and  because  it 
failed  most  often,  historical  Judaism  remained  separate.  Thus,  as 
Dr.  Drummond  remarks,  Socrates  was  ''in  a  certain  sense  mono- 
theistic, and  in  distinction  from  the  other  gods,  mentions  Him  who 
orders  and  holds  together  the  entire  Kosmos;''  ''in  whom  all  things 
beautiful  are  good,*^  "who  from  the  beginning  makes  men."  His- 
torical Judaism  commends. 

Again  Plato,  his  disciple,  taught  that  God  is  good,  or  that  the 
planets  rise  from  the  reason  and  understanding  of  God.  Histori- 
cal Judaism  is  in  accord  with  its  ideal  "God  is  good,''  so  oft  re- 
peated, and  its  thought  hymned  in  the  almost'  identical  words, 
"Good  are  the  luminaries  which  our  God  created,  He  formed  them 
with  knowledge,  understanding,  and  skill."  But  when  Plato  con- 
demns studies,  except  as  mental  training,  and  desires  no  practical 
results;  when  he  even  rebukes  Arytas  for  inventing  machines  on 
mathematical  principles,  declaring  it  was  worthy  only  of  carpenters 
and  wheelwrights;  and  when  his  master,  Socrates,  says,  "It  amuses 
me  to  see  how  afraid  you  are  lest  the  common  herd  accuse  you  of 
recommending  useless  studies'* — ^the  useless  study  in  question  being 
astronomy — historical  Judaism  is  opposed  and  protests.  For  it 
holds  that  every  earnest  man  is  filled  with  the  Spirit  of  God.  It 
bids  us  study  astronomy  to  learn  of  God  thereby.  "Lift  up  your 
eyes  on  high  and  see  who  hath  created  these  things,  who  bringeth 
out  their  host  by  number.  He  calleth  them  all  by  name,  by  the 
greatness  of  His  might,  for  He  is  strong  in  power,  not  one  faileth;" 
even  as  later  sages  practically  teach  the  dignity  of  labor  by  them- 
selves engaging  in  it.  And  when  Macaulay  remarks,  "From  the 
testimony  of  friends  as  well  as  of  foes,  from  the  confessions  of 
Epictetusand  Seneca  as  well  as  from  the  sneers  of  Lucian  and  the 
invectives  of  Juvenal,  it  is  plain  that  these  teachers  of  virtue  had 
all  the  vices  of  their  neighbors  with  the  additional  one  of  hy- 
pocrisy," it  is  easy  to  understand  the  relation  of  historical  Judaism 
to  these,  with  its  ideal,  "Be  perfect." 

Similarly  the  sophist  school  declared,  "There  is  no  truth,  no 
virtue,  no  justice,  no  blasphemy,  for  there  are  no  gods;  right  and 
wrong  are  conventional  terms."  The  sceptic  school  proclaimed, 
"We  have  no  criterion  of  action  or  judgment,  we  cannot  know  the 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  33 

truth  of  anything,  we  assert  nothing,  not  even  that  we  assert 
nothing;  if  religion  is  belief,  we  have  none."  The  Epicurean 
school  taught  pleasure's  pursuit.  But  historical  Judaism  solemnly 
protested.  What  are  those  teachings  of  our  ^'Sayings  of  the 
Fathers,"  but  protests,  formally  formulated  by  our  religious 
heads?  Said  tiiey,  'The  Torah  is  the  criterion  of  conduct. 
Worship  instead  of  doubting.  Do  philanthropic  acts  instead 
of  seeking  only  pleasure — society's  safeguards  are  law,  worship, 
and  philanthropy."  So  preached  Simon  Hatzadik.  "'Love  labor," 
preached  Shenangia  to  the  votary  of  Epicurean  ease.  ''Procure 
thyself  an  instructor,"  was  Gamaliel's  advice  to  any  one  in 
doubt.  "The  practical  application,  not  the  theory,  is  the  essential," 
was  the  cry  of  Simon,  to  Platonist  or  Pyrrhic.  "Deed  first,  then 
creed."  "Yes,"  added  Abtalion,  "deed  first,  then  creed,  never 
greed."  "Be  not  like  servants  who  serve  their  master  for  price; 
be  like  servants  who  serve  without  thought  of  price  and  let  the 
fear  of  God  be  upon  you."  "Separation  and  protest"  was  thus  the 
cry  against  these  thought-vagaries. 

Brilliant  instance  of  the  policy  of  separation  and  protest  was 
the  glorious  Maccabean  effort  to  combat  Hellenist  philosophy.  If 
but  for  Charles  Martel  and  Poictiers,  Europe  would  long  have  been 
Mohammedan,  then  but  for  Judas  Maccabeus  and  Bethoron  or  Em- 
maus,  Judaism  would  have  been  strangled.  But  no  Judaism, 
no  Christianity!  Take  either  faith  out  of  the  world  and  what 
would  our  civilization  be?  Christianity  was  bom — originally  and 
as  designed  and  declared  by  its  founder,  not  to  change  or  alter  one 
tittle  of  the  law  of  Moses.  If  the  Nazarean  teacher  claimed, 
tacitly  or  not,  the  title,  "Son  of  God,"  in  any  sense  save  that  which 
Moses  meant  when  he  said,  "Ye  are  children  of  your  God,"  can  we 
wonder  that  there  was  a  Hebrew  protest? 

Presently  the  crescent  of  Islam  arose.  From  Bagdad  to 
Granada  Hebrews  prepared  protests  which  their  Christian  students 
carried  to  ferment  in  their  distant  homes.  For  through  the  Arabs 
and  Jews  the  old  classics  were  revived  and  experimental  science 
was  fostered.  The  misuse  of  the  former  made  the  methods  of  the 
Academicians  the  methods  of  Scholastic  Fathers.  But  it  made 
Aristotelian  philosophy  dominant.  Experiment  widened  men's 
views.    The  sentiment  of  protest  was  imbibed;  sentiment  against 


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34  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

scholastic  argament,  against  bridling  research  for  practical  ends; 
against  the  supposition  ''that  syllogistic  reasoning  could  never  con- 
duct men  to  the  discovery  of  any  new  principle,"  or  that  such 
discoveries  could  be  made  except  by  induction,  as  Aristotle  held; 
against  official  denial  of  ascertained  truth,  as  for  example,  earth's 
rotundity.  .This  protest  sentiment  in  time  produced  the  Reforma- 
tion. Later  it  gave  that  wonderful  impulse  to  thought  and  effort 
which  has  substituted  modem  civilization  with  its  glorious  con- 
quests, for  medisBval  semi-darkness. 

Here  the  era  of  the  past  is  becoming  the  era  of  the  present. 
Still  historical  Judaism  maintained  its  attitude.  We  march  in  the 
van  of  progress,  but  our  hand  is  always  raised,  pointing  to  God. 
That  is  the  attitude  of  historical  Judaism.  And  now  to  sum  up; 
for  the  future  opens  before  us: 

1.  The  ''separatist"  thought.  Genesis  tells  us  how  Abraham 
obeyed  it.  Exodus  elaborates  it:  We  are  "separated  from  all  the 
people  upon  the  face  of  the  earth"  (33:  16).  Leviticus  proclaims 
it:  "I  have  separated  you  from  the  peoples"  (20:  25).  '1  have 
severed  you  from  the  peoples"  (26).  Numbers  illustrates  it:  "Be- 
hold the  people  shall  dwell  alone"  (23:  9).  And  Deuteronomy  de- 
clares it:  "He  hath  avouched  thee  to  be  His  special  people"  (24: 
18).  And  who  are  the  Hebrews  of  today,  here  and  in  Europe? 
The  descendants  of  those  who  preferred  to  keep  separate,  and  who 
therefore  chose  exile  or  death,  or  those  who  yielded  and  were  bap- 
tized? The  course  for  historic  Judaism  is  clear.  It  is  to  keep 
separate. 

2.  The  protest  thought.  We  must  continue  to  protest 
against  social,  religious,  or  political  error  with  the  eloquence  of 
reason — ^never  by  the  force  of  violence.  No  error  is  too  insignifi- 
cant, none  can  be  too  stupendous  for  us  to  notice.  The  cruelty 
which  shoots  innocent  doves  for  sport — the  crime  of  duelists  who 
risk  life  which  is  not  theirs  to  risk — for  it  belongs  to  country,  wife, 
or  mother,  to  child  or  to  society;  militarianism  of  modem  nations; 
the  transformation  of  patriotism,  politics,  or  service  of  one's  coun- 
try into  a  business  for  personal  profit — until  these  and  all  wrongs 
be  rectified,  we  Hebrews  must  keep  separate  and  protest.  And 
we  will  do  so  until  all  error  shall  be  cast  to  the  moles  and  bats. 
We  are  told  that  Europe's  armies  amount  to  twenty-two  millions  of 


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ORIEhTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  35 

men. '  Imagme  it!  Are  we  not  right  to  protest  that  arbitration, 
and  not  the  role  of  might  should  decide?  Yet,  let  me  not  cite 
instances  which  render  protests  necessary.  'Time  would  fail,  and 
the  tale  would  not  be  told,''  to  quote  a  rabbi. 

How  far  separation  and  protest  constitute  our  historical  Jew- 
ish policy  is  evident  from  what  I  have  said.  Apart  from  this, 
socially,  we  unite  whole-heartedly  and  without  reservation  with  our 
non-Jewidh  fellow-citizens;  we  recognize  no  difference  between 
Hebrew  and  non-Hebrew. 

We  declare  that  the  attitude  of  historical  Judaism,  and,  for 
that  matter,  of  the  Reformed  School  also,  is  to  serve  our  country 
as  good  citizens,  to  be  on  the  side  of  law  and  order  and  fight  an- 
archy. We  are  bound  to  forward  every  humanitarian  movement; 
where  want  or  pain  calls,  there  must  we  answer;  and  condemned 
by  all  true  men  be  the  Jew  who  refuses  aid  because  he  who  needs 
it  is  not  a  Jew.  In  the  intricacies  of  science,  in  the  pursuit  of  all 
that  widens  human  knowledge,  in  the  path  of  all  that  benefits 
humanity,  the  Jew  must  walk  abreast  with  non-Jew,  except  he  pass 
him  in  generous  rivalry.  With  the  non-Jew  we  must  press  onward, 
but  for  all  men  and  for  ourselves,  we  must  ever  point  upward  to 
the  Common  Father  of  all.  Marching  forward,  as  I  have  said,  but 
pointing  upward,  this  is  the  attitude  of  historical  Judaism. 

Religiously,  the  attitude  of  historical  Judaism  is  expressed 
in  the  creeds  formulated  by  Maimonides,  as  follows: 

We  believe  in  Grod,  the  Creator  of  all,  a  unity,  a  Spirit  who 
never  assumed  corporeal  form.  Eternal,  and  He  alone  ought  to  be 
worshiped. 

We  unite  with  Christians  in  the  belief  that  revelation  is  in- 
spired. We  unite  with  the  founder  of  Christianity  that  not  one 
jot  or  tittle  of  the  law  should  be  changed.  Hence  we  do  not 
accept  a  first-day  Sabbath,  etc. 

We  unite  in  believing  that  God  is  omniscient  and  just,  good, 
loving,  and  merciful. 

We  unite  in  the  belief  in  a  coming  Messiah. 

We  unite  in  our  belief  in  immortality.  In  these  Judaism  and 
Christianity  agree. 

As  for  the  development  of  Judaism,  we  believe  in  change  in 
religious  custom  or  idea  only  when  effected  in  accordance  with  the 


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36  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

spirit  of  God's  law,  and  the  highest  authority  attainable.  Bnt  no 
change  without.  Hence  we  cannot,  and  may  not,  recognize  the 
authority  of  any  conference  of  Jewish  rabbis  or  ministers,  unless 
those  attending  are  formally  empowered  by  their  communities  or 
congregations  to  represent  them.  Needless  to  add,  they  must  be 
sufficiently  versed  in  Hebrew  law  and  lore;  they  must  lead  lives 
consistent  with  Bible  teachings,  and  they  must  be  sufficiently  ad- 
vanced in  age,  so  as  not  to  be  immature  in  thought. 

And  we  believe  heart,  soul,  and  might,  in  the  restoration  of 
Palestine,  a  Hebrew  state  from  the  Nile  to  the  Euphrates— even 
though,  as  Isaiah  intimates  in  his  very  song  of  restoration,  some 
Hebrews  remain  among  the  Gentiles. 

We  believe  in  the  future  establishment  of  a  court  of  arbitra- 
tion above  suspicion,  for  settlement  of  nations'  disputes,  such  as 
could  well  be  in  the  shadow  of  that  temple  which  we  believe  shall 
one  day  arise,  to  be  a  "house  of  prayer  for  all  peoples,"  united  at 
last  in  the  service  of  one  Father.  How  far  the  restoration  will 
solve  present  pressing  Jewish  problems,  how  far  such  spiritual  or- 
ganization will  guarantee  man  against  falling  into  error,  we  cannot 
here  discuss.  What  if  doctrines,  customs,  and  aims  separate  us 
now?  There  is  a  legend  that  when  Adam  and  Eve  were  turned 
out  of  Eden  or  earthly  Paradise,  an  angel  smashed  the  gates,  and 
the  fragments  flying  all  over  earth,  are  the  precious  stones.  We 
can  carry  the  legend  further.  The  precious  stones  were  picked  up 
by  the  various  religions  and  philosophers  of  the  world.  Each 
claimed  and  claims  that  its  own  fragment  alone  reflects  the  light 
of  heaven,  forgetting  the  settings  and  the  incrustations  which 
time  has  added.  Patience,  my  brothers.  In  God's  own  time  we 
shall,  all  of  us,  fit  our  fragments  together  and  reconstruct  the 
gates  of  Paradise.  There  will  be  an  era  of  reconciliation  of  all 
living  faiths  and  systems,  the  era  of  all  being  in  at-one-ment,  or 
atonement  with  God.  Through  the  gates  shall  all  people  pass  to 
the  foot  of  God's  throne.  The  throne  is  called  by  us  the  mercy- 
seat.  Name  of  happy  augury,  for  God's  mercy  shall  wipe  out  the 
record  of  mankind's  errors  and  strayings,  the  sad  story  of  our 
unbrotherly  actions.  Then  shall  we  better  know  God's  ways  and 
behold  His  glory  more  clearly,  as  it  is  written;  '*They  shall  all 
know  me,  from  the  least  of  them  unto  the  greatest  of  them,  saith 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  37 

the  Lord,  for  I  will  forgive  their  iniquity,  and  will  remember  their 
Bins  no  more/'    (Jer.  31:  34). 

What  if  the  deathless  Jew  be  present  then  among  earth's  peo- 
ples ?  Would  ye  begrudge  his  presence  ?  His  work  in  the  world,  the 
Bible  he  gave  it,  shall  plead  for  him.  And  Israel,  God's  first-bom, 
who,  as  His  prophet  foretold,  was  for  centuries  despised  and  re- 
jected of  men,  knowing  sorrows,  acquainted  with  grief,  and  es- 
teemed stricken  by  God  for  his  own  backsUdings,  wounded  besides 
through  others'  transgressions,  bruised  through  others'  iniquities, 
shall  be  but  fulfilling  his  destiny  to  lead  back  his  brothers  to  their 
Father.  For  that  were  we  chosen;  for  that  we  are  Grod's  servants, 
or  ministers.  Yes,  the  attitude  of  historical  Judaism  to  the  world 
will  be  in  the  future,  as  in  the  past,  helping  mankind  with  his 
Bible,  until  the  gates  of  earthly  paradise  shall  be  reconstructed  by 
mankind's  joint  efforts,  and  all  nations  whom  Thou,  God,  hast  made 
shall  go  through  and  worship  before  Thee,  0  Lord,  and  shall  glorify 
Thy  name. 


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PHILOSOPHY   OF   INSPIRATION,  FREE 
AGENCY,  AND  REVELATION- 


BY  ELDER  JOHN  NICHOLSON. 


"A  spirit  actually  does  exist  which  teaches  the  ant  her  path,  the 
bird  her  building,  and  men  whatever  lovely  arts  and  noble  deeds  are  pos- 
sible to  them." — Ruskin, 

INSPIRATION  IS  dual:  UNIVERSAL  AND  SPECIAL. 

Man  is  a  centre  of  intelligence.  He  is  operated  upon  by  external 
forces.  He  is  a  spiritual  as  well  as  a  physical  entity.  Experience 
and  observation  teach  that  he  is  susceptible  of  being  inspired.  Every 
man,  reli^ously  disposed  or  otherwise,  who  is  mentally  active,  must 
know  that  he  has  been  the  subject  of  inspiration.  When  thus  acted 
upon  he  seems  to  rise  above  himself.  His  being  is  quickened  and 
his  mind  enlarged.  While  man  in  general  is  willing  to  admit  that 
he,  as  an  individual,  on  occasions  during  his  lifetime,  has  been  the 
instrument  of  inspiration,  as  a  rule  he  professes  skepticism  when 
his  neighbor  makes  a  claim  to  having  been  the  centre  of  a  similar 
operation.  Yet  his  own  inspiration  is  a  proof  that  his  fellow-men, 
as  an  entirety,  are  inspired. 

It  is  reasonable  then  to  presume  that  mankind,  as  a  whole,  is 
the  medium  of  inspiration.  If  there  be  a  diffusive  source  of  inspi- 
ration directing  man  toward  the  beautiful,  the  pure,  the  noble,  the 
good,  and  the  true,  it  must  be  supremely  intelligent.  As  its  activity 
leads  toward  the  right  it  must  also  itself  be  supremely  good.  Being 
both  good  and  intelligent  it  must  necessarily  avail  itself  of  every  op- 
portunity to  increase  the  quantity  of  that  which  is  good.  Every 
individual,  male  and  female,  presents  in  some  degree,  an  opportunity 


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PHILOSOPHY  OF  INSPIRATION,  39 

of  this  character,  however  limited  it  may  be  in  myriads  of  instances. 

Experience  teaches  this:  that  inspiration  comes  in  response  to 
individual  effort,  opening  to  mental  view  the  field  of  truth  as  if  a 
light  were  flashed  first  upon  the  mind  and  then  upon  the  subject 
under  contemplation.  When  the  inspiration  is  full  the  soul  is  en- 
raptured with  the  spirit  of  truth.  Circumstances  and  surroundings, 
as  well  as  capacity  and  intellectual  activity,  have  much  to  do  with 
the  degree  of  inspiration,  not  only  in  regard  to  individual  cases  but 
as  relating  to  aggregate  bodies  of  mankind,  such  as  communities 
and  nations.  The  nature  of  the  source  of  inspiration  is  such  that 
it  must  conform  to  law.  Indeed,  it  must  be  a  power  which  acts  in 
concert  with  truth;  hence  its  operations  must  be  economic.  Having 
power  to  operate  upon  man,  it  makes  the  best  possible  use  of  every 
opportunity  which  each  individual  presents.  Man  knocks  at  the  door 
leading  to  the  expansive  field  of  truth;  the  spirit  of  truth,  if  it  may 
be  so  designated,  illumines  the  threshold,  presents  the  seeker  with 
a  key  (faith  and  mental  effort)  and  bids  him  enter  and  explore. 

It  would  be  illogical  to  contend  that  it  is  only  the  truly  good  who 
are  inspired.  Men  who  are  regarded  as  being  in  some  respects  bad 
are  made  the  mediums  of  inspiration.  They  are  sometimes  inspired 
with  great  thoughts  and  accomplish  great  good.  This  is  because  in 
some  directions  they  present  opportunities  to  the  spirit  of  truth  to 
economize  them  in  the  interest  of  progress  and  development.  It  would 
be  unprofitable,  because  a  man  were  unprogressive  and  even  bad  in 
one  or  more  directions,  to  shut  him  off  from  assistance  in  lines  in 
which  his  capacity  and  activity  would  be  serviceable.  An  Omnipo- 
tent, Intelligent,  Ahnighty  Power  could  not  pursue  a  course  antag- 
onistic to  progress.  A  man  possessed  of  a  farm,  a  portion  of  the 
soil  of  which  is  barren  while  the  remainder  is  prolific,  would  be 
esteemed  as  unwise  if  he  neglected  to  cultivate  the  good  ground 
because  of  its  being  in  the  same  tract  as  the  unprofitable  part.  He 
might,  however,  with  consistency  virtually  abandon  the  whole  if, 
as  an  entirety,  it  failed  to  respond  to  his  efforts  to  render  it  pro- 
ductive. To  expend  his  energies  upon  such  an  unresponsive  subject 
would  be  waste,  and  consequently  a  violation  of  the  natural  law  of 
economy. 

If  there  be  an  inspirational  influence  or  power  which  inspires 
men  to  pursue  truth  and  righteousness,  it  follows  that  there  must  be 


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40  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

a  force  whose  inspiration  leads  to  error  and  to  unlawful  deeds.  The 
existence  of  good  and  evil  cannot  be  denied,  as  man  is  constantly 
confronted  by  and  associated  with  botL  If  there  is  an  inspiration 
in  the  one  direction  there  mnst  also  be  a  power  which  operates  in 
favor  of  the  other.  Both  these  forces  are  in  constant  activity,  and, 
being  opposites,  they  are  in  continual  conflict.  As  with  light  and 
darkness,  to  the  extent  that  the  one  gains  the  mastery,  the  other  is 
driven  from  the  field.  In  the  midst  of  the  warfare  man  is  devel- 
oped by  gaining,  through  experience,  a  knowledge  of  good  and  evil. 
Everything  by  which  man  is  surrounded  indicates  that  it  is  only  by 
experience  that  he  can  obtain  this  information;  hence  the  economy 
of  his  present  sphere  of  action.  Without  it  he  would  remain  in 
ignorance  and  consequently  without  progress. 

MAN  A  FREE  AGENT. 

The  situation  elucidated  in  the  foregoing  involves  the  free  agency 
of  man.  This  independence  of  action  is  inherent.  It  necessitates  his 
being  brought  in  contact  with  both  truth  and  its  opposite,  and,  as  a 
natural  sequence,  with  the  spirit,  influence,  or  inspiration  belonging 
to  each  of  these  conditions.  If  there  were  an  inspirational  induce- 
ment connected  with  good  and  none  associated  with  evil  there  would 
be  no  continuance  of  warfare;  man  would  have  no  experimental  pro- 
bation and  would  be  without  the  necessary  educational  facilities  for 
progress. 

The  conditions  of  man's  existence  are  such  that  the  expulsion 
or  retention  of  good  or  evil  and  their  influences  largely  depends  upon 
himself,  in  the  exercise  of  his  agency;  as  he  seeks  the  good  and  the 
true  and  the  inspiration  thereof,  the  influence  of  the  opposite  de- 
parts, and  vice  versa.  Hence,  when  there  shall  be  universal  brother- 
hood it  will  be  the  result  of  the  legitimate  exercise  of  the  agency 
of  man.  He  will  obtain  the  good  and  the  true  while  retaining  a 
knowledge  of  the  evil  and  its  consequences,  and,  so  far  as  he  shall 
be  developed,  he  will  have  become  like  the  Gods. 

REVELATION  IS  PERFECTED  INSPIRATION. 

It  is  clear  that  man  is  the  subject  of  inspiration,  by  a  spiritual 
power  which  aids  and  develops  him  according  to  the  direction  in 
which  he  bends  his  mental  activity  along  the  lines  of  truth  and  profit- 


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PHILOSOPHY  OF  INSPIRATION.  41 

able  productivity.  It  is  equally  clear  that  he  is  mampulated,  so  far 
as  he  yields  himself  to  its  seductive  influence,  by  a  spiritual  power 
which  is  opposed  to  his  progress.  K  this  be  established  another 
and  more  pronounced  connection  between  the  divine  and  human  fol- 
lows as  a  sequence,  in  logical  order.  What  is  now  referred  to  is  direct 
and  specific  conmiunication  between  the  Creator  and  the  creature. 
In  other  words,  revelation  from  God  to  man  may  be  called  divine  in- 
spiration perfected.  Those  who  enjoy  this  inestimable  boon  belong 
to  a  class  in  advance  of  their  fellow-men  who  are  not  thus  highly 
favored.  The  words,  '^highly  favored,"  should  perhaps  be  modified  by 
directing  attention  to  the  law  [of  adaptation  and  economy,  already 
referred  to,  and  the  necessity  for  conformity  to  the  conditions  upon 
which  revelation  must  be  predicated.  That  is  to  say:  that  when  a 
divine  communication  is  to  be  given  to  individual  man,  and  through 
the  latter  to  a  portion  of  the  race  or  to  humanity  at  large,  the  medium 
must  be  the  most  economic  selection  for  the  purpose.  The  choice 
must  be  made  upon  the  basis  of  suitability.  It  would  be  unprofit- 
able to  choose  as  the  leader  and  conductor  of  a  great  musical  organ- 
ization one  whose  mind  has  but  little  capacity  in  the  direction  of 
the  harmony  of  sound.  Success  cannot  be  obtained  unless  the  per- 
son selected  to  lead  in  the  accomplishment  of  any  great  undertak- 
ing is  open  to  the  conditions  involved  in  the  enterprise.  This  is 
beyond  the  domain  of  controversy. 

This  reasoning  is  introduced  to  meet  objections  that  have  been 
offered  against  any  one  or  number  of  men  being  selected  by  the 
Almighty  as  mediums  to  whom  He  directly  speaks,  while  the  great 
mass  of  the  race  are  ignored  in  this  regard.  Is  it  not  plain  that 
these  matters  must  be  subject  to  laws  and  conditions?  Would  it 
not  be  unreasonable,  for  instance,  for  one  who  raises  an  objection 
of  this  character  and  who  happens  to  possess  intelligence  in  some 
specific  direction,  far  above  that  of  the  ordinary  run  of  mortals,  to 
demur  to  the  comparative  superiority  of  his  own  capacity  in  a  given 
line  over  that  possessed  by  individuals  composing  the  mass  of  man- 
kind? It  has  already  been  stated  that  a  basis  of  suitability  in  any 
great  enterprise  must  be  the  open  condition  of  the  mind  in  regard 
to  the  elements  involved  in  the  subject. 

For  instance,  it  becomes  necessary,  for  the  public  good,  to 
construct  a  mammoth  bridge  over  a  broad  river  whose  current  is 


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42  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

not  only  wide  but  deep,  swift,  and  powerful.  Would  it  be  proper 
to  confide  this  great  undertaking  to  one  who  does  not  believe  that 
the  project  could  be  consummated? 

The  wise  choice  would  be  the  man  who  not  only  believed  in  the 
feasibility  of  the  enterprise  but  who,  by  a  process  of  mental  activity 
aided  by  an  inspirational  power,  could  construct  the  bridge  in  his 
"mind's  eye."  He  thus  erects  a  veritable  mental  or  spiritual  structure, 
as  the  principles  of  force,  suspension,  support,  and  adhesion  are  un- 
folded to  his  view;  he  places  his  detailed  thought  upon  paper,  in  the 
form  of  plans  and  specifications.  He  thus  creates  the  bridge  before 
it  becomes  a  handiwork.  It  is  purely  mental  or  spiritual.  The 
unbeliever  did  not  have  the  necessary  degree  of  the  true  "basis  of 
action  in  all  intelligent  beings" — ^faith.  The  other  had  faith  and 
built  upon  that  basic  principle.  After  the  latter  had  completed  his 
mental  bridge  all  that  was  necessary  was  to  construct  it  physically. 
This  done  the  bridge  becomes  a  material  reality  and  the  position  of 
the  builder  in  reference  to  it  passes  from  the  sphere  of  faith  to  that 
of  knowledge.  The  man  who  did  not  believe  was  not  intrusted  with 
the  enterprise.  He  could  not  produce  the  bridge,  spiritually  or 
mentally,  and  therefore  could  not  construct  it  materially. 

Faith  is  a  principle  of  i^niversal  application.  It,  as  stated,  is 
the  basis  of  action  in  all  intelligent  beings.  It  has  the  same  con- 
nection with  things  divine  as  with  those  that  are  human.  This 
being  the  case,  the  person  who  does  not  believe  that  God  has  com- 
municated nor  that  He  does  or  will  communicate  directly  with  man, 
is  deficient  of  a  constituent  indispensable  to  his  reception  of  a  divine 
revelation. 

In  searching  for  God,  men  are  almost  universally  governed  by 
the  idea  that  He  has  merely  an  expansive  existence,  and  is  there- 
fore without  form.  That  He  has  a  diffusive  existence  is  admitted. 
This  truth  is  beautifully  conveyed  in  the  expression  of  the  celebrated 
John  Ruskin,  quoted  in  the  beginning  of  this  article. 

There  are  reasons  for  the  belief  that  Deity  has  a  concentrated 
as  well  as  an  expansive  or  diffusive  being.  There  certainly  is  power 
in  the  principle  of  concentration  as  well  as  that  of  expansion.  Man 
is  an  exemplification  of  the  fact  that  both  principles  can  exist  in 
association.  He  is  called  the  child  of  God.  If  this  designation  of 
the  creature  means  anything  it  implies  that,  limited  as  the  re- 


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PHILOSOPHY  OF  INSPIRATION.  43 

semblance  may  be,  he  possesses  the  characteristics  of  the  source 
of  his  being. 

*  Man  is  a  concentrated  power.  He  is  likewise  an  expansive 
force.  He  is  surrounded  by  an  influence  which  can  be  felt  without 
personal  contact,  by  those  who  come  into  his  presence.  This  invis- 
ible something  has  been  designated,  for  convenience,  his  personal 
atmosphere.  It  can  be  felt  even  if  he  may  not  utter  a  word.  By 
his  influence  and  operations  he  may  circumscribe  the  globe  and 
affect  the  well  being  of  myriads  of  people  who  never  beheld  him, 
his  influence  continuing  after  death. 

It  may  be  asserted  that  the  disparity  between  God  and  man  is 
so  great  as  to  be  incomprehensible.  That  cannot  be  logically  held 
as  conclusive  evidence  that  there  is  no  co-relationship  between  the 
two.  Time  is  a  minute  division  of  duration.  It  is  of  a  character 
to  be  understood  by  man.  Duration  as  a  whole,  however,  is  with- 
out beginning  or  end,  and  is  therefore  beyond  finite  comprehension. 
It  would  not  be  maintained,  on  that  account,  that  there  is  no  co- 
relationship  between  eternity  and  time. 

There  is  a  spark  of  Deity  in  man.  He  has  not  only  a  concen- 
trated existence,  but  also  one  which  is  in  a  sense  expansive,  or 
diffusive.  If  those  dual  conditions  are  associated  with  man,  why 
not  with  Grod,  in  whom  there  must  be  every  great  quality  capable 
of  being  possessed.  Greatness  and  power  are  associated  with  con- 
centration as  well  as  with  expansion. 

When  a  claim  of  Divine  revelation  and  appointment  from  God 
is  set  up,  the  people  to  whom  the  presentment  is  addressed  gen- 
erally divide  into  four  classes.  They  may  be  designated  thus:  (1.) 
Those  who  are  indifferent  in  relation  to  the  subject.  (2.)  Those 
who  repudiate  without  investigation.  (3.)  Those  who  demand  proof. 
<4.)  Those  who  investigate  and  either  accept  or  reject. 

With  the  first  class  it  is  useless  to  deal,  beyond  attempting  to 
dissipate  their  indifference  and  bring  them  into  one  of  the  other 
three  grades.  The  condition  of  the  inactive  is  hopeless.  Those 
who  come  under  the  second  head  are  unreasonable,  because  they 
do  not  apply  the  same  test  to  the  things  that  are  spiritual  or  divine 
that  they  would  bring  to  bear  upon  and  demand  for  the  most  ordi- 
nary matters  that  affect  the  welfare  of  humanity.  Those  who 
belong  to  class  three  are  in  no  better  situation.    They  place  the 


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44  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

burden  of  proof  outside  of  themselves.  They  demand  proofs  of  a 
character  that  are  not  asked  for  upon  other  subjects. 

To  illustrate:  An  astronomer  states  to  one  who  has  no  scien- 
tific knowledge  that  the  distance  of  the  moon  from  the  earth  ia 
240,000  miles.  He  to  whom  the  statement  is  made  says:  "Give 
me  proof  of  this  and  I  will  believe,  otherwise  I  will  reject  your 
assertion  as  untrue."  The  scientist  at  once  points  out  that  the 
other  must  prove  the  matter  for  himself  by  an  educational  process. 
This  is  the  only  way  by  which  he  can  grasp  the  mathematical  fact 
in  relation  to  the  distance  between  the  earth  and  the  moon.  This 
is  quite  clear  to  many  who  would  shout  for  proofs  of  the  validity 
of  a  claim  made  in  relation  to  divine  things. 

If  the  prophet  who  assumes  to  have  a  revelation  and  mission 
from  God  points  a  way  whereby  the  authenticity  of  his  message 
can  be  tested,  the  repudiator  of  his  averments  and  he  who  clamors 
for  proof  occupy  an  unreasonable  position  until  they  have  applied 
the  means  of  ascertainment  prescribed.  It,  may  be  assumed  by 
those  who  reject  revelation  that  the  proffered  means  of  obtaining 
the  information  ought  to  be  such  as  will  appeal  to  the  reason  of 
mankind.  Granted  that  this  is  the  case,  it  merely  presents  another 
point  which  can  only  be  determined  by  an  investigatory  process. 
It  is  not  enough  hastily  to  conclude  that  a  declared  means  of  ob- 
taining knowledge  of  a  fact  is  unreasonable  and  therefore  not 
worthy  of  consideration.  If  the  method  is  harmonious  with  ad- 
mittedly correct  processes  abready  ascertained,  then  it  also  must 
be  true.  In  this  as  in  all  other  things,  let  truth  be  the  test  of 
truth.  In  considering  the  claim  of  a  man  who  assumes  to  have  a 
special  message  from  God,  let  the  value  of  the  proposed  means  of 
discovering  whether  or  not  this  assumption  be  correct,  be  tried  by 
first  finding  out  whether  or  not  it  agrees  with  universal  law.  If 
it  does  it  should  be  followed.  If  this  course  be  taken  there  need 
be  no  doubt  in  reference  to  the  result.  If  by  the  activity  of  the 
mind,  through  faith,  a  mighty  structure  can  be  conceived  and  be- 
come a  mental  reality,  who  can  say  that  by  the  same  process,  which 
is  inspirational,  the  very  being  of  God  cannot  be  ascertained,  and 
direct  communication  be  established  between  humanity  and  divinity? 

As  in  the  instance  of  the  man  who  could  not  mentally  create 
the  bridge,. it  may  be  asserted  that  this  is  impossible,  but  this  does 


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PHILOSOPHY  OF  INSPIRATION,  45 

not  affect  the  fact  that  the  man  who  comprehended  the  possibility 
of  the  project  was  aware  that  the  desired  result  could  be  reached. 
It  was  just  as  true  to  the  mind  of  the  man  who  grasped  the  possi- 
bility before  as  it  was  after  the  structure  became  a  material  reality. 
So  with  him  who  reaches  the  spiritual  conclusion  that  God  exists, 
and  attains  the  consummation  of  his  hopes  and  aims  by  the  estab- 
lishment of  inter-communication  between  himself  and  his  Maker. 

It  may  be  said,  in  opposition  to  this  standpoint,  that  ''No  man 
by  searching  can  find  out  God."  This  is  admitted  when  the  con- 
ditions necessary  to  the  discovery  are  left  out.  One  of  these 
is  the  reciprocal  response  of  the  Creator  to  the  spiritual  activity 
of  the  creature.  The  discovery  of  Grod  is  impossible  as  a  result  of 
searching  if  the  divine  Being  does  not  reward  the  efforts  of  the 
searcher  by  manifesting  Himself  to  the  seeker  after  divine  truth. 
The  discovery  of  God  without  faith — ^belief  in  His  existence — is 
impossible.  The  means  of  discovery  must  be  such  as  are  prescribed 
by  Himself.  To  assume  that  God  can  not  place  Himself  in  direct 
communication  with  humanity  is  absurd,  because  if  this  were  true 
His  power  would  be  limited,  and  such  limitation  would  be  at  vari- 
ance with  every  conception  of  the  Almighty.  This  power  being 
existent  with  Him,  it  would  be  unreasonable  to  hold  that  He  would 
never  exercise  it.  To  possess  a  power,  the  exercise  of  which  would 
be  of  incalculable  benefit,  and  fail  to  put  it  in  operation  would  be  the 
opposite  of  God-like.  It  would  be  a  flagrant  violation  of  the  law  of 
economy,  which  demands  the  best  possible  results  from  all  things 
existent. 

If  the  foregoing  commends  itself  to  the  reason  of  man  and  is, 
to  a  considerable  extent,  sustained  by  his  daily  experience,  it  is 
fair  to  presume  that  it  is  true.  If  that  be  the  case,  whatever  har- 
monizes with  it  is  of  the  same  character.  From  this  standpoint 
the  doctrine  of  Christ,  as  revealed  through  Himself,  Joseph  Smith, 
and  all  the  other  prophets,  is  likewise  true.  This  includes  the  exist- 
ence of  the  Spirit  of  God,  "which  lighteth  [or  inspires]  every  man 
that  Cometh  into  the  world,*"  the  spirit  of  Satan  which  seduces  man 
from  light  into  darkness;  the  development  of  man  by  means  of 
his  agency  and  contact  with  spiritual  opposites;  the  personal  as 
well  as  diffusive  nature  of  God — '^Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost,*" 
and  the  principle  of  communication  from  the  Father  and  the  Son, 
directly  or  through  agencies  of  their  appointment. 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC 

BY  GEORGE  A.  SEAMAN. 


[Note. — ^This  article  is  made  up  of  extracts  from  a  letter  written 
by  Brother  Seaman,  one  of  the  Utah  volunteers  in  the  second  Manila 
expedition,  to  his  wife.  It  was  written  at  different  times  during  the 
voyage  from  Honolulu  to  Manila,  its  interest  arising  from  the  fact  that 
it  details  the  events  and  impressions  of  the  journey  as  they  were  exper- 
ienced by  the  writer. — Editors.] 

We  have  crossed  that  imaginary  line  where  custom  has  estab- 
lished the  change  of  date,  and  while  you  are  still  living  in  the 
events  of  Thursday,  June  30th,  we  have  skipped  that  day  and  date, 
and  are  seeking  shelter  from  Friday's  hot  sun.  You  will  under- 
stand that  we  are  about  half  through  our  ocean  voyage,  which  we 
have  now  become  quite  used  to.  It  seems  more  of  an  accepted 
routine  now  than  before,  and  the  probability  is  that  the  latter  half 
will  seem  much  shorter  than  the  former.  It  is  to  be  hoped  it  will, 
for  this  monotonous  drag  seems  to  kill  ambition  and  give  one  no 
other  desire  than  to  kill  time.  Some  wander  about  from  morning 
till  night  aimlessly  doing  nothing,  while  others  more  ambitious, 
occasionally  pick  up  a  book  and  with  drooping  eyelids  read  until 
sleep  overcomes  them,  and  they  stretch  out  in  some  shady  place 
where  the  most  air  is  stirring,  and  sleep  until  bugle  call  warns 
them  that  drill  time  has  arrived  or  that  it  is  meal  time.  Such, 
with  but  little  variation,  has  employed  us  since  we  left  Honolulu 
last  Saturday. 

I  find  some  time  to  read  artillery  tactics,  a  thing  very  neces- 
sary, as  I  have  charge  of  the  section.  We  drill  twice  a  day  for 
thirty  minutes  each  time,  mostly  for  the  purpose  of  exercise  and 
to  straighten  the  men  out  that  they  may  have  the  carriage  of  a 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC.  '  47 

soldier.  One  thing  has  been  arranged  for  our  health  and  pleasure. 
The  rear  end  of  the  boat  on  lower  deck  has  been  cleared  of  every- 
thing and  pieces  nailed  down  to  keep  the  water  from  running  down 
the  deck.  A  hose  is  there  attached  to  the  engine's  pumps  and  a 
stream  of  water  is  continually  running.  It  is  the  favorite  resort 
of  the  men,  many  of  whom  bathe  there  (of  course  it  is  a  shower 
bath)  two  or  three  times  daily.  Before  we  reached  Honolulu 
there  was  no  such  arrangement  and  the  men  did  no  bathing. 

We  have  had  health  rules  presented  to  us,  and  they  must  be 
read  weekly  that  the  men  may  become  thoroughly  acquainted  with 
them  and  know  how  to  care  for  themselves  in  the  climate  we  will 
soon  find  ourselves  in.  Not  one  of  our  battery  boys  is  in  the  hos- 
pital, and  apart  from  minor  ailments  all  are  in  good  health.  There 
are  quite  a  nimiber  of  the  infantry  boys  in  the  hospital  wards,  one 
or  two  with  quite  serious  diseases.  One  young  fellow  lies  just  op- 
posite where  I  am  lying  on  deck  writing  to  you,  with  an  attack  of 
typhoid.  They  have  nursed  him  carefully  for  a  good  many  days 
and  now  pronounce  him  out  of  danger.  There  are  also  several 
cases  of  measles  on  board. 

I  started  to  tell  you  about  the  waves  as  we  watched  them 
when  they  were  running  fastest  and  highest.  Of  course  the  higher 
the  waves  the  deeper  the  troughs,  and  the  two  taken  together, 
while  only  measuring  depth  by  feet,  appeared  much  like  mountain 
and  valley.  In  the  distance  could  be  seen  a  wave  crest  gradually 
advancing  with  a  deep  valley  before  it.  Of  course  the  valley 
would  reach  us  first  and  as  we  gazed  down  in  its  great  depths  the 
huge  wave  would  rush  on,  and  with  an  energy  accumulated  from 
long  travel  would  lash  itself  into  foam  and  dash  its  spray  high 
into  the  air.  Then  would  follow  a  series  of  smaller  waves,  seem- 
ing to  be  an  effort  of  the  sea  to  gain  a  rest  and  strength  for  a 
greater  effort  than  before.  A  great  crowd  of  us  watched  it  with 
the  glee  and  shouts  of  a  crowd  of  school  boys. 

We  have  been  quietly  looking  after  the  Mutual  Improvement 
Association  I  told  you  of  in  my  last.  I  have  the  names  of  nearly 
thirty  who  are  more  than  anxious  to  join  in  the  movement.  There 
are  some  eight  or  ten  yet  to  get  whom  I  am  positive  of  enrolling. 
We  have  not  perfected  an  organization  yet  and  may  not  before  we 
land,  because  there  is  no  convenience  for  holding  meetings. 


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48  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Another  thing  has  been  instituted  on  ship-board  that  claims 
some  attention  and  study.  Soon  after  we  left  San  Francisco  a 
signal  corps  was  organized  in  our  battery,  and  today  it  was  ex- 
tended to  embrace  all  of  the  non-commissioned  officers.  Of  course 
that  includes  me,  and  I  will  be  compelled  to  lemn  that.  We  were 
given  the  alphabet  today  and  have  our  first  recitation  tomorrow. 
It  is  much  the  same  as  telegraphy,  there  being,  instead  of  dots 
and  dashes,  motions  to  right,  left,  and  front  with  a  flag,  or,  if  at 
night,  a  lantern.  The  movements  are  nimibered  1  Oeft)^  2  (right), 
3  (front  and  down).  Each  letter  contains  from  one  to  four  of 
these  nimibers,  and  will  require  considerable  study  to  memorize. 
The  boys  who  have  been  studying  them  for  ten  days  are  becoming 
quite  proficient  in  them. 

It  is  now  6  a.  m.,  July  2nd.  My  guard  duty  did  not  lose  me 
much  sleep  last  night;  the  greater  part  of  two  hours  being  all, 
and  while  I  was  awake  I  was  reclining  in  a  comfortable  chair  on 
the  top  deck.  The  evening  was  lovely;  hardly  a  cloud  was  to  be 
seen  and  such  as  were  visible  were  small  and  fleecy.  The  stars 
were  all  shining  brightly.  The  night,  while  not  warm  (compara- 
tively), did  not  drive  one  to  put  on  his  coat.  The  misty  dampness 
so  common,  was  not  to  be  felt,  and  altogether  it  was  just  such 
an  evening  as  lovers  would  choose  for  a  ramble. 

The  vigilance  of  the  commanding  officers  is  quite  necessary 
as  a  health  precaution.  This  morning  a  poor  fellow  was  brought 
up  from  steerage  quarters  and  put  in  a  cabin  room,  with  a  severe 
attack  of  measles  and  pneumonia.  He  looked  to  be  a  very  sick 
man.  Another  report  was  around  day  before  yesterday  that  a 
man  had  been  buried  from  the  Chiiui. 

I  will  go  back  a  week  and  tell  you  as  much  as  I  can  about 
Honolulu  and  our  reception  there.  Thursday,  the  23rd  of  June, 
quite  early  in  the  day  we  sighted  land  and  from  then  on  all  were 
eagerly  stretching  their  necks  and  straining  their  eyes  to  catch  a 
more  definite  sight.  When  we  were  near  enough  to  get  a  good 
view  of  the  land  darkness  began  to  close  in,  and  we  watched  then 
to  catch  sight  of  the  first  shore  light.  We  did  not  have  to  wait 
long  to  be  rewarded  on  that  score,  for  light  after  light  appeared, 
and  finally  a  city  was  open  to  our  view,  traced  only  by  the  long 
rows  of  electric  lights.    We  were  nearing  the  harbor,  and  as  ves- 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC.  49 

sels  dare  not  enter  a  harbor  without  a  pilot,  we  burned  lights  to 
signal  for  that  officer.  We  were  soon  answered,  and  shortly  a 
small  steamer  with  a  band  and  excursionists  came  out  with  him  to 
meet  us.  'Mid  strains  of  music,  mostly  our  national  airs,  we  soon 
found  an  anchorage.  Not  long  afterward  all  had  retired  and  every- 
thing was  quiet.  By  6  the  next  morning  we  had  raised  anchor 
and  were  moving  into  the  wharf.  As  soon  as  we  had  moored  they 
began  shoveling  coal  into  our  vessel,  filling  all  spare  room.  As 
soon  as  breakfast  was  over  we  were  lined  up,  rolls  were  called  and 
we  were  allowed  to  set  foot  on  terra  firma  again.  We  were 
marched  directly  to  the  Myrtle  Boat  Club's  boat  house,  and 
treated  to  a  surf  bath.  We  had  a  great  time,  the  only  difficulty 
we  experienced  being  the  constant  swaying  of  sidewalks,  plat- 
forms, and  everything  on  which  we  set  our  feet.  Of  course  it  was 
nothing  more  than  the  sensation  of  ocean  waves  that  stayed  with 
us  on  land.  It  is  a  sensation  that  nearly  everybody  who  travels 
across  the  ocean  experiences. 

Mr.  Isenberg,  our  host  for  the  day,  is  a  very  corpulent  man. 
He  is  as  jolly  as  he  is  large,  and  he  made  us  feel  right  at  home. 
From  the  bath  we  were  marched  to  the  Oahu  Railroad  and  Land 
Company's  depot  and  loaded  on  the  train  for  an  excursion.  When 
I  say  we  I  mean  the  Utah  batteries,  no  infantry  companies  having 
the  privilege  of  the  excursion.  Aboard  the  train  were  one  thous- 
and bottles  of  soda  water  and  many  boxes  of  cigars  for  the  bojrs 
to  smoke.  Mr.  Kinney,  a  government  official  of  Hawaii  and  a 
former  Salt  Laker,  is  the  one  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  the 
excursion  and  the  refreshment.  All  jbeing  ready,  we  started  out 
for  what  proved  to  be  a  very  pleasant  excursion  through  the 
country.  The  tropical  verdure  that  went  sailing  by  on  either  side 
formed  a  natural  picture  similar  to  those  I  have  seen  on  canvas, 
the  product  of  the  artist's  skill.  Here,  too,  the  artist  had  been  at 
work,  for  the  arrangement  of  orchards  and  gardens  showed  the 
work  of  skillful  hands.  Here  we  would  go  sailing  by  a  grove  of 
cocoa-nut  palms,  loaded  with  fruit  after  its  own  kind,  and  as  they 
towered  high  above  every  other  tree  with  their  bare  trunks  and 
tufted  coronets,  they  formed  a  striking  contrast  to  our  orchard 
trees  in  cooler  climates.  The  banana  tree  is  a  small  bushy  tree, 
almost  of  scrubby  growth,  appearing  barely  strong  enough  to  sup- 


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50  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

port  its  large  and  numerous  bunches  of  froit.  This  season,  we 
were  told,  the  froit  is  of  inferior  size  and  quality.  Next  we  would 
go  sailing  by  a  pine-apple  farm.  They  grow  low,  something  after 
the  style  of  a  cabba^,  though  much  more  desirable  than  that 
vegetable.  The  rice  swamps,  farmed  mostly  by  Japs,  are  an  in- 
teresting sight.  The  ground  is  worked  while  very  muddy,  and 
after  the  seed  is  in  it  is  flooded.  It  seemed  odd  to  see  the  men, 
with  very  few  clothes  on,  working  in  mud  nearly  as  deep  as  their 
legs  were  long.  The  land  is  left  flooded  thus  till  the  rice  is  in  the 
booty  when  it  is  drained  off  and  the  grain  left  to  ripen.  Every 
stage  of  farming  was  in  progress!;  some  were  plowing,  some 
swamping,  some  draining,  some  harvesting,  and  some  threshing. 
They  have  no  seasons  and  as  long  as  the  ground  has  strength 
enough  they  can  grow  their  crops  in  nearly  all  parts  of  the  year. 
As  we  went  riding  through  cuts  and  around  bends  new  beauties 
continually  came  before  us.  Bushes  along  the  railroad  track  were 
loaded  with  beautiful  and  variegated  flowers.  We  passed  the  jut 
of  the  ocean  where  the  beautiful  pearl  harbor  is  being  made.  Off 
in  the  distance  could  plainly  be  seen  two  volcanic  cones,  long  since 
extinct,  but  still  preserved  in  shape,  showing  what  were  once  im- 
mense craters.  There  are  two  visible  also  from  the  city;  in  fact 
one,  the  Punchbowl,  has  part  of  the  city  built  on  its  side. 

The  real  object  of  our  ride,  the  Ewa  Sugar  Plantation,  eighteen 
miles  from  Honolulu,  was  reached  in  a  little  over  an  hour's  ride. 
Mr.  Lowry,  the  superintendent,  kindly  turned  the  grounds  and 
everything  over  to  us,  no  restrictions  whatever  being  placed  on  us. 
The  first  thing  I  did  was  to  pluck  some  of  the  garden  flowers  and 
leaves  to  put  in  the  letters  I  had  ready  |to  send  home.  While  I 
was  running  for  the  flowers  some  of  the  boys  were  making  tracks 
for  the  trucks  loaded  with  sugar-cane.  They  came  back,  each 
with  a  long  stick  of  the  sweet  cane,  sucking  it  with  all  his  might. 
We  began  then  the  tour  of  the  mill,  claimed  by  employes  to  be 
the  largest  in  the  world.  It  surely  is  a  large  one,  for  in  its  man- 
ufacture of  140  tons  of  sugar  daily,  it  employs  120  hands.  Of 
those  the  most  are  Japs  who  are  paid  only  $13.00  per  month. 
They  would  fare  very  slim  on  that,  perhaps  as  slim  as  I  on  my 
''$13.00''  a  month,  but  they  are  furnished  a  house  and  fuel,  and 
also  water,  by  their  employers.    The  mill  expected  to  finish  its 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC.  51 

season's  nin  in  about  two  weeks,  having  been  running  about  six 
months.  After  the  mill  closes  down  the  mill  hands  go  out  into 
the  fields  to  attend  the  growing  crops,  which  labor  employs  some 
1200  hands. 

One  young  man  kindly  showed  several  of  us  through  the  mill 
and  answered  our  msmy  questions  besides  telling  us  all  the  working 
of  the  cane  to  produce  sugar.  The  first  thing  to  be  seen  on  en- 
tering the  door  is  the  tail  end  of  the  process,  the  sacking  of  the 
sugar  for  shipment.  The  sewing  of  the  sacks  is  done  by  Japanese 
women.  The  cane  is  first  run  through  powerful  rollers  in  which 
all  the  juice  is  pressed  out  and  the  residue  is  left  as  tasteless  aa 
sawdust  and  just  as  dry.  The  juice  is  then  taken  through  pipes  to 
vats,  where  it  is  heated  and  the  refuse  separated  from  it.  Larger 
boilers  then  evaporate  all  the  water,  when  it  becomes  syrup,  sweet 
and  golden.  Two  large  cisterns  then  receive  it,  when  it  is  boiled 
down  to  a  granular  state  of  much  the  same  consistency  as  butter 
when  it  comes,  before  it  is  gathered.  It  is  ready  then  for  the  ''sep- 
arators,'' hollow  spheres  with  the  upper  part  removed.  These  cyl- 
inders, for  so  they  appear,  excepting  for  their  concave  interior, 
revolve  1000  times  per  minute.  The  molasses  is  fairly  thrown 
out  of  the  sugar,  which  is  left  a  golden  yellow.  It  is  then  allowed 
to  fall  through  the  bottom  and  is  ready  for  sacking.  It  is  shipped 
to  the  United  States  where  it  is  refined  and  put  on  the  market. 
The  reason  it  is  not  refined  where  it  is  made  is  because  the  import 
duty  into  the  United  States  is  so  much  less  on  unrefined  sugar.  I 
ate  a  handful  of  the  sugar  as  it  came  from  the  separators,  so  hot 
that  I  could  scarcely  hold  it  in  my  hand.  From  the  tower  of  the 
factory  we  had  a  fine  view  of  the  country.  The  fields  of  sugar- 
cane stretched  out  for  miles  on  all  sides.  It  was  in  different  stages 
of  growth,  as  everything  else  on  the  island  seemed  to  be. 

Just  before  we  boarded  the  train  for  our  return  trip.  Captain 
Young  very  fittingly  introduced  Mr.  Kinney,  Mr.  Isenberg,  and  Mr, 
Lowry.  We  gave  each  one  of  them  three  round  cheers  and  a 
''tiger"  and  then  Mr.  Isenberg  patriotically  proposed  and  led  in 
three  cheers  for  "Old  Glory."  We  hurried  back  to  the  city,  where 
another  treat  awaited  us.  The  good  people  of  Honolulu  had  tables 
spread  in  the  shade  in  their  public  square,  and  we  feasted  on  all 
the  dainties  usually  on  a  first-class  bill  of  fare.    The  ladies  waite4 


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52  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

on  us  with  the  good  grace  and  charm  that  only  ladies  t)088e88,  and 
that  incited  ns  to  eat  more  than  we  otherwise  would  have  eaten. 
How  different  from  an  incident  a  day  or  two  before  when  two  boys 
got  into  a  fight  because  one  thought  the  other  had  one  more  bis- 
cuit than  he  should  have.  After  eating  all  our  substantial  foods, 
pies,  cakes,  etc.,  we  feasted  on  grapes,  bananas  and  pine-apples 
until  it  was  with  difficulty  that  we  could  leave  our  seats.  During 
all  this  time  the  band  was  plajdng,  but  the  stirring  national  airs 
had  little  effect  and  provoked  little  applause  until  we  had  our 
stomachs  well  filled.  A  man  who  is  hungry,  you  know,  is  not  in  a 
position  to  be  patriotic  or  sentimental.  The  grounds  where  all 
these  pleasures  were  found,  surround  the  palace,  now  the  chambers 
of  the  national  council.  Those  halls  were  thrown  open  to  us  as 
weU,  and  as  if  that  were  not  enough  they  furnished  us  with  writing 
material  and  then  collected  and  stamped  all  our  mail.  The  govern- 
ment had  made  an  appropriation  for  that  purpose.  The  use.  of 
telephones,  everything  was  free  to  the  '*boys  in  blue."  When  we 
returned  to  the  boat  a  great  many  of  us  had  a  large  pine-apple  un- 
der each  arm.  We  have  been  eating  pine-apple  occasionally  ever 
since.  We  had  no  sooner  reached  the  boat  than  we  were  turned 
loose,  each  section  under  its  chief,  with  the  strict  injunction  to  be 
back  not  one  minute  later  than  7  o'clock.  Some  went  back  to  the 
writing  hall  and  spent  most  of  their  time  there,  while  others  roamed 
about  the  town. 

The  town  itself  is  quite  a  sight.  Eversrthing  is  clean  and 
neat.  The  dwellings  usually  have  a  plot  of  ground  with  them  on 
which  the  owner  raises  some  choice  and  delicate  fruits.  The  city 
did  not  present  the  bustle  and  confusion  of  our  American  cities, 
and  yet  it  seemed  to  be  in  a  thriving  state.  There  are  many  beau- 
tiful houses;  some  nearly  mansions,  and  very  often,  as  the  boys 
passed  by  them,  they  were  invited  in  and  treated  to  the  best  there 
was  to  be  had.  We  had  no  sooner  returned  to  the  boat  at  7  o'clock 
than  I  heard  twenty-five  of  our  battery  would  be  permitted  to  go 
out  till  11  o'clock  that  evening.  I  put  in  an  early  application  and 
luckily  became  one  of  the  fortunate  twenty-five.  With  Dr.  Young 
and  two  or  three  others,  I  found  the  mission  house,  and  spent  the 
evening  visiting  with  the  Elders  and  the  wife  of  Elder  Williams. 
The  natives  were  holding  a  singing  school  and  we  went  into  the 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC.  53 

church  where  they  were  and  passed  a  pleasant  hour.  They  sang 
for  us,  and  when  they  sang  a  hymn  we  knew,  we  jomed  in  with 
them.  Of  course  we  did  not  sing  their  language  but  that  made  no 
difference.  We  were  introduced  to  them  and  had  considerable 
sport  trying  to  learn  a  word  or  two,  particularly  "good-by.**  A 
gentleman  who  went  with  us,  though  not  a  Mormon,  said  it  was  the 
finest  time  he  had  had  since  he  left  home,  and  he  would  not  have 
missed  it  for  five  dollars.  On  our  way  back  to  the  boat  we  bought 
a  string  of  bananas,  and  they  cost  only  fifty  cents.  They  were 
not  large  ones  but  most  of  them  were  very  good  for  all  that. 

After  we  got  on  the  boat  that  night  there  was  no  more  getting 
off  to  go  up  town.  All  we  got  to  see  of  the  town  had  to  come 
where  we  were.  And  it  was  there,  too.  The  fruit  peddler,  the 
pie-man,  the  soda  water  cart,  all  with  their  wares  for  sale.  Some 
amusing  wajrs  of  passing  purchases  up  and  change  down  were  im- 
provised, and  not  infrequently  did  the  luckless  vendor  lose  his  wares 
in  the  sea.  Some  of  the  natives  whom  we  met  the  night  before 
were  there.  When  we  pulled  away  from  the  wharf  about  noon 
they  were  the  last  people  I  could  distinguish,  still  waving  their 
handkerchiefs  at  us. 

Here  I  found  myself  8000  miles  from  home  among  strangers, 
as  it  were,  and  yet  I  found  myself  peculiarly  drawn  to  these  native 
people.  Usually,  but  unjustly,  we  look  upon  the  Islanders  as  a  very 
inferior  class  of  people,  but  the  truth  is  that  they  are  highly  intel- 
ligent and  social.  Their  skin  and  some  habits  that  differ  so  mater- 
ially from  our  own,  form  incorrect  criteria  from  which  to  judge 
them.  They  showed  a  great  interest  in  us.  One  would  hardly 
think  that  opposition  would  exist  to  their  annexation  to  the  United 
States,  but  their  chief  fear  is  that  eventually  they  will  be  deprived 
of  their  possessions  as  the  Indians  have  been,  and  they  have  a 
mortal  fear  of  seeing  their  once  glorious  power  thus  slip  away 
from  them.  Undoubtedly  they  have  had  their  minds  poisoned  in 
that  particular. 

We  are  now  sailing  south,  along  the  west  side  of  the  Luzon* 
the  island  upon  which  Manila  is  situated.  You  can  see  by  that 
that  we  are  nearing  the  end  of  our  journey.  We  are  all  in  good 
spirits  over  it,  regardless  of  the  consequences  when  we  get  there. 
The  journey  has  been  a  long,  tedious  one,  and  we  are  more  than 


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54  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

pleased  that  it  is  about  ended.  It  hardly  seems,  though,  to  my 
mind,  that  we  have  been  sailing  for  thirty  days  with  only  an  occa- 
sional glance  at  land.  While  it  has  been  long,  there  has  been  a 
monotony  in  it  that  has  obliterated  all  trace  of  time,  and  from  one 
day  to  the  next  it  is  difficult  to  keep  track  of  the  day  and  date. 
Tomorrow,  Sunday,  the  17th,  will  be  a  day  for  us  to  remember. 

Day  before  yesterday  it  was  stormy  and  rough  during  the 
whole  day,  but  through  the  mist  and  clouds  we  caught  sight  of 
land  on  the  horizon  to  the  north  of  us.  There  was  much  gazing 
at  it,  as  it  warned  us  that  we  were  in  the  group  of  islands  cap- 
tured by  Dewey. 

Next  morning  as  soon  as  we  were  up  we  could  see  land  on 
both  sides  of  us.  The  day  was  calm,  and  consequently  excessively 
warm.  We  were  near  enough  to  see  the  wooded  uplands  and  hills, 
and  the  breakers  dashmg  against  the  rugged  beach  on  the  north. 
About  11  o'clock  we  spied  the  smoke  of  a  vessel  directly  in  our 
course.  We  watched  it  as  it  came  nearer  and  nearer  with  a  great 
deal  of  wonder,  and  guessing  as  to  its  nationality  and  its  inten- 
tions. What  if  it  were  a  Spanish  gun-boat  Ijdng  in  waiting  for  us? 
We  could  not  offer  effectual  resistance  and  would  be  taken.  The 
China  sped  on  ahead  to  ascertain  who  she  might  be,  and  from 
their  signals  we  soon  learned  it  was  one  of  our  own  craft.  She 
lowered  3  boat  and  sent  a  messenger  to  the  Chimi,  which  signalled 
us  to  stop  as  soon  as  we  came  up  to  them.  As  soon  as  she  (the 
China)  gave  orders  to  the  other  vessels  of  the  squadron  and  or- 
dered three  cheers  for  our  escort,  the  Boston,  she  left  us  to  hasten 
on  to  Manila.  What  that  means  we  are  unable  to  find  out  at  present. 
We,  of  course,  got  the  latest  news  that  the  Boston  had  received 
from  Hong  Kong,  and  though  it  is  quite  old,  we  feel  still  that  it  is 
news.  The  principal  things  we  have  learned  are  concerning  the 
battle  at  Santiago,  and  the  dispatch  of  the  Spanish  fleet  to  Manila. 
That  means  that  perhaps  we  will  have  something  to  do  to  hold  the 
advantage  already  gained,  and  if  we  are  compelled  to  retain  it  by 
fighting,  we  expect  to  do  our  duty  and  still  come  out  masters  of 
the  situation. 

The  Boston,  now  sailing  in  our  lead,  is  not  a  large  vessel,  but 
appears  a  formidable  craft  with  her  iron  sides  and  her  mounted 
batteries.    Her  largest  guns  are  two  eight-inch  guns.    She  has  a 


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ACROSS  THE  PACIFIC.  55 

great  many  smaller  ones.  There  areno  railings  around  her  decl, 
which  is  down  very  close  to  the  water;  in  fact,  very  little  of  the 
vessel  is  high  above  the  water.  She  was  right  in  the  thickest  of 
the  fight  at  Manila,  but  to  ns  there  was  nothing  to  show  that  she 
helped  in  one  of  the  greatest  naval  victories  of  the  world.  Her 
company  seemed  to  ns  a  safeguard  against  possible  attack  by  some 
wandering  Spanish  gun-boat.  The  boys  stand  and  look  at  her  for 
long  stretches  of  time. 

It  is  warm  again  today,  but  not  so  warm  as  yesterday.  There 
is  not  much  breeze  stirring,  but  we  have  shade  to  protect  us  from 
the  direct  rays  of  the  sun.  In  the  distance,  landward,  there  is  a 
little  shower  passing;  in  fact,  we  can  see  them  in  nearly  every 
direction.  We  are  beginning  to  learn  already  that  it  is  as  easy 
for  nature  to  weep  and  shed  tears  as  it  is  for  a  baby.  I  hope  we 
shall  be  so  located  that  the  effects  of  the  frequent  storms  will  be 
reduced  to  the  least  possible  danger.  We  were  discussing  it  the 
other  day  with  Captain  Young,  and  during  the  talk  he  showed  us  a 
pictorial  magazine  on  Manila.  A  great  many  of  the  houses  in  the 
country  were  built  high  above  the  ground  on  poles  tied  to  the 
trunks  of  palm  trees.  Think  of  us  swinging  among  the  cocoanuts 
in  company  with  children  of  our  remote  ancestors(?) — monkeys.  If 
the  weather  we  are  getting  now  is  any  criterion  we  shall  need  such 
luxuries. 

I  expect  by  tomorrow  morning  we  will  be  with  Dewey.  Whether 
we  will  go  ashore  at  once  or  not  I  cannot  say.  The  general  im- 
pression is  that  we  will.  I  believe  the  other  expedition  has  been 
landed.  If  we  land  there  is  apt  to  be  so  much  to  do  that  I  cannot 
find  time  to  write  any  more  before  the  mail  leaves. 

We  are  anchored  right  in  the  middle  of  Dewey's  fleet,  where 
he  had  his  famous  battle.  We  can  see  the  hulls  of  the  sunken 
vessels,  or  their  rusty  smoke-stacks  and  stripped  masts. 

As  we  were  coming  in  the  harbor  we  could  see  the  smoke  and 
hear  the  report  of  cannon  off  in  the  direction  of  Manila.  We  are 
told  that  it  is  fighting  between  the  insurgents  and  Spaniards,  and 
has  been  going  on  every  day  for  a  good  long  time.  The  cannon- 
ading is  not  very  heavy  and  perhaps  they  are  only  skirmishing. 
The  first  expedition  landed  after  the  first  night  and  are  in  bar- 
racks.   We  may  be  stationed  in  the  same  place — Cavite. 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR 

BETWEEN  SPAIN  AND  THE  UNITED  STATES  OP  AMERICA. 


(continued  from  page  842,  no.  11,  vol.  I.) 
VI. 

While  the  events  related  in  onr  last  chapter  were  occurring  in 
Cuba,  the  troops  were  being  pnshedlforward  for  the  Philippines. 

Fonr  transports  carrying  4,200  men,  forming  the  second  Man- 
fla  expedition,  sailed  from  Sim  Francisco  on  June  15th  under  com- 
mandt^of  Kieneral  F.  V.  Greene,  and  on  the  27th  of  the  same  month 
the  third  expedition  sailed  in  the  transports  Indiana^  Ohio,  Morgan 
OUy,  and  GUy  qfPara,  commanded  by  General  Arthur  Mc Arthur. 
On  June  29th  General  Merritt,  who  commands  the  forces  sent  to 
the  Philippines,  sailed  from  San  Francisco. 

On  June  30th  the  United  States  Cruiser  Qiarleston  and  the 
three  transports  of  the  first  Philippine  expedition  arrived  at  Cavite. 
On  the  way  to  the  Philippines  the  Charleston  took  possession  of 
Guam,  Ladrone  Islands,  June  21st  and  carried  six  Spanish  officers 
and  fifty-four  men  from  the  garrison,  prisoners  to  Cavite.  So  with 
the  first  installment  of  United  States  troops  on  the  ground,  and  the 
second  and  third  well  on  the  way  everything  was  shaping  itself  for 
decisive  work  and  a  speedy  settlement  of  affairs  in  the  Philippines. 
On  the  same  day  several  thousand  Spanish  reinforcements  succeed- 
ed in  entering  Santiago. 

And  now  we  come  to  one  of  the  most  glorious  and  import- 
ant events  of  the  war.  Glorious  because  of  the  magnificent  work 
of  our  war  vessels  and  the  humanity  and  generosity  displayed  by  our 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  57 

officers  and  men  towards  the  Spaniards  when  the  victory  was  won ; 
and  important  becanse  it  practically  closed  the  war ;  for  Spain  soon 
after  this  battle,  seeing  the  hopelessness  of  continuing  the  straggle, 
sued  for  peace. 

The  capture  and  occupation  of  the  outer  works  of  Santiago, 
and  the  almost  certain  fall  of  the  city  in  the  near  future,  ap- 
pears to  have  determined  Admiral  Gervera  to  carry  out  the  repeat- 
ed instructions  of  his  government,  and  make  a  dash  out  of  the  har- 
bor in  the  hope  of  escaping;  preferring,  to  use  his  own  words,  to 
have  his  ships  destroyed  at  sea,  fighting  like  a  sailor,  to  having 
them  ignobly  captured  or  destroyed  in  the  harbor  with  no  chance 
of  defending  himself. 

On  Sunday  morning  July  3rd,  Admiral  Sampson,  on  his  flag- 
ship New  York,  sailed  eastward  about  seven  miles  on  his  way  to 
confer  with  General  Shaf ter  at  Siboney.  The  MassaehusetU,  New 
Orleans,  and  Newark  had  left  the  line  and  were  about  forty  miles 
to  the  eastward  for  coal,  provisions,  and  ammunition.  The  re- 
mainder of  the  American  fleet,  the  cruiser,  Brooklyn,  C!ommodore 
Schley's  flagship,  the  battleships  Iowa,  Oregon,  Texas,  and  Indiana 
and  the  converted  yachts.  Vixen  and  Gloucester  lay  lazily  outside 
the  harbor  of  Santiago  with  Sabbath  stillness  all  around  them  and  ap- 
parently nothing  to  disturb  the  monotony  which  had  marked  the 
days  and  weeks  already  spent  on  the  blockade. 

A  column  of  smoke  could  be  seen  rising  just  back  of  the  high 
hill  at  the  entrance  of  Santiago  harbor  and  the  officers  on  duty  were 
carefully  watching  it. 

Suddenly  at  9:  30  a.m.  the  cry  rang  out  from  the  navigator 
of  the  Brooklyn,  "After  bridge,  there!  Report  to  the  commodore 
and  the  captain  that  the  enemy's  ships  are  coming  outP' 

Then  commenced  a  sea  fight  destined  to  be  known  as  one  of 
the  most  memorable  in  history. 

The  Spanish  ships,  under  full  head  of  steam  followed  each 
other  in  rapid  succession  out  of  the  harbor  and  darted  to  the  west- 
ward, in  the  following  order:  Maria  Teresa,  Vizcaya,  Cristobal  Colon, 
and  Almirante  Oqvendo,  followed  by  the  torpedo  boats  Furor  and 
Plvton. 

Every  American  vessel  was  speedily  under  way  and  in  barely 
three  minutes  from  the  time  the  alarm  was  given  every  ship  was 


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68  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

cleared  for  action  and  every  man  was  in  his  appointed  place  ready 
for  the  battle. 

Led  by  the  flagship  Brooklyn  the  great  ships  rushed  to  the 
flght  and  engaged  the  Spaniards.  The  fire  of  the  American  gun- 
ners was  deadly  and  rapid,  and  in  an  incredibly  short  time  four  of 
the  Spanish  ships  were  ashore,  wrecks. 

The  firing  had  commenced  at  9:  40  o'clock.  At  10:  80  the 
Maria  Teresa  and  the  Oquendo  were  on  the  beach  on  fire  and 
iiddled  with  shot  and  shell.  The  two  torpedo  boats,  PlvJUm  and 
Furor  were  destroyed  earlier  in  the  fight. 

The  Vizcaya  and  CoUm  were  making  every  effort  by  a  run- 
ning fight  to  escape,  and  for  a  while  it  looked  as  if  at  least  one  of 
them  would  succeed.  The  Brooklyn  was  following  them  closely, 
but  their  speed  was  too  great  for  the  Indiana^  Texas,  and  Iowa,  and 
these  vessels  turned  to  the  rescue  of  the  enemy  on  the  burning 
Spanish  vessels. 

Now,  however,  it  became  apparent  that  the  Oregon  was  leav- 
ing the  other  battleships  and  with  great  clouds  of  smoke  pouring 
from  her  funnels,  was  coming  rapidly  to  the  aid  of  the  Brooklyn, 

The  Vizcaya  has  been  classed  by  critics  as  the  superior  of 
the  Brooklyn,  but  fearing  nothmg.  Commodore  Schley  ordered 
his  captain  to  ''get  in  close''  and  was  soon  pouring  two  thousand 
I)Ouncls  of  metal  against  the  Vizcaya  every  three  minutes. 

The  Oregon  had  now  come  near  enough  to  pour  in  several  six 
inch  projectiles  and  in  about  thirty-five  minutes  after  the  Brook- 
lyn closed  in  on  her,  the  Vizcaya  was  on  fire  and  was  headed 
for  the  shore. 

The  Cristobal  Colon,  which  to  all  appearance  had  so  far  es- 
<^aped  injury,  was  now  about  four  miles  ahead  of  the  Brooklyn 
with  the  Oregon  a  little  farther  behind.  These  two  great  vessels 
took  up  the  chase  with  the  Texas  following  about  five  miles  in 
their  rear. 

For  an  hour  and  a  half  the  chase  continued  without  much  gain 
on  either  side,  but  every  effort  was  made  by  the  Brooklyn  and 
Oregon  and  they  began  to  gain  slowly  on  the  enemy. 

At  12:20  o'clock  the  Oregon  threw  two  thirteen-inch  shells 
after  the  Colon  but  they  both  fell  short;  the  second,  however, 
struck  so  close  astern  that  it  threw  tons  of  water  on  the  deck  of 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  59 

'  the  flying  foe.  At  12:40  our  ships  had  gained  so  much  on  the 
Spaniard  that  the  Brooklyn  was  able  to  land  a  few  eight-inch 
shots  against  her  sides  and  it  was  seen  at  once  that  the  race 
was  nearing  its  end,  and  without  an  attempt  at  a  last  fight  the 
Orutobal  Colon^  the  last  of  Admiral  Cervera's  fleets  ran  ashore 
and  surrendered  at  about  1*.20. 

And  so  in  less  than  four  hours  the  flower  of  the  Spanish  navy 
was  utterly  destroyed  and  Spain's  sea  power  entirely  blotted  out. 

The  Spanish  losses  were  about  six  hundred  lives,  1,300  pris- 
oners and  $12,000,000  of  property.  Among  the  prisoners  was 
Admiral  Gervera,  who  surrendered  to  Lieut.-Ck)mmander  Wainwright 
of  the  Gloueeder. 

The  most  marvelous  fact  is  that  only  one  man  was  killed  and 
tiiree  wounded,  all  on  the  Brooklyn,  and  this  is  doubly  wonderfid 
when  it  is  known  that  that  vessel  was  hit  more  than  thirty  times. 

Every  effort  was  made  by  the  American  officers  and  men  to 
save  Jthe  lives  of  the  brave  fellows  on  the  wrecked  and  burning 
Spanish  ships,  and  hundreds  of  them  were  rescued. 

A  writer  in  the  Review  qf  Reviews  says: 

''The  victory  in  its  racial,  moral,  and  material  aspects  reminds 
one  irresistibly  of  that  over  the  Spanish  Armada.  But  it  has  no 
dark  spot  upon  it.  The  Spaniards  were  fed  and  clothed  by  the  Am- 
ericans, their  wounded  were  tended  by  our  surgeons,  their  dead 
wrapped  in  their  own  flag  and  buried  with  all  the  honors  of  war. 
Nor  by  word  or  deed  was  any  one  of  the  prisoners  reminded  of  his 
humiliation.'' 

The  first  news  of  this  glorious  event  reached  the  United  States 
in  the  following  dispatch  from  Admiral  Sampson: 

3:15  p.  m.,  Siboney,  July  3. 
To  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy: — 

The  fleet  under  my  command  offers  the  Nation  as  a  Fourth  of  July 
present  the  destruction  of  the  whole  of  Cervera's  fleet. 

''Not  one  escaped.  It  attempted  to  escape  at  9:30  a.  m.,  and  at  2 
p.  m.  the  last,  the  Crutoibal  Colony  had  run  ashore  six  miles  west  of  San- 
tiago and  let  down  her  colors. 

"The  Infanta  Maria  Teresa,  Oqvendo,  and  Vizeaya  were  forced 
ashore,  burned  and  blown  up  within  four  miles  of  the  port.  Our  loss 
^ne  killed  and  two  wounded. 


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60  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

''Enemy't  oes  probably  several  hundred  from  gunfire,  explosions,  and* 
drowning. 

''About  1300  prisoners,  including  Admiral  Cervera. 
'The  man  killed  was  George  H.  Ellis,  chief  yeoman  of  the  Brooklyn. 

"SAMPSON." 

This  reached  the  country  on  the  morning  of  July  4th,  and  with 
it  came  word  that  the  Ladrones  had  been  seized  and  the  first  Man- 
ila expedition  had  safely  landed  at  Cavite. 

The  people  everywhere  were  wild  with  delight  and  the  nation's- 
birthday  was  never  before  celebrated  so  enthusiastically  and  with 
such  thankfulness. 

All  eyes  were  now  turned  to  Santiago  and  the  army  investing  it. 
At  8 :30  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  July  3rd  General  Shafter  demanded 
the  surrender  of  the  city.  An  hour  later  Cervera  made  his  daring 
dash  for  liberty  with  the  result  already  stated.  This,  of  course, 
entirely  changed  the  naval  and  military  situation,  and  it  VTas  thought 
that  the  fall  of  the  city  could  be  accomplished  much  more  easily  by 
the  co-operation  of  the  fleet  in  the  harbor,  and  the  army  on  land. 

In  the  meantime,  however.  General  Shafter,  having  received 
confirmation  of  the  statement  that  General  Pando  with  6,000  men 
had  entered  Santiago,  and  realizing  the  strength  of  the  fortifications 
and  entrenchments  of  the  city  and  the  exhausted  condition  of  his 
own  troops  after  their  terrible  experiences  at  San  Juan  and  El  Caney, 
called  for  reinforcements,  and  immediate  steps  were  taken  by  the 
authorities  at  Washington  to  send  additional  troops  to  his  assist- 
ance. 

While  the  soldiers  lay  in  the  trenches  outside  Santiago  await- 
ing reinforcements  and  the  navy  still  remained  at  the  entrance  of 
the  harbor  ready  to  co-operate  with  them,  President  McKinley  is- 
sued on  July  6,  1898,  the  following  most  beautiful  proclamation, 
breathing  a  spirit  of  true  Christianity,  calling  upon  the  people  of  our 
nation  to  return  their  thanks  to  God  for  His  marvelous  care  of  our 
army  and  navy: 

To  the  People  of  the  United  States  of  America: 

At  this  time,  when  to  the  yet  fresh  remembrance  of  the  unprece- 
dented success  which  attended  the  operations  of  the  United  States  fleet 
in  the  bay  of  Manila  on  the  1st  day  of  May  last,  are  added  the  tidings  of 
the  no  less  glorious  achievements  of  the  naval  and  military  arms  of  our 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  61 

Moved  country  at  Santiago  de  Cuba,  it  is  fitting  that  we  should  pause, 
and,  staying  the  feeling  of  exultation  that  too  naturally  attends  great 
deeds  wrought  by  our  countrymen  in  our  countr3r's  cause,  should  rever- 
ently bow  before  the  throne  of  Divine  Grace  and  give  devout  praise  to 
God,  who  holdeth  the  nations  in  the  hollow  of  his  hands  and  worketh  upon 
them  the  marvels  of  His  high  will,  and  who  has  thus  far  vouchsafed  to  us 
the  light  of  his  face  and  led  our  brave  soldiers  and  seamen  to  victory. 

I  therefore  ask  the  people  of  the  United  States,  on  next  assembling 
ior  Divine  worship  in  their  respective  places  of  meeting,  to  offer  thanks- 
giving to  Almighty  God,  who  in  His  inscrutable  wa3rs,  now  leading  our 
hosts  upon  the  waters  to  unscathed  triumph,  now  guiding  them  in  a  strange 
land  through  the  dread  shadows  of  death  to  success,  even  though  at  a 
fearful  cost,  now  bearing  them  without  accident  or  loss  to  far  distant 
-climes,  has  watched  over  our  cause  and  brought  nearer  the  success  of  the 
right  and  the  attainment  of  just  and  honorable  peace. 

With  the  Nation's  thanks  let  there  be  mingled  the  Nation's  prayers 
that  our  gallant  sons  may  be  shielded  from  harm  alike  on  the  battlefields 
and  in  the  clash  of  fleets,  and  be  spared  the  scourge  of  suffering  and  dis- 
-ease  while  they  are  striving  to  uphold  their  country's  honor;  and  withal, 
let  the  Nation's  heart]  be  stilled  with  holy  awe  at  the  thought  of  the 
noble  men  who  have  perished  as  heroes  die,  and  be  filled  with  compas- 
idonate  sympathy  for  all  those  who  suffer  bereavement  or  endure  sickness, 
wounds,  and  bonds  by  reason  of  the  awful  struggle. 

And  above  all,  let  us  pray  with  earnest  fervor  that  He,  the  dispenser 
of  all  good,  may  speedily  remove  from  us  the  untold  afflictions  of  war  and 
bring  to  our  dear  land  the  blessings  of  restored  peace,  and  to  all  the 
domain  now  ravaged  by  the  cruel  strife,  the  priceless  boon  of  security 
and  tranquillity.  William  McKinlet, 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  D.  C,  July  6, 1898. 

On  July  7th  Lieut.  Hobson  and  his  brave  men  who  sank  the 
^*  Merrimac  "  in  the  mouth  of  Santiago  harbor,  were  exchanged  for  a 
Spanish  lieutenant  and  fifteen  men  who  had  been  captured  at  El 
Caney. 

Several  days  passed  before  the  reinforcements  could  arrive  at 
Santiago  and  the  truce  was  extended  from  time  to  time.  Oppor- 
tunity was  given  to  General  Toral,  in  command  of  the  Spanish 
forces,  to  communicate  with  the  Madrid  government,  and  telegraph 
operators  were  sent  to  him  from  the  American  lines  for  that  purpose. 

On  July  9th  General  Toral  offered  to  surrender  the  city  if  his 
troops  were  allowed  to  withdraw  with  their  arms.  This  was  refused 
ty  General  Shafter. 


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62  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

On  the  10th,  the  expected  reinforcements  arrived  at  Siboney 
and  were  rapidly  moved  to  the  front,  and  on  the  11th  General  Miles 
arrived  in  Cuba  and  conferred  with  General  Shafter  and  Admiral 
Sampson. 

Pending  the  arrival  of  additional  troops  General  Shafter  had 
greatly  strengthened  the  American  lines  around  Santiago.  Siege 
guns  and  mortar  batteries  had  been  placed  in  position  and  every 
preparation  made  to  bombard  the  city  if  the  Spanish  commander  re- 
fused to  surrender.  On  July  10th  and  11th  some  shells  were  thrown 
into  the  city  by  the  land  batteries  and  by  the  ships  outside  the  har- 
bor, but  before  long  the  bombardment  was  stopped. 

After  several  propositions  had  been  made  by  the  Spaniards  and 
rejected  by  the  American  government,  General  Toral  was  notified 
that  he  must  accept  the  terms  of  the  United  States  and  surrender 
or  negotiations  would  close  and  the  bombardment  of  the  city  com- 
mence. 

On  July  14th,  Santiago  surrendered.  The  terms  of  the  capitu- 
lation were  that  the  Spaniards  should  surrender  all  the  troops  in  the 
province  of  Santiago  de  Cuba,  which  includes  all  the  eastern  end  of 
the  island,  leaving  in  the  hands  of  the  Americans  all  their  arms  and 
munitions  of  war,  and  all  the  forts  and  defenses  of  the  city  to  be 
left  intact.  The  United  States  agreed  to  transport  the  troops  thus 
surrendered  back  to  Spain  at  the  expense  of  this  government. 

On  Sunday,  July  17th,  the  formal  surrender  was  made  and  the 
stars  and  stripes  were  hoisted  over  the  governor's  palace  in  Santiago. 
General  McKibben  was  appointed  temporary  military  governor. 

Following  is  the  report  made  by  General  Shafter  to  the  adju- 
tant-general at  Washington  on  the  day  of  the  formal  surrender: 

Santiago  db  Cuba,  July  17. 
"Adjutant-GeTieralf  United  States  Army,  Washington: 

"I  have  the  honor  to  announce  that  the  American  flag  has  been  this 
instant,  12  o'clock,  noon,  hoisted  over  the  house  of  the  civil  government, 
in  the  city  of  Santiago.  An  immense  concourse  of  people  present.  A 
squadron  of  cavalry  and  a  regiment  of  infantry  presented  arms  and  band 
playing  national  air.  Light  battery  fired  salute  of  twenty-one  guns. 
Perfect  order  is  being  maintained  by  municipal  government.  Distress  is 
very  great,  but  little  sickness  in  town.    Scarcely  any  yellow  fever. 

"A  small  gunboat  and  about  200  seamen  left  by  Cervera  have  sur- 
rendered to  me.  Obstructions  are  being  removed  from  the  mouth  of  harbor.. 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  63 

"Upon  coming  into  the  city  I  discovered  a  perfect  entanglement  of 
defenses.  Fighting  as  the  Spanish  did  the  first  day,  it  would  have  cost 
5,000  lives  to  have  taken  it. 

Battalions  of  Spanish  troops  have  been  depositing  arms  since  day- 
light in  onr  armory,  over  which  I  have  gnard.  General  Toral  formally 
surrendered  the  plaza  and  all  stores  at  9  a.  m. 

"W.  R.  Shaptee,  Major-General.'' 


Headquarters  United  States  Army,  Santiago, 

-  July  17th. 
"  To  AdjiUant-Generaly  United  States  Army,  Washington  : 

"My  ordnance  officers  report  about  7,000  rifles  turned  in  today  and 
600,000  cartridges.  At  the  mouth  of  the  harbor  there  are  quite  a  num- 
ber of  fine  modem  guns,  together  with  a  saluting  battery  of  fifteen  old 
bronze  guns.  Disarming  and  turning  in  will  go  on  tomorrow.  List  of 
prisoners  not  yet  taken.        Shafter,  Major-General  Commanding." 

On  July  18th  a  state  document  was  issued  by  direction  of  Presi- 
dent McKinley  providing  for  the  government  of  the  province  of  San- 
tiago de  Cuba.  It  announces  the  assumption  of  the  government  of 
the  province  by  a  new  political  power,  and  guarantees  to  the  people 
of  the  territory  affected  absolute  security  in  the  exercise  of  their 
rights. 

It  is  the  first  docmnent  of  the  kind  ever  issued  by  a  President 
of  the  United  States,  and  marks  a  new  epoch  in  American  history. 
Following  is  a  full  text  of  the  document : 

Adjutant  General's  Oppicb,  Washington,  D.  C, 

July  18, 1898. 
^'General  ShafteTy  Santiago,  Cuba  : 

"The  following  is  sent  you  for  your  information  and  guidance.  It 
will  be  published  in  such  a  manner  in  both  English  and  Spanish  as  will 
give  it  the  widest  circulation  in  the  territory  under  your  control : 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  D.  C, 
July  18, 1898. 
"  To  the  Secretary  of  War: 

Sir: — ^The  capitulation  of  the  Spanish  forces  in  Santiago  de  Cuba  and 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Province  of  Santiago  and  the  occupation  of  the 
territory  by  the  forces  of  the  United  States,  render  it  necessary  to  in- 
struct the  military  commander  of  the  United  States  as  to  the  conduct 
which  he  is  to  observe  during  military  occupation. 


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64  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

The  first  effect  of  the  military  occupation  of  the  enemy's  territory  is 
the  severance  of  the  former  political  relations  of  the  inhabitants  and  the 
establishment  of  a  new  political  power. 

In  this  changed  condition  of  things,  the  inhabitants,  so  long  as  they 
perform  their  duties,  are  entitled  to  security  in  their  persons  and  property 
and  in  all  the  private  right  and  relations.  It  is  my  desire  that  the  inhab- 
itants of  Cuba  should  be  acquainted  with  the  purpose  of  the  United  States 
to  discharge  to  the  fullest  extent  its  obligations  in  this  regard.  It  will 
therefore  be  the  duty  of  the  commander  of  the  army  of  occupation  to  an- 
nounce and  proclaim  in  the  most  public  manner  that  we  come  not  to  make 
war  upon  the  inhabitants  of  Cuba,  nor  upon  any  party  or  faction  among 
them,  but  to  protect  them  in  their  homes,  in  their  employments,  and  in 
their  personal  and  religious  rights.  All  persons  who  either  by  active  aid 
or  by  honest  submission,  co-operate  with  the  United  States  in  its  efforts 
to  give  effect  to  this  beneficent  purpose  will  receive  the  reward  of  its  sup- 
port and  protection.  Our  occupation  should  be  as  free  from  severity  as 
possible. 

Though  the  powers  of  the  military  occupation  are  absolute  and 
supreme  and  immediately  operate  upon  the  political  condition  of  the  in- 
habitants, the  municipal  laws  of  the  conquered  territory,  such  as  affect 
private  rights  of  person  and  property,  and  provide  for  the  punishment  of 
crime,  are  considered  as  continuing  in  force,  so  far  as  they  are  compatible 
with  the  new  order  of  things,  until  they  are  suspended  or  superseded  by 
the  occupying  belligerent,  and  in  practice,  they  are  not  usually  abrogated, 
but  are  allowed  to  remain  in  force,  and  to  be  administered  by  the  ordinary 
tribunals,  substantially  as  they  were  before  the  occupation.  This  en- 
lightened practice  is,  so  far  as  possible,  to  be  adhered  to  on  the  present 
occasion.  The  judges  and  other  officials  connected  with  the  administra- 
tion of  justice  may,  if  they  accept  the  supremacy  of  the  United  States, 
continue  to  administer  the  ordinary  law  of  the  land,  as  between  man  and 
man,  under  the  supervision  of  the  American  commander-in-chief.  The 
native  constabulary  will,  so  far  as  may  be  practicable,  be  preserved. 

The  freedom  of  the  people  to  pursue  their  accustomed  occupations  will 
be  abridged  only  when  it  may  be  necessary  to  do  so. 

While  the  rule  of  conduct  of  the  American  commander-in-chief  will 
be  such  as  has  just  been  defined,  it  will  be  his  duty  to  adopt  measures  of 
a  different  kind,  if,  unfortunately,  the  course  of  the  people  should  render 
such  measures  indispensable  to  the  maintenance  of  law  and  order.  He  will 
then  possess  the  power  to  replace  or  expel  the  native  officials,  in  part  or 
altogether,  to  substitute  new  courts  of  his  own  construction  for  those  that 
now  exist,  or  to  create  such  new  or  supplementary  tribunals  as  may  be 
necessary.    In  the  exercise  of  these  high  powers  the  commander  must  be 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  65 

guided  by  his  judgment  and  his  experience,  and  a  high  sense  of  justice. 

One  of  the  most  important  and  most  practical  problems  with  which  it 
will  be  necessary  to  deal  is  that  of  the  treatment  of  the  property  and  the 
collection  and  administration  of  the  revenues.  It  is  conceded  all  public 
funds  and  securities  belonging  to  the  government  of  the  country  in  its 
own  right,  and  all  arms  and  supplies  and  other  moveable  property  of  such 
kind  may  be  seized  by  the  military  occupant  and  converted  to  his  own 
use.  The  real  property  of  the  state  he  may  hold  and  administer,  at  the 
same  time  enjoying  the  revenues  thereof,  but  he  is  not  to  destroy  it  save 
in  the  case  of  military  necessity. 

All  public  means  of  transportation,  such  as  telegraph  lines,  cables, 
railways  and  boats  belonging  to  the  State  may  be  appropriated  to  his  use, 
but  unless  in  case  of  military  necessity,  they  are  not  to  be  destroyed.  All 
churches  and  buildings  devoted  to  religious  worship  and  to  the  arts  and 
sciences,  all  schoolhouses,  are,  so  far  as  possible,  to  be  protected,  and  all 
destruction  or  intentional  defacement  of  such  places,  of  historical  monu- 
ments or  archives,  or  of  works  of  science  or  art,  is  prohibited,  save  when 
required  by  urgent  military  necessity. 

Private  property,  whether  belonging  to  individuals  or  corporations, 
is  to  be  respected  and  can  be  confiscated  only  as  hereafter  indicated. 
Means  of  transportation,  such  as  telegraph  lines  and  cables,  railways  and 
boats,  may,  although  they  belong  to  private  individuals  or  corporations, 
be  seized  by  the  military  occupant,  but  unless  destroyed  under  military 
necessity  are  not  to  be  retained. 

While  it  is  held  to  be  the  right  of  the  conqueror  to  levy  contributions 
upon  the  enemy  in  their  seaports,  towns,  or  provinces  which  may  be  in  his 
military  possession  by  conquest,  and  to  apply  the  proceeds  to  defray  the 
expense  of  the  war,  this  right  is  to  be  exercised  within  such  limitations 
that  may  not  savor  of  confiscation.  As  the  result  of  military  occupation 
the  taxes  and  duties  payable  by  the  inhabitants  to  the  former  govern- 
ment become  payable  to  the  military  occupant  unless  he  sees  fit  to  sub- 
stitute for  them  other  rates  or  modes  of  contribution  to  the  expenses  of 
the  government. 

The  moneys  so  collected  are  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the 
expenses  of  government  under  the  military  occupation,  such  as  the  salaries 
of  the  judges  and  the  police  and  for  the  payment  of  the  expenses  of  the 
army. 

Private  property  taken  for  the  use  of  the  army  is  to  be  paid  for  when 
possible  in  cash  at  a  fair  valuation,  and  when  payment  in  cash  is  not  pos- 
sible, receipts  are  to  be  given. 

All  ports  and  places  in  Cuba  which  may  be  in  the  actual  possession 


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66  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

of  our  land  and  naval  forces  will  be  opened  to  the  commerce  of  all  neutral 
nations,  as  well  as  our  own,  in  articles  not  contraband  of  war,  upon  pay- 
ment of  the  prescribed  rates  of  duty  which  may  be  in  force  at  the  time 
of  the  importation.  William  MgKinley. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War. 

H.  C.  CJoRBiN,  Adjutant-General. 

On  July  20th  the  United  States  government  awarded  the  con- 
tract for  transporting  the  Spanish  prisoners  to  Spain,  to  the  Spanish 
Trans-Atlantic  Company.  The  total  cost  of  the  movement  of  these 
prisoners  is  estimated  at  about  $550,000. 

Here  is  a  sight  never  before  witnessed  in  the  world.  A  nation 
having  entered  upon  a  war  for  no  other  purpose  than  to  bring  free- 
dom to  an  oppressed  people,  after  having  been  victorious  in  every 
engagement  on  land  or  sea,  transporting  the  prisoners  taken  from 
the  enemy,  thousands  of  miles  to  their  native  land  and  hiring  the 
ships  of  the  conquered  foe  in  which  to  carry  them.  And  thus  at  every 
step  in  this  remarkable  war  new  lustre  is  added  to  our  great  nation, 
not  so  much  by  its  victories  in  the  field  and  pn  the  ocean,  as  by  its 
wonderful  magnanimity  and  exhibition  of  high  and  noble  purpose. 


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EDITOR^S  TABLR 


LONG  LIVE  THE  PROPHET. 


"The  King  is  dead— long  live  the  King!" 

The  Prophet  is  dead — ^long  live  the  Prophet! 

The  former  of  these  exclamations  is  the  cry  and  response  that 
goes  through  the  land  when  a  British  monarch  dies.  "The  king  is 
dead!"  and  the  response  that  immediately  follows,  "Long  live  the 
king!"  is  to  give  tlie  assurance  that  the  succeeding  ruler  has  taken 
his  place,  that  the  succession  is  immediate,  instant,  that  for  no  one 
moment  is  England  without  a  constitutional  ruler. 

It  is  thought  by  those  who  favor  the  monarchial  form  of  gov- 
ernment, to  be  an  excellent  feature  of  the  British  constitution,  this 
instant  succession  of  the  kings  of  the  nation.  It  gives  no  oppor- 
tunity for  usurpers  to  seize  the  throne,  and  allows  no  interregnum  in 
which  factions  and  claimants  may  arise.  No  doubts  exist  in  the 
minds  of  the  subjects  as  to  the  succession.  It  is  all  pre-arranged, 
governed  by  well  established  law  which  the  subjects  understand  as 
well  as  the  rulers,  and  the  nation  glides  from  the  one  administra- 
tion to  another  without  friction,  without  halting;  and  doubtless 
among  the  few  things  that  can  be  said  for  monarchial  government 
this  is  one  of  the  best. 

But  why  say,  "The  Prophet  is  dead — long  live  the  Prophet?" 

Because  the  succession  in  the  prophetic  office,  and  presidency 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  is  just  as  fan- 
mediate,  just  as  well  assured  as  it  is  in  the  kingdom  of  Great 
Britain.    The  Prophet  is  dead;  but  there  is  not  an  instant  that  the 


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68  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Church  is  without  a  prophet;  for  no  sooner  does  the  Prophet-Preei- 
dent  take  his  departure,  than  his  mantle  falls  upon  the  shoulders 
of  his  successor.  There  is  not  a  single  moment,  when  the  Church 
is  regularly  organized,  that  the  Lord  does  not  have  open  the  author- 
itative channel  through  which  to  communicate  His  will  to  the  body 
religious. 

In  the  Church  the  Lord  has  provided  that,  ''Of  the  Melchisedek 
Priesthood,  three  Presiding  High  Priests,  chosen  by  the  body,  ap- 
pointed and  ordained  to  that  office,  and  upheld  by  the  confidence, 
faith,  and  prayer  of  the  church,  form  a  quorum  of  the  Presidency 
of  the  Church." 

And  after  them,  ''The  Twelve  Counselors  are  called  to  be  the 
Twelve  Apostles,  or  special  witnesses  of  the  name  of  Christ  in  all 
the  world.  ♦  ♦  ♦  ♦  And  they  form  a  quorum  equal  in  author- 
ity to  the  three  presidents  previously  mentioned." 

And  then  again,  "The  seventy  are  also  called  to  preach  the 
Gospel,  and  to  be  especial  witnesses  to  the  Gentiles  and  in  all  the 
world.  ♦  ♦  ♦  ♦  And  they  form  a  quorum  equal  in  authority 
to  the  Twelve  Special  Witnesses  or  Apostles  just  named." 

Since  the  authority  and  power  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  is  equal 
to  the  authority  and  power  of  the  First  Presidency,  it  must  follow 
that  anything  which  the  First  Presidency  could  have  done  when  in 
existence  can  be  done  by  the  Quorum  of  Twelve  Apostles;  and  hence 
they  can  preside  over  the  Church;  and  as  the  senior  member  of 
that  council  is  always  the  president  of  the  Quorum,  it  follows  that 
so  long  as  the  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  are  acting  as  the  Presidency 
of  the  Church,  he  stands  at  their  head  and  is  God's  mouth-piece  to 
the  Church,  and  through  him  will  be  communicated  the  mind  and 
will  of  God  to  the  people;  for  he  is  the  Prophet  and  Seer  and  Rev- 
elator  to  the  Church,  and  whenever  the  First  Presidency  is  to  be 
re-established  it  will  be  through  him  that  the  will  of  the  Lord  will 
be  made  known,  and  God's  prophet  and  mouth-piece  and  president 
of  the  Church  chosen. 

This  beautiful  arrangement,  now  so  well  known  in  Israel,  pro- 
vides against  all  confusion;  protects  the  Saints  against  all  liability 
of  being  deceived;  gives  no  opportunity  to  usurpers;  no  occasion 
for  factions;  no  disturbance  of  the  tranquillity  of  the  Church;  and 
at  the  same  time  it  makes  the  succession  of  our  prophets  instant. 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  69 

Hence  it  comes*  to  pass  that  President  Lorenzo  Snow,  to  the 
joy  of  all  the  Saints,  chosen  by  the  Apostles  at  their  special  meet- 
ing on  the  13th  of  September  to  be  the  President  of  the  Ghnrch, 
and  sustained  in  that  position  by  the  Saints  in  general  conference 
of  the  CHiurch  on  the  9th  of  October,  glides  into  his  position  without 
confusion,  without  excitement,  without  a  doubt  as  to  the  legality 
of  his  succession,  and  around  him  gather  the  Saints  with  their  hearts 
full  of  love  and  confidence  and  knowledge  that  he  is  the  prophet 
of  the  living  God.  And  while  we  remember  with  a  sweet  sorrow 
the  departure  of  the  late  beloved  president,  Wilf ord  Woodruff,  we 
turn  to  his  successor  and  with  joy  imspeakable  say,  ''Long live  the 
Prophet." 


This  number  commences  Volume  n.  of  the  Improvement  Era. 
In  publishing  Volume  I.,  great  success  has  attended  the  efforts  of 
the  General  Board.  The  enterprise  has  been  successful  financially, 
and  from  the  liberal  patronage  and  praise  bestowed  upon  the  Era, 
we  are  led  to  believe  that  it  has  been  equally  successful  in  obtain- 
ing a  literary  standing.  That  it  has  been  a  means  of  great  assist- 
ance to  the  oflScers  of  the  Improvement  Associations  we  have  abun- 
dance of  evidence.  Stake  superintendents  and  presidents  of  associ- 
atioiis  in  all  parts  of  Zion  have  expressed  their  appreciation  of  the 
help  it  has  been  to  them  in  that  it  has  been  a  medium  through  which 
they  have  received  instruction  from  the  General  Superintendency 
and  Board  of  Aids;  while  the  literature  it  has  contained  has  been 
of  immense  value  both  to  the  young  men  of  Zion  at  home  and  the 
Elders  who  are  traveling  and  preaching  the  Gospel  abroad.  All  this 
is  especially  gratifying  to  the  editors  and  managers,  and  leads  them 
to  form  a  determination  that  for  the  future  the  organ  of  the  Young 
Men's  Associations  shall  be  made  to  contribute  more  and  more  to 
the  welfare  of  this  institution.  It  will  be  made  more  and  still  more 
indispensable  to  the  officers  of  associations,  until  it  shall  come  to 
be  recognized  as  impossible  to  successfully  conduct  association  work 
and  keep  in  touch  with  the  development  of  it  without  being  in  pos- 
session of  the  information  and  counsel  and  instruction  to  be  found 
from  time  to  time  in  its  pages;  while  the  scope  and  quality  of  the 


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70  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

literature  it  shall  publish  will  make  it  a  magazine  of  general  inter- 
est to  all  people. 

In  Volume  I.,  by  a  series  of  special  articles,  the  Era  became 
noted  as  a  magazine  that  kept  abreast  with  the  times.  These  arti- 
cles included  a  consideration  of  the  annexation  of  the  Hawaiian 
Islands,  written  by  Professor  Quff  as  the  result  of  his  visiting  the 
islands  and  holding  a  series  of  meetings  with  the  natives  of  that 
country;  ascertaining  their  views  concerning  the  annexation  of 
Hawaii  to  the  United  States.  The  condition  of  affairs  in  war-swept 
Cuba  was  described  by  Congressman  King,  who  personally  visited  the 
island  previous  to  the  American  declaration  of  war.  The  death  of 
the  great  English  Statesman  furnished  the  occasion  of  an  extended 
biographical  sketch  of  William  Ewart  Gladstone  by  Bishop  Whit- 
ney; the  death  of  Bismarck  afforded  a  like  opportunity  to  Professor 
J.  M.  Tanner  to  write  up  a  biographical  sketch  of  this  first  states- 
man of  Europe  and  the  nineteenth  century;  the  death  of  President 
Woodruff  also  afforded  the  occasion  for  the  official  biographical 
sketch  of  him,  which  appeared  in  No.  12  of  the  first  volume,  writ- 
ten by  the  historian  of  the  Church,  Elder  Franklin  D.  Richards. 
These  special  articles,  together  with  the  chapters  on  the  progress 
of  the  American-Spanish  war,  have  given  to  the  Era  the  character 
for  keeping  abreast  of  the  great  events  of  the  time,  above  referred 
to,  a  character  that  will  be  maintained  and  intensified  during  the 
years  that  are  to  come. 

What  special  events  will  transpire  in  the  present  year  to  make 
the  pages  of  the  magazine  of  intense  interest,  we  cannot  now,  of 
course,  determine;  but  our  readers  may  be  assured  that  whatever 
great  events  take  place,  the  Era  will  have  special  articles  in  rela- 
tion to  them.  We  will  make  our  magazine  a  reliable  depository  of 
great  current  questions  and  events  such  as  will  make  it  for  all  time 
to  come  a  valuable  work  of  reference  in  the  libraries  of  our  young 
men. 

The  prospects  now  opening  before  the  Improvement  Era  for 
becoming  a  first-class  magazine  are  much  improved  over  what  they 
were  a  year  ago.  And  it  is  safe  to  say  that  they  will  increase  from 
year  to  year  until  the  organ  of  the  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Associations  of  Zion  will  be  truly  representative  of  our  young 
men  both  at  home  and  abroad,  where  we  are  assured  that  through 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  71 

the  agency  of  our  missionaries  the  magazine  will  be  extensively 
known.  If  men  are  known  by  the  company  they  keep,  so  also  are 
they  known  by  the  books  they  read;  which  after  all  are  in  a  man- 
ner our  companions,  and  none  the  less  really  so  because  they  hap- 
pen to  be  silent  companions.  It  is  our  ambition  that  so  far  as  the 
young  men  of  Zion  are  to  be  known  by  the  Era,  which  is  theirs, 
they  shall  be  favorably  known  as  having  a  relish  for  good  and  sub- 
stantial reading  upon  great  and  important  questions;  known  for 
having  sound  minds,  and  while  not  adverse  to  wholesome  light  liter- 
ature and  pure  fun;  yet  as  earnest  men  they  are  interested  in  the 
consideration  of  serious  matters.  Such  is  to  be,  so  far  as  we  can 
forecast  it,  the  character  of  the  second  volume  of  this  magazine, 
for  such  is  the  character  of  the  magazine  which  we  believe  will 
contribute  most  to  the  improvement  of  our  young  men. 


There  is  quite  a  demand  from  various  classes  and  organiza- 
tions'outside  of  the  Improvement  Associations,  for  last  year's  Man- 
ual. If  any  of  the  members  of  the  associations  have  copies  in  good 
condition,  which  they  wish  to  dispose  of,  they  will  please  notify 
Brother  Thomas  Hull,  the  general  secretary. 


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NOTES. 


A  man  with  an  open  mind  can  never  become  narrow  and  rigid, 
for  he  has  within  him  the  principle  of  growth.  He  is  like  a  plant, 
rejoicing  in  the  invigorating  influences  of  fresh  air,  sunshine,  and 
dew,  developing  healthfully  and  shedding  its  beauty  and  fragrance 
on  all  around.  His  education  is  never  ended,  for  he  is  eagerly 
learning  from  every  source,  and  using  all  possible  opportunities  of 
gathering  knowledge.  The  views  he  has  formed  and  the  truths 
he  has  embraced  are  never  held  with  that  narrow  tenacity  which 
holds  them  back  from  all  frank  and  free  discussion.  He  is  not 
afraid  of  putting  them  to  any  test,  assured  that,  if  they  are  true, 
they  will  stand  the  trial,  and,  if  not,  he  can  no  longer  uphold  them. 

One  of  the  most  important  items  in  health-culture  is  to  keep 
the  lungs  and  heart  in  good  condition.  It  is  possible  to  breathe 
sufficient  air  to  so  oxygenate  the  blood  that  it  will  consume  the 
waste  and  poisonous  matters  of  the  system,  as  fire  bums  up  chaff 
or  tinder.  People  who  feel  dull,  heavy,  stupid,  unwilling  to  exert 
themselves,  indeed  often  unable  to  do  so,  will  find  that  a  regular 
course  of  breathing  exercises  .will  be  of  more  benefit  to  them  than 
all  the  medicine  in  creation.  There  are  many  times  when  the' use 
of  medicines  merely  aggravates  the  existing  ill.  It  is  simply  a 
further  accumulation  of  undesirable  material  that  must  be  carried 
about  until  nature  is  assisted  to  cast  it  out  or  bum  it  up. 

Intelligence  is  never  afraid  to  face  any  tmth,  knowing  that 
each  one  has  a  message  for  those  who  will  heed  it.  The  entire 
past,  whether  that  of  individual  or  of  nations,  with  its  mingled 
stores  of  good  and  evil,  may  be  so  read  and  studied  as  to  draw 
forth  unmixed  blessings  for  the  future.    It  is  this  purpose,  held 


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NOTES.  73 

closely  in  view,  that  enables  us  to  dwell  for  a  time  upon  the  dark 
passages  of  our  lives  without  despair  or  hopelessness.  If,  instead 
of  indulging  in  vain  lamentation,  which  of  itself  is  only  paralyz- 
ing, we  examine  its  sources,  thoughtfully  analyzing  their  nature 
and  their  effects,  and  distinguishing  between  actions  and  inten- 
tions, we  shall  be  able  so  to  apply  the  results  to  our  present  life 
and  conduct  as.  to  produce  hope  and  effort  and  progress  from  what 
at  first  sight  seemed  to  offer  only  regret  and  self-censure. 

A  pretty  story  is  told  at  Hawarden  regarding  Mr.  Gladstone's 
interest  in  young  men.  Some  time  ago  an  aged  charwoman  at 
Hawarden  Castle  had  a  refractory  son,  who  had  long  given  her 
great  trouble.  In  her  desperation  she  begged  to  be  permitted  to 
see  Hr.  Gladstone.  She  poured  her  tale  of  sorrow  into  the  ears  of 
the  venerable  statesman,  who,  after  sympathizing  with  her,  sent  a 
special  messenger  in. pursuit  of  the  youth,  and  he  was  brought 
to  Hawarden  Castle  and  placed  in  the  library.  There  Hr.  Glad- 
stone had  a  long,  quiet  talk  with  him,  pointing  out  the  path  of 
rectitude  and  melting  him  to  tears.  The  youth  rose  to  go,  where- 
upon Mr.  Gladstone,  placing  his  hand  on  his  shoulder,  said:  ''We 
must  have  a  word  of  prayer."  The  venerable  gentleman  and  the 
rebellious  youth  knelt  together  in  prayer,  with  the  result  that  the 
mother's  heart  was  rejoiced  in  the  complete  reclamation  of  her 
son. 

An  English  journal  thus  comments  on  the  injurious  effects  of 
anger:  Anger  serves  the  unhappy  mortal  who  indulges  in  it,  much 
the  same  as  intoxicants  constantly  taken,  serve  the  inebriate.  It 
grows  into  a  sort  of  disease  which  has  various  and  terrible 
results.  Sir  Richard  Quain  said,  not  long  ago:  ''He  is  a  man  very 
rich  indeed  in  physical  power,  who  can  afford  to  be  angry."  This 
is  true.  Every  time  a  man  becomes  "white"  or  "red"  with  anger, 
he  is  in  danger  of  his  life.  The  heart  and  brain  are  the  organs 
most  affected  when  fits  of  passion  are  indulged  in.  Not  only  does 
anger  cause  partial  paralysis  of  the  small  blood  vessels,  but  the 
heart's  action  becomes  intermittent;  that  is,  every  now  and  then  it 
drops  a  beat — much  the  same  thing  as  is  experienced  by  excessive 
smokers. 


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74  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

There  are  some  people  in  the  United  States  who  have  not  been 
infected  with  the  recent  war-craze,  and  have  some  respect  for  human 
life,  only  too  sadly  cheapened  in  times  like  these.  In  New  York 
State,  a  laudable  effort  is  being  made  to  stem  the  thirst  for  blood, 
incited  in  the  young  by  inflanmiatory  appeals  to  a  sometimes  ques- 
tionable patriotism,  which,  unheeding  of  its  horrors,  deifies  war  and 
sighs  for  the  crimson  glory  of  battlefields.  The  anti-war  move- 
ment expresses  itself  by  the  offer  of  prizes  to  school  children  for  the 
best  essays  treating  war  as  an  evil,  and  looking  to  international 
arbitration  as  a  humane  substitute.  The  theme  set  with  its  divi- 
sions, is  as  follows: 

"Would  not  the  highest  development  of  human  thought  be  shown  to 
be  a  strong  argument  for  the  abolition  of  war?  (a)  Natural  causes  of 
war;  (b)The  inhumanity  of  war;  (c)  The  cost  and  waste  of  war;  (d)  A 
remedy — ^a  board  of  arbitration  between  nations."  Motto — "  Patriotism 
is  not  at  its  highest  when  a  man  says,  'I  will  diQ  for  my  country,*'  it  is  at 
its  highest  when  he  says,  *  I  will  live  nobly  for  my  country.' " 

The  movement  is  one  which  promises  to  spread  throughout  the 
country,  resulting  in  the  suppression  of  extreme  "jingoism"  in  the 
minds  of  the  young  people,  and  the  establishment  of  more  humane 
sentiments. 


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IN  LIGHTER  MOOa 


The  Reverend  T.  DeWitt  Talmage  has  a  keen  sense  of  humor, 
and  his  jokes  are  as  likely  to  be  directed  against  friends  as  enemies. 
His  son  Frank,  attempting  to  emulate  his  father's  greatness,  became 
a  minister  and  went  to  Chicago  to  officiate.  The  following  incident 
may  afford  a  hint  of  the  famous  preacher's  estimate  of  his  son's 
abflity: 

One  day  a  dirty,  ragged,  unkempt  beggar  approached  Dr.  Tal- 
mage and  asked  for  alms.  Being  a  believer  in  the  principle  of  self- 
support,  however,  the  clergyman  steadily  refused  to  respond.  The 
beggar  saw  that  a  strong  appeal  was  necessary,  and  he  made  it. 

"  But,  Mr.  Talmage,"  said  he,  "I  am  one  of  your  son's  converts." 

With  shrewd,  twinkling  eyes,  Mr.  Talmage  looked  the  fellow 
over  from  head  to  foot,  and  remarked  with  a  quizzical  grin: 

"Well,  you  look  like  one  of  Prank's  jobs." 

Irish  bulls  are  always  new,  no  matter  how  old.  All  our  readers 
have  no  doubt  heard  of  the  son  of  the  "ould  sod"  who  declared  that 
in  England  the  tops  of  some  of  the  houses  are  "copper-bottomed 
wid  lead."  Another  remarked  that  nothing  on  this  earth  could 
make  him  sea-sick;  but  that  must  have  been  before  railways  were 
known.  Not  exactly  an  Irish  bull,  but  a  characteristic  Irish  descrip- 
tion follows:  An  elephant  had  broken  loose  from  a  traveling  circus, 
and  one  of  the  employes  asked  an  Irish  farm-hand  if  he  had  seen 
the  animal.  "Nary  an  iliphant  have  I  seen,"  he  replied,  %ut  be 
the  powers,  I  saw  an  india-rubber  bull  pullin'  turnips  wid  his  tail!" 
One  man  had  been  told  something  which  he  particularly  wished  to 
remember.  Said  he,  "FU  remember  it  forever,  and  when  I  forget 
it  m  write  it  down." 


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OUR  WORK- 


A  CORRESPONDENCE  BUREAU  PROPOSED. 


Some  time  ago  the  editors  of  the  Era  received  the  following  com- 
mnnication.  It  treats  of  a  very  important  matter,  and  we  think  is 
worthy  of  serions  consideration  by  the  associations,  to  whom  we  com- 
mend it.  Furthermore,  we  solicit  suggestions  of  this  character  from  the 
readers  of  our  magazine;  and  we  say  if  you  have  ideas  relative  to  any 
work  which  could  in  your  judgment  be  undertaken  by  our  associations, 
by  all  means  let  us  hear  from  you. 


Dear  Brother: — Hoping  I  do  not  intrude  too  much  upon  your  valu- 
able time,  I  take  the  liberty  of  laying  before  you  a  little  matter  which 
I  ask  you  to  consider  as  to  its  merits  and  advisability.  You  in  your  posi- 
tion as  editor  of  the  organ  of  the  Young  Men's  Associations  are  no 
doubt  taken  up  with  measures  that  concern  the  welfare  of  that  organi- 
zation, and  it  is  in  considering  this  that  I  think  it  pertinent  to  lay  before 
you  this  subject,  which  I  have  for  some  time  contemplated.  It  is  a 
feature  of  M.  I.  work  which,  from  my  view  at  least,  would  prove  to  be 
of  value  to  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  were  it  incorporated  with  that  valuable 
organization. 

First,  I  may  begin  by  referring  to  a  commendable  feature  of  the 
press  in  general  in  devoting  columns  for  the  correspondence  and  use  of 
the  readers;  thus  opening  up  a  medium  through  which  people  may  dis- 
cuss topics,  and  exchange  ideas  and  opinions;  recount  the  natural  re- 
sources and  physical  advantages  of  their  respective  localities,  etc. 

Now,  one  characteristic  that  impresses  me  is  that  in  the  periodicals 
that  occasionally  come  under  my  notice,  I  scarcely  ever  see  any  correa- 


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OUR  WORK.  77 

pondence  from  this  State,  while  the  majority  of  other  states  are  repre- 
sented. The  reason  of  this  may  be  that,  as  the  press  in  the  past  has 
been  inclined  to  misjudge  ns — that  is  the  Latter-day  Saints — ^we  have 
bad  to  be  silent  with  respect  to  writing  in  our  papers;  but  Utah's  advent 
into  the  new  sphere  of  statehood,  and  the  course  of  other  events  have 
had  a  tendency  to  obliterate  this  indiff^ence,  and  as  a  result  an  era 
is  now  dawning  in  which  we  are  receiving  a  more  liberal  share  of  the 
editors'  good  will.  No  doubt  they  would  now  publish  letters  relative  to 
the  interests  of  this  State  with  as  much  readiness  as  they  publish  com- 
munications from  other  parts  of  the  Union. 

Considering  this  apparent  neglect  on  the  part  of  Utah  writers,  we 
will  all  agree  and  think  it  proper  that  something  be  done  to  impress  the 
people — the  young  people  in  particular — ^with  the  importance  of  this 
matter  of  correspondence.  This  opportunity  of  writing  to  the  press  is 
an  avenue  that  can  be  utilized  to  a  great  extent  in  removing  the  prevalent 
prejudice,  and  in  inculcating  a  desire  among  readers  in  the  world  to  in- 
vestigate our  "strange"  faith. 

To  my  mind,  an  interest  in  this  direction  and  a  use  of  this  avenue 
can  best  be  effected  by  establishing  in  the  Young  Men's  Association  a 
bureau  or  department  for  the  purpose  of  fostering  and  conducting  cor- 
respondence with  the  press,  and  subsequently  writing  to  the  individuals 
who  may  respond  to  the  original  press  letter,  and  also  of  diffusing  tracts 
and  Church  literature  through  the  mails. 

This  feature  would  supply  the  need  for  more  practical  work  in  our 
association.  It  would  develop  an  increased  desire  in  members  to  read 
Gospel  literature  with  a  view  to  acquire  a  more  comprehensive  knowledge 
of  our  doctrine  so  as  to  be  able  to  conduct  a  creditable  correspondence; 
it  would  stimulate  more  ardent  sentiments  favorable  to  the  establishment 
of  libraries.  But  the  most  important  feature  as  a  consequence  of  this 
new  departure,  would  be  the  abating  and  lessening  of  the  bias  and  preju- 
dice in  the  world  as  a  result  of  the  letters  disseminated  through  the  press, 
and  later  the  correct  exposition  of  our  doctrine  to  individual  investiga- 
tors, in  the  subsequent  personal  correspondence  that  would  ensue. 

A  pertinent  objection  might  be  raised  on  the  grounds  that  attention 
to  this  matter  would  prove  more  experimental  than  practical.  A  friend 
of  mine,  together  with  myself,  had  some  little  experience  that  I  think 
would  tend  rather  to  counteract  the  objection,  and  warrant  my  view  as 
here  expressed. 

Some  months  ago  we  wrote  a  short  article  to  an  eastern  periodical 
in  which  we  referred  to  some  of  the  characteristics  of  this  country;  re- 
ferred to  the  moral  situation  of  the  people;  made  some  mention  of  our 


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78  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

faith,  and  closed  by  expressing  a  wish  to  correspond  with  readers  on 
questions  relative  to  religion.  The  missive  elicited  some  six  responses 
from  different  persons,  who  avowed  a  wish  to  learn  onr  real  faith,  some 
inquiring  about  the  truth  or  falsity  of  certain  absurdities;  others  more 
informed  pointing  out  apparent  strange  doctrines  and  asking  for  Biblical 
passages  to  substantiate  our  views,  etc.  I  may  here  add  that  these  en- 
quirers in  every  case,  I  think,  had  never  had  a  meeting  with  an  Elder 
of  our  Church.  So  far,  I  believe,  we  have  defended  and  elucidated  fairly 
well  our  Gospel  principles,  and  eliminated  to  some  extent  the  false  im- 
pressions that  some  have  had  of  us.  We  have  also  mailed  correspond- 
ents above  referred  to,  tracts  and  books,  which,  upon  being  read,  are 
forwarded  from  one  person  to  another. 

I  may  add  that  I  believe  the  enquirers  had  good  motives  in  their 
soliciting  information.  One  of  them  is  a  contributor  to  a  religious 
monthly,  while  another  is  connected  with  the  profession  of  school  teach- 
ing. 

Considering  the  little  that  this  effort  effected  for  the  sake  of  the 
Gospel,  it  appears  to  me  that  the  efforts  of  the  young  men  in  general, 
throughout  Zion,  would  be  of  incalculable  value  in  the  promulgation  of 
the  Gospel  if  they  would  give  it  their  attention.  My  opinion  is  that  the 
young  men  of  the  association  would  be  enthusiastic  in  the  move  of  in- 
corporating the  corresponding  bureau,  above  proposed,  with  their  work. 
There  is  in  correspondence  a  certain  fascination,  particularly  when  it 
comes  to  a  discussion  of  Gospel  principles,  which  I  think  will  imbue 
members  in  general  with  a  desire  to  attempt  writing. 

The  systematizing  of  this  plan  of  correspondence  upon  a  practical 
basis  would  perhaps  involve  work  for  a  time  upon  some  committee,  but 
when  accomplished  it  would  certainly  be  a  feature  to  be  commended;  an 
excellent  school  for  association  members,  as  well  as  helping  in  the  Latter- 
day  work  of  preaching  to  "every  kindred,  tongue,  and  people"  the  Gospel 
of  Jesus  Christ. 

Yours  very  respectfully, 

Peter  Sundwall,  Jr. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH. 

BY  THOMAS  HULL,  SECRETARY  OF  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF  Y.  M.  M.  L  A. 


September  ISth:  Miss  Winnie  Davis,  daughter  of  Jefferson  Davis, 
and  known  as  the  "Daughter  of  the  CJonf ederacy, "  dies  at  Narragansett, 
Rhode  Island. 

19th:  The  war  department  orders  reinforcements  to  Manila  and  an 
order  is  issued  directing  that  6,500  men  lying  at  San  Francisco  be  sent 
at  once.  *  *  *  Dispatches  from  Manila  state  that  it  is  asserted 
there  that  an  attempt  was  made  on  the  1 6th  instant  to  assassinate  the 
insurgent  leader,  Aguinaldo,  by  poisoning  soup  intended  for  him.  The 
plot  was  discovered  by  a  steward,  who  upon  tasting  the  soup  fell  dead. 

22nd:  Fillipe  Agoncillo  and  Jose  Lopez,  representatives  of  the  pro- 
visional government  of  the  Philippines,  arrive  at  San  Francisco  on  their 
way  to  Washington  to  petition  for  the  independence  of  the  islands.  They 
will  also  place  their  petition  before  the  Powers  of  Europe.  *  *  *  An 
imperial  edict  just  issued  in  Pekin,  China,  definitely  announces  that  the 
Emperor  of  China  has  resigned  his  power  to  the  Empress  (Dowager  Em- 
press), who  has  ordered  the  ministers  to  deliver  to  her,  in  future,  their 
official  reports.  *  *  *  The  situation  in  Paris,  France,  assumes  a  very 
grave  aspect  on  account  of  the  Dreyfus  affair,  and  fears  of  serious  con- 
flict between  the  authorities  are  entertained. 

23rd:  A  peremptory  message  has  been  sent  to  the  Cuban  military 
commission  to  the  effect  that  the  Spaniards  must  evacuate  Cuba  imme- 
diately. 

24th:  The  commission  appointed  to  investigate  the  conduct  of  the 
war  department  during  the  Spanish-American  war  holds  its  first  meeting 
in  Washington.  Major-Genial  Granville  M.  Dodge  was  elected  chairman 
of  the  commission.  *  *  *  The  Spanish  ship  **l7ifanta  Maria  Teresa^** 
sunk  in  the  fight  off  Santiago  on  July  3rd,  having  been  floated,  arrives  at 
Guantanamo. 

25th:  The  hotel  and  buildings  at  Beck's  Hot  Springs,  Salt  Lake  City, 
are  entirely  destroyed  by  flre. 

26th:  Major-General  J.  Ford  Kent  returns  to  Salt  Lake  City  from 
the  war.  *  *  *  Fanny  Davenport,  the  famous  actress  dies  at  her 
home  in  Duxbury,  Mass.  *  *  *  The  Commission  appointed  to  investi- 
gate the  war  department  holds  its  first  business  session  behind  closed 
doors.  *  *  *  The  ashes  of  Christopher  Columbus  are  exhumed 
in  Havana  preparatory  to  their  shipment  to  Spain.  *  *  *  The  French 
cabinet  decides  in  favor  of  a  revision  of  the  Dreyfus  case. 

27th:    Theodore  Roosevelt,  colonel  of  Rough  Riders,  who  served  at 


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80  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Santiago,  is  nominated  by  the  Republicans  for  Governor  of  New  York. 
♦   *   ♦  Wm.  J.  Bryan  is  lying  sick  with  a  low  fever  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

28th:  Thomas  F.  Baya^  Secretary  of  State  during  Cleveland's  first 
term  and  Embassador  to  England  during  his  second  term,  dies  at  Km- 
stein,  Mass. 

29th:    Queen  Louise  of  Denmark  dies  at  Copenhagen. 

30th:  The  Twenty-fourth  United  States  Infantry  reaches  Salt  Lake 
on  its  return  from  Santiago.  *  *  *  Forest  fires  devastate  portions 
of  Colorado  and  Wisconsin. 

October  Isk  A  special  dispatch  published  in  London,  England,  states 
that  telegrams  furnished  by  the  governor  of  Shanghai  allege  that  the 
Emperor  of  China  committed  suicide  on  September  21st.  This  is  under- 
stood to  mean  that  the  Emperor  was  assassinated. 

2nd:  A  terrific  storm  sweeps  the  Georgia  and  South  Carolina 
coasts.  Wind  blew  for  eighteen  hours  at  fifty  to  seventy  miles  an  hour. 
Fifty  to  one  hundred  lives  were  lost  and  immense  damage  done  to  prop- 
erty. 

5th:  The  third  national  Eisteddfod  opens  its  sessions  in  the  Taber- 
nacle, Salt  Lake  City.  *  *  *  A  serious  battle  occurs  between  the 
Pillage  Indians  and  United  States  troops  near  Leech  Lake,  Minnesota 
reservation.  The  soldiers  had  been  taken  to  the  reservation  to  aid  the 
United  States  marshal  in  serving  warrants. 

6th:  The  Sixty-ninth  Semi-Annual  Conference  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  opens  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

9th:  The  Sixty-ninth  Semi-Annual  Conference  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  closes.  At  the  afternoon  session 
Lorenzo  Snow  is  sustained  as  Prophet,  Seer,  and  Revelator  and  President 
of  the  Church,  with  George  Q.  Cannon  and  Joseph  F.  Smith  as  his  Coun- 
selors. Rudger  Clawson  is  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy  which  existed  in 
the  quorum  of  the  Twelve  Apostles. 

11th:  President  McKinley  arrives  in  Omaha  to  visit  the  Trans- 
Mississippi  Exposition. 

12th:  At  Virden,  111.,  where  a  miners'  strike  is  on,  a  clash  occurs  be- 
tween the  union  and  non-union  men,  on  the  arrival  of  a  train  with  two 
hundred  negro  miners,  and  fourteen  men  are  killed  and  twenty  wounded. 

13th:  Governor  Tanner,  of  Illinois,  refuses  to  allow  negro  miners 
to  land  from  the  cars  at  Virden,  111.,  and  the  officials  of  the  Chicago  and 
Alton  Railway  Company  threaten  to  take  steps  to  obtain  legal  redress. 

14th:  The  new  Stake  Tabernacle  which  was  nearing  completion  at 
Richfield,  Sevier  County,  is  entirely  destroyed  by  fire.  The  loss  will  ex- 
ceed $30,000.  *  *  *  The  Atlantic  Transport  Companjr's  steamer  Mohegan 
is  wrecked  off  the  Lizard  on  the  south-west  coast  of  England,  and  one 
hundred  and  sixteen  persons  are  drowned. 

16th:  The  National  Peace  Jubilee  opens  in  Chicago.  President 
McKinley  is  in  attendance. 

17th:  The  Presbyterian  sjmod  of  Utah  at  its  closing  session  in 
Ogden,  passes  resolutions  declaring  that  polygamy  is  practiced  in  Utah, 
and  calling  on  people  eveiywhere  in  the  Unit^  States  to  begin  the  nec- 
essary agitation  to  memorialize  Congress  for  a  Constitutional  amendment 
declaring  monogamic  marriage  the  only  legal  form  and  forbidding  poly- 
gamous marriage. 


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IMPROVEMENT  EE^ 


Vol.  n.  DECEMBER,  1898.  No.  2 


ORIENTAL  REUGIOUS  FAITHS* 

n. 

BUDDfflSM. 

BY  H.   DHARMAPALA,   OP  CEYLON. 


A  systematic  study  of  Buddha's  doctrine  has  not  yet  been 
made  by  the  western  scholars,  hence  the  conflicting  opinions  ex- 
pressed by  them  at  various  times.  The  notion  once  held  by  the 
scholars  that  it  is  a  system  of  materialism  has  been  exploded. 
The  positivists  of  France  found  in  it  a  positivism.  Buckner  and 
his  school  of  materialists  thought  it  was  a  materialistic  system. 
Agnostics  found  in  Buddha  an  agnostic,  and  Dr.  Rhys  Davids,  the 
eminent  Palo  scholar,  used  to  call  him  the  ''agnostic  philosopher 
of  India."  Some  scholars  have  found  an  expressed  monotheism 
therein.  Arthur  Lillie,  another  student  of  Buddhism,  thinks  it  a 
theistic  system.  Pessimists  identify  it  with  Schopenhaur's  pessim- 
ism. The  late  Mr.  Buckle  identified  it  with  the  pantheism  of  India. 
Some  have  found  in  it  a  monoism,  and  the  latest  dictum  is  Pro- 
fessor Huxley's  that  it  is  an  idealism  supplying  ''the  wanting  half 
of  Bishop  Buckley's  well-known  idealist  argument."     Dr.  Eikl 


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82  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

says  that  Buddhism  is  a  system  of  vast  magnitude,  for  it  embraces 
all  the  various  branches  of  science,  which  our  Western  nations 
have  been  long  accustomed  to  divide  for  separate  study.  It  em- 
bodies, in  one  living  structure,  grand  and  peculiar  views  of  physi- 
cal science,  refined  and  subtle  theories  on  abstract  metaphysics, 
an  edifice  of  fanciful  mysticism,  a  most  elaborate  and  far-reaching 
system  of  practical  morality,  and,  finally,  a  church  organization 
as  broad  in  its  principles  and  as  finely  wrought  in  its  most  intri- 
cate network  as  any  in  the  world.  All  this  is,  moreover,  confined 
in  such  a  manner  that  the  essence  and  substance  of  the  whole 
may  be  compressed  into  a  few  formulas  and  symbols  plain  and 
suggestive  enough  to  be  grasped  by  the  most  simple-minded  as- 
cetic, and  yet  so  full  of  philosophic  depths  as  to  provide  rich  food 
for  years  of  meditation  to  the  metaphysician,  the  poet,  the  mystic, 
and  pleasant  pasturage  for  the  most  fiery  imagination  of  any 
poetical  dreamer. 

In  the  religion  of  Buddha- is  found  a  comprehensive  system  of 
ethics  and  a  transcendental  metaphysic  embracing  a  sublime  psy- 
chology. To  the  simple-minded  it  offers  a  code  of  morality,  to 
the  earnest  student  a  system  of  pure  thought.  But  the  basic  doc- 
trine is  the  self -purification  of  man. 

Spiritual  progress  is  impossible  for  him  who  does  not  lead  a 
life  of  purity  and  compassion.  The  superstructure  has  to  be  built 
on  the  basis  of  a  pure  life.  So  long  as  one  is  fettered  by  selfish- 
ness, passion,  prejudice,  fear,  so  long  the  doors  of  his  higher 
nature  are  closed  against  the  truth.  The  rays  of  the  sunlight  of 
truth  enter  the  mind  of  him  who  is  fearless  to  examine  truth,  wha 
is  free  from  prejudice,  who  is  not  tied  by  the  sensual  passion,  and 
who  has  reasoning  faculties  to  think.  One  has  to  be  an  atheist 
in  the  sense  employed  by  Max  Muller: 

There  is  an  atheism  which  is  not  death;  there  is  another  which  is 
the  very  life  blood  of  all  true  faith.  It  is  the  power  of  giving  up  what, 
in  our  best,  our  most  honest  moments,  we  know  to  be  no  longer  true. 
It  is  the  readiness  to  replace  the  less  perfect,  however  dear,  however 
sacred  it  may  have  been  to  us,  by  the  more  perfect,  however  much  it 
may  be  detested  as  yet  by  the  world.  It  is  the  true  self-sacrifice,  the 
truest  trust  in  truth,  the  truest  faith. 

Without  that  atheism  no  new  religion,  no  reform,  no  ref orma- 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  83 

tioB,  no  resuscitation  would  ever  have  been  possible;  without  that 
atheism  no  new  life  is  possible  for  any  one  of  us.  The  strongest 
emphasis  has  been  put  by  Buddha  on  the  supreme  importance  of 
having  an  unprejudiced  mind  before  we  start  on  the  road  of  in- 
vestigation of  truth.  The  least  attachment  of  the  mind  to  pre- 
conceived ideas  is  a  positive  hindrance  to  the  acceptance  of  truth. 
Prejudice,  passion,  fear  of  expression  of  one's  convictions,  and 
ignorance  are  the  four  biases  that  have  to  be  sacrificed  at  the 
threshold.  To  be  bom  as  a  human  being  is  a  glorious  privilege^ 
Man's  dignity  consists  in  his  capability  to  reason  and  to  think  and 
to  live  up  to  the  highest  ideal  of  pure  life,  of  calm  thought,  of 
wisdom,  without  extraneous  interventions.  Buddha  says  that  maa 
can  enjoy  in  this  life  a  glorious  existence,  a  life  of  individual  free- 
dom, of  fearlessness  and  compassionateness.  This  dignified  ideal 
of  manhood  may  be  attained  by  the  humblest,  and  this  consumma^ 
tion  raises  him  above  wealth  and  royalty.  ''He  that  is  compas- 
sionate and  observes  the  law  is  my  disciple." 

Human  brotherhood  forms  the  fundamental  teaching  of  Buddha 
— ^universal  love  and  sympathy  with  all  mankind,  and  with  animal 
life.  Everyone  is  enjoined  to  love  all  beings  as  a  mother  loves  her 
only  child  and  takes  care  of  it  even  at  the  risk  of  her  life.  The 
realization  of  the  ideal  of  brotherhood  is  obtained  when  the  first 
stage  of  holiness  is  realized.  The  idea  of  separation  is  destroyed 
and  the  oneness  of  life  is  recognized.  There  is  no  pessimism  in 
the  teachings  of  Buddha,  for  he  strictly  enjoins  on  his  holy  disci- 
ples not  even  to  suggest  to  others  that  life  is  not  worth  living. 
On  the  contrary,  the  usefulness  of  life  is  emphasized  for  the  sake 
of  doing  good  to  self  and  humanity. 

From  the  fetich-worshiping  savage  to  the  highest  type  of 
humanity  man  naturally  yearns  for  something  higher.  And  it  is 
for  this  reason  that  Bud(Uia  inculcated  the  necessity  for  self-reli- 
ance and  independent  thought.  To  guide  humanity  in  the  right 
path,  a  Tathagata  (Messiah)  appears  from  time  to  time. 

In  the  sense  of  a  Supreme  Creator,  Buddha  says  that  there  is 
no  such  being,  accepting  the  doctrine  of  evolution  as  the  only 
true  one,  with  corollary,  the  law  of  cause  and  effect.  He  con- 
demns the  idea  of  a  creator,  but  the  Supreme  God  of  the  Brah- 
^nans  and  minor  gods  are  accepted.    But  they  are  subject  to  th^ 


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84  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

law  of  cause  and  effect.  This  Supreme  God  is  all  love,  all  mere!- 
faly  all  gentle,  and  looks  upon  all  beings  with  equanimity.  Buddha 
teaches  men  to  practice  these  four  supreme  virtues.  There  is  no 
difference  between  the  perfect  man  and  this  Supreme  God  of  the 
present  world. 

The  teachings  of  Buddha  on  evolution  are  clear  and  expan- 
sive. We  are  asked  to  look  upon  the  cosmos  "as  a  continuous 
process  unfolding  itself  in  regular  order  in  obedience  to  natural 
laws."  We  see  in  it  all  not  a  yawning  chaos  restrained  by  the 
constant  interference  from  without  of  a  wise  and  beneficent  ex- 
ternal power,  but  a  vast  aggregate  of  original  elements  perpetu- 
ally working  out  their  own  fresh  redistribution  in  accordance  with 
their  own  inherent  energies.  He  regards  the  cosmos  as  an  almost 
infinite  collection  of  material,  animated  by  an  almost  infinite  sum 
total  of  energy,  which  is  called  Akasa.  I  have  used  the  above 
definition  of  evolution  as  given  by  Grant  Allen  in  his  'life  of 
Darwin,''  as  it  beautifully  expresses  the  generalized  idea  of  Buddh- 
ism. We  do  not  postulate  that  man's  evolution  began  from  the 
protoplasmic  stage;  but  we  are  asked  not  to  speculate  on  the  ori- 
gin of  life,  on  the  origin  of  the  law  of  cause  and  effect,  etc.  So 
far  as  this  great  law  is  concerned  we  say  that  it  controls  the  phe- 
nomena of  human  life  as  well  as  those  of  external  nature,  the 
whole  knowable  universe  forms  one  undivided  whole. 

Buddha  promulgated  his  system  of  philosophy  after  having 
studied  all  religions.  And  in  the  Brahma-jola  sutta  sixty-two 
creeds  are  discussed.    In  the  Kalama,  the  sutta,  Buddha  says: 

Do  not  believe  in'what  ye  have  heard.  Do  not  believe  in  traditions 
because  they  have  been  handed  down  for  many  generations.  Do  not  be- 
lieve in  anything  because  it  is  renowned  and  spoken  of  by  many.  Do 
not  believe  merely  because  the  written  statement  of  some  old  sage  is 
produced.  Do  not  believe  in  conjecture.  Do  not  believe  in  that  as  truth 
to  which  you  have  become  attached  by  habit.  Do  not  believe  merely  on 
the  authority  of  your  teachers  and  elders.  Often  observation  and  analy- 
sis, when  the  result  agrees  with  reason,  are  conducive  to  the  good  and 
gain  of  one  and  all.    Accept  and  live  up  to  it. 

To  the  ordinary  householder,  whose  highest  happiness  consists 
in  being  wealthy  here  and  in  heaven  hereafter,  Buddha  inculcated  a 
simple  code  of  morality.    The  student  of  Buddha's  religion,  from 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  86 

destroying  life,  lays  aside  the  club  and  weapon.  He  is  modest  and 
full  of  pity.  He  is  compassionate  to  all  creatures  that  have  life. 
He  abstains  from  theft,  and  he  passes  his  life  in  honesty  and 
purity  of  heart.  He  lives  a  life  of  chastity  and  purity.  He  ab- 
stains from  falsehood  and  injures  not  his  fellow-man  by  deceit. 
Putting  away  slander,  he  abstains  from  calumny.  He  is  a  peace- 
maker, a  speaker  of  words  that  make  for  peace.  Whatever  word 
is  humane,  pleasant  to  the  ear,  lovely,  reaching  to  the  heart,  such 
are  the  words  he  speaks.  He  abstains  from  harsh  language.  He 
abstains  from  foolish  talk;  he  abstains  from  intoxicants  and  stupe- 
fying drugs. 

The  advance  student  of  the  religion  of  Buddha,  when  he  has 
faith  in  him,  thinks,  ''full  of  hindrances  in  household  life  is  a  path 
defiled  by  passion.  Pure  as  the  air  is  the  life  of  him  who  has  re- 
nounced all  worldly  things.  How  difficult  it  is  for  the  man  who 
dwells  at  home  to  live  the  higher  life  in  all  its  fullness,  in  all  its 
purity,  in  all  its  freedom.  Let  me  then  cut  ofF  my  hair  and  beard, 
let  me  clothe  myself  in  orange-colored  robes,  let  me  go  forth  from 
a  household  life  into  the  homeless  state.''  Then  before  long,  for- 
saking his  portion  of  wealth,  forsaking  his  circle  of  relatives,  he 
cuts  off  his  hair  and  beard,  he  clothes  himself  in  the  orange-col- 
ored robes  and  he  goes  into  the  homeless  state,  and  then  he  passes 
a  life  of  self-restraint,  according  to  the  rules  of  the  order  of  the 
blessed  one.  Uprightness  is  his  object  and  he  sees  danger  in  the 
least  of  those  things  he  should  avoid.  He  encompasses  himself 
with  holiness,  in  word  and  deed.  He  sustains  his  life  by  means 
that  are  quite  pure.  Good  is  his  conduct,  guarded  the  door  of  his 
senses,  mindful  and  self-possessed,  he  is  altogether  happy. 

The  student  of  pure  religion  abstains  from  earning  a  liveli- 
hood by  the  practice  of  low  and  lying  arts,  viz.,  all  divination,  in- 
terpretation of  dreams,  palmistry,  astrology,  crystal  prophesying, 
charms  of  all  sorts.    Buddha  also  says: 

Just  as  a  mighty  trumpeter  makes  himself  heard  in  all  the  four 
directions  without  difficulty,  even  so  of  all  things  that  have  life,  there  is 
not  one  that  the  student  passes  by  or  leaves  aside,  but  regards  them  all 
with  mind  set  free  and  deep-felt  pity,  sympathy,  and  equanimity.  He 
lets  his  mind  pervade  the  whole  world  with  thoughts  of  love. 


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86  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

To  realize  the  unseen  is  the  goal  of  the  student  of  Buddha^s 
teachings,  and  such  a  one  has  to  lead  an  absolutely  pure  life. 
Buddha  says: 

Let  him  fulfill  all  righteousness;  let  him  be  devoted  to  that  quietude 
of  heart  which  springs  from  within;  let  him  not  drive  back  the  ecstasy 
of  contemplation;  let  him  look  through  things;  let  him  be  much  alone. 
Fulfill  all  righteousness  for  the  sake  of  the  living,  and  for  the  sake 
of  the  blessed  ones  that  are  dead  and  gone. 

Thought  transference,  thought  reading,  cliarordience,  clair- 
voyance, projection  of  the  sub-conscious  self,  and  all  the  higher 
branches  of  psychical  science  that  first  now  engage  the  thought- 
ful attention  of  psychical  researches  are  within  the  reach  of  him 
who  fulfills  all  righteousness,  who  is  devoted  to  solitude  and  to 
contemplation. 

Charity,  observance  of  moral  rules,  purifying  the  mind,  mak- 
ing others  participate  in  the  good  work  that  one  is  doing,  co-oper- 
ating with  others  in  doing  good,  nursing  the  sick,  giving  gifts  to 
the  deserving  ones,  hearing  all  that  is  good  and  beautiful,  making 
others  learn  the  rules  of  morality,  accepting  the  laws  of  cause  and 
effect,  are  the  common  appanage  of  all  good  men. 

Prohibited  employments  include  slave  dealing,  sale  of  weapons 
of  warfare,  sale  of  poisons,  sale  of  intoxicants,  sale  of  flesh — all 
deemed  the  lowest  of  professions. 

The  five  kinds  of  wealth  are:  Faith,  pure  life,  receptivity  of 
the  mind  to  all  that  is  good  and  beautiful,  liberality,  and  wisdom. 
Those  who  possess  these  five  kinds  of  wealth  in  their  past  incarna- 
tions are  influenced  by  the  teachings  of  Buddha. 

Besides  these,  Buddha  says  in  his  universal  precepts:  He  who 
is  faithful  and  leads  the  life  of  a  householder,  and  possesses  the 
following  four  (Dhammas)  virtues,  truth,  justice,  firmness,  and 
liberality,  such  a  one  does  not  grieve  when  passing  away.  Pray 
ask  other  teachers  and  philosophers  far  and  wide  whether  there  is 
found  anything  greater  than  truth,  self-restraint,  liberality,  and 
forbearance. 

The  pupil  should  minister  to  his  teacher;  he  should  rise  up  in 
his  presence,  wait  upon  him,  listen  to  all  that  he  says  with  respect- 
ful attention,  perform  the  duties  necessary  for  his  personal  com- 
fort, and  carefully  attend  to  his  instruction.    The  teacher  should 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS,  87 

show  affection  for  his  pupil.  He  trains  him  in  virtue  and  good 
manners,  carefully  instructs  him,  imparts  to  him  a  knowledge  of 
the  sciences  and  wisdom  of  the  ancients,  speaks  well  of  him  to 
relatives,  and  guards  him  from  danger. 

The  honorable  man  ministers  to  his  friends  and  relatives  by 
presenting  gifts,  by  courteous  language,  by  promoting  them  as  his 
equals,  and  by  sharing  with  them  his  prosperity.  They  should 
watch  over  him  when  he  has  negligently  exposed  himself,  guard 
his  property  when  he  is  careless,  assist  him  in  difficulties,  stand 
by  him,  and  help  to  provide  for  his  family. 

The  master  should  minister  to  the  wants  of  his  servants,  as 
dependents;  he  assigns  them  labor  suitable  to  their  strength,  pro- 
vides for  their  comfortable  support;  he  attends  them  in  sickness, 
causes  them  to  partake  of  any  extraordinary  delicacy  he  may  ob- 
tain, and  makes  them  occasional  presents.  The  servants  should 
manifest  their  attachment  to  the  master;  they  rise  before  him  in 
the  morning  and  retire  later  to  rest ;  they  do  not  purloin  his 
property,  do  their  work  cheerfully  and  actively,  and  are  respect- 
ful in  their  behavior  toward  him. 

The  religious  teachers  should  manifest  their  kind  feelings 
toward  lawyers.  They  should  dissuade  them  from  vice,  excite 
them  to  virtuous  acts — ^being  desirous  of  promoting  the  welfare 
of  all.  They  should  instruct  them  in  the  things  they  had  not  pre- 
viously learned,  confirm  them  in  the  truths,  and  point  out  to  them 
the  way  to  heaven.  The  lawyers  should  minister  to  the  teachers 
by  respectful  attention  manifested  in  their  words,  actions,  and 
thoughts;  and  by  supplying  them  their  temporal  wants  and  by 
allowing  them  constant  access  to  them. 

The  wise,  virtuous,  prudent,  intelligent,  teachable,  docile  man 
will  become  eminent.  The  persevering,  diligent  man,  unshaken  in 
adversity  and  of  inflexible  determination,  will  become  eminent. 
The  well-informed,  friendly-disposed,  prudent-speaking,  generous- 
minded,  self-controlled,  self-possessed  man  will  become  emi- 
nent. 

In  this  world,  generosity,  mildness  of  speech,  public  spirit, 
and  courteous  behavior  are  worthy  of  respect  under  all  circum- 
stances and  will  be  valuable  in  all  places.  If  these  be  not  pos- 
sessed, the  mother  will  receive  neither  honor  nor  support  from  the 


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88  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

son,  neither  will  the  father  receive  respect  or  honor.  Buddha  also 
says: 

Know  that  from  time  to  time  a  Tathagata  is  bom  into  the  world 
fully  enlightened,  blessed  and  worthy,  abounding  in  wisdom  and  good- 
ness, happy  with  knowledge  of  the  world,  unsurpassed  as  a  guide  to 
erring  mortals,  a  teacher  of  gods  and  men,  a  blessed  Buddha.  He,  by 
himself,  thoroughly  understands  and  sees,  as  it  w^e  face  to  face,  this 
universe,  the  world  below  with  all  its  spirits,  and  the  worlds  above,  and 
all  creatures,  all  religious  teachers,  gods  and  men,  and  he  then  makes  his 
knowledge  known  to  others.  The  truth  doth  he  proclaim,  both  in  its 
letter  and  its  spirit,  lovely  in  its  origin,  lovely  in  its  progress,  lovely  in 
its  consummation;  the  higher  life  doth  he  proclaim,  in  all  its  purity  and 
in  all  its  perf ectness. 

1.  He  is  absolutely  free  from  all  passions,  commits  no  evil  even  in 
secrecy,  and  is  the  embodiment  of  perfection.  He  is  above  doing  any- 
thing wrong. 

2.  Setf-introspection — ^by  this  he  has  reached  the  state  of  supreme 
enlightenment. 

3.  By  means  of  this  divine  eye  he  looks  back  to  the  remotest  past 
and  future.  Knows  the  way  of  emancipation,  and  is  accomplished  in 
the  three  great  branches  of  divine  knowledge,  and  has  gained  perfect 
wisdom.  He  is  in  possession  of  all  psychic  powers,  always  willing  to 
listen,  full  of  en^gy,  wisdom,  and  dhyana. 

4.  He  has  realized  eternal  peace  and  walks  in  the  perfect  path  of 
virtue. 

5.  He  knows  three  states  of  existence. 

6.  He  is  incomparable  in  purity  and  holiness. 

7.  He  is  teacher  of  gods  and  men. 

8.  He  exhorts  gods  and  men  at  the  proper  time  according  to  their 
individual  temperaments. 

9.  He  is  the  supremely  enlightened  teacher  and  the  perfect  embodi- 
ment of  all  the  virtues  he  teaches.  The  two  characteristics  of  Buddha 
are  wisdom  and  compassion. 

Buddha  also  gave  a  warning  to  his  followers  wh^  he  said : 

He  who  is  not  generous,  who  is  fond  of  sensuality,  who  is  disturbed 
at  heart,  who  is  of  uneven  mind,  who  is  not  reflective,  who  is  not  of 
calm  mind,  who  is  discontented  at  heart,  who  has  no  control  ov^  hit 
senses — such  a  disciple  is  far  from  me,  though  he  is  in  body  near  me. 

The  attainment  of  salvation  is  by  the  perception  of  self 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  89 

through  charity,  purity,  self-sacrifice,  self-knowledge,  dauntless 
energy,  patience,  truth,  resolution,  love,  and  equanimity.  The  last 
words  of  Buddha  were  these: 

Be  ye  lamps  onto  yourselyes;  be  ye  a  refuge  to  yourselves;  betake 
yourself  to  an  eternal  voyage;  hold  fast  to  the  truth  as  a  lamp;  hold 
fast  as  a  refuge  to  the  truth;  look  not  for  refuge  to  anyone  besides 
yourselves.  Learn  ye,  then,  that  knowledge  which  I  have  attained  and 
have  declared  unto  you,  and  walk  ye  in  it,  practice  and  increase  in  or- 
der that  the  path  of  holiness  may  last  and  long  endure  for  the  blessing 
of  many  people,  to  the  relief  of  the  world,  to  the  welfare,  the  blessing, 
the  joy  of  gods  and  men. 


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OLIVER  COWDERY- 

BY  ELDER  SAMUEL  W.  RICHARDS. 


[It  was  announced  in  the  prospectus  of  the  Era  for  Volume  II,  that 
we  would  publish  a  series  of  letters  on  the  Early  Scenes  and  Incidents 
IN  THE  Church,  from  the  pen  of  Oliver  Cowdery.  Before  proceeding 
with  the  letters  it  is  thought  proper  to  present  to  our  readers  the  fol- 
lowing article  on  Oliver  Ck)WDERY,  by  his  personal  friend,  Elder  Samuel 
W.  Richards,  who,  as  it  will  be  seen  from  the  article  itself,  possessed 
exceptional  opportunities  for  learning  much  concerning  this  remarkable 
man  who  was  so  closely  associated  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith. — 
Editor.] 


Among  the  most  interesting  and  important  events  ever  re- 
corded in  history,  are  those  connected  with  the  coming  forth  of 
the  dispensation  of  the  fullness  of  times  from  the  heavens  to  the 
children  of  men  in  our  day,  in  which  the  heavens  were  opened  and 
God,  Jesus  Christ,  angels,  and  departed  spirits  of  holy  men  united 
in  one  grand  effort  for  the  final  and  complete  redemption  of  fallen 
humanity. 

One  of  the  first  recipients  of  the  Godly  authority  necessary 
to  the  accomplishment  of  such  a  glorious  work  was  he  whose  name 
appears  at  the  head  of  this  article. 

Oliver  Cowdery  was  bom  in  the  town  of  Wells,  Rutland 
County,  Vermont,  October,  1805.  About  1825  he  removed  to  the 
State  of  New  York,  and  was  employed  as  clerk  in  a  store  until  the 
winter  of  1828-9,  when  he  taught  school  in  the  town  of  Manches- 
ter, Ontario  County,  New  York.  There  he  became  acquainted  with 
the  family  of  Joseph  Smith,  Sr.,  who  sent  children  to  his  school, 
and  Oliver  went  to  board  with  them. 


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OLIVER  COWDERY.  91 

While  here  he  learned  of  Joseph  Smith,  the  younger,  having 
found  plates  containing  ancient  records  of  the  history  of  the  early 
settlers  of  this,  the  American  continent,  and  revealed  to  him  by  a 
heavenly  messenger.  This  so  engaged  his  attention  and  occupied 
his  mind  that  he  could  not  be  satisfied  until  he  made  a  visit  to  the 
now  reputed  Prophet,  which  he  did  at  Harmony,  Pennsylvania,  on 
the  fifth  day  of  April,  1829. 

The  Prophet  Joseph  immediately  recognized  him  as  the  person 
he  had  been  praying, for  to  be  sent  by  God  to  assist  him  as  scribe, 
in  the  translation  of  the  records  he  had  found,  preparatory  to  its 
publication  in  the  English  language.  Only  two  days  after  this, 
their  first  meeting,  they  commenced  translating  the  Book  of  Mor- 
mon. Joseph  was  the  translator  by  aid  of  the  Urim  and  Thiunmim, 
and  Oliver  was  the  scribe  who  wrote  the  words  as  they  were  spoken 
by  the  translator.  He  not  only  wrote  the  first  copy  of  the  trans- 
lation, but  made  another  copy  before  it  was  sent  to  the  printer. 
This  was  deemed  necessary  because  of  determined  efforts  being 
made  to  obtain  the^nanuscript,  by  parties  opposed  to  the  young 
Prophet's  declaration  of  its  being  a  divine  record,  brought  forth 
and  translated  by  the  gift  and  power  of  God. 

During  the  translation,  incidents  occurred  which  proved  to 
Oliver's  mind  that  it  was  a  divine  work;  as,  for  instance,  when,  on 
the  15th  of  May,  1829,  he  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  went  into  the 
woods  to  pray,  John  the  Baptist  descended  in  a  cloud  of  light, 
and  ordained  them  to  the  Priesthood  of  Aaron,  and  promised  that 
soon  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood  would  be  conferred  upon  them; 
that  Joseph  should  be  the  first  and  Oliver  the  second  Elder  in  the 
Church  of  Christ,  to  be  organized  with  the  full  powers  of  both 
Priesthoods  which  were  to  be  in  the  Church. 

In  the  following  month  of  June,  1829,  a  revelation  was  given 
through  the  Prophet  Joseph,  declaring  that  Oliver  had  received  "the 
same  power  and  the  same  faith,  and  the  same  gift  like  unto  him," 
and  if  he  (Oliver)  would  testify  of  the  things  he  had  seen  and 
heard,  he  was  promised  "the  gates  of  hell  shall  not  prevail  against 
you;  for  my  grace  is  sufficient  for  you,  and  you  shall  be  lifted  up 
at  the  last  day." 

That  he  did  testify  of  the  plates  found,  and  of  their  trans- 
lation by  the  gift  and  power  of  God,  as  commanded,  to  the  latest  day 


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92  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

of  Us  life,  tiiere  are  many  witnesses;  and  that,  too,  nnder  many 
trying  ordeals  when  it  was  thought  his  faith  was  not  strong  in  that 
which  he  had  declared  to  all  the  world. 

It  also  fell  to  tiie  lot  of  Oliver  Gowdery,  in  company  witii 
David  Whitmer,  to  search  out  the  first  Twelve,  on  whom  should  be 
conferred  the  powers  of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  which  Joseph 
and  Oliver  had  received  by  the  administration  of  Peter,  James,  and 
John,  and  by  ordination  under  their  hands,  that  they  should  be 
Apostles,  and  become  fecial  witnesses  of  Jesus  Christ  to  all  tiie 
world. 

Oliver  CJowdery,  by  virtue  of  tiie  Priesthood  conferred  upon 
him,  was  the  first  to  administer  tiie  ordinance  of  baptism,  and  to 
preach  the  first  public  Gospel  sermon  in  this  dispensation  of  God 
to  man.  His  experience  and  labors  were  of  that  divine  character 
which  could  never  be  forgotten,  and  after  years  proved  that  th^ 
were  to  him  as  though  engraven  with  an  iron  pen  upon  the  rock, 
never  to  be  obliterated. 

Soon  after  the  organization  of  the  Chupch  in  1830,  he  was 
called  with  others  to  fill  a  mission  to  the  Lamanites  on  the  western 
border  of  Missouri,  after  which  he  returned  to  Ohio  where  the 
Church  was  being  established. 

In  December,  1831,  the  revelations  which  the  Prophet  Joseph 
had  received  up  to  that  time,  were  by  Oliver  Cowdery,  then  Church 
Historian,  sent  up  to  Missouri  witii  money  for  publication. 

In  July,  1834,  Oliver  was  sent  as  a  special  messenger  from 
Missouri  to  Ohio  on  matters  of  importance  relating  to  the  affairs 
of  the  Church  there,  about  the  time  of  their  being  driven  and  per- 
secuted by  their  enemies.  Being  then  in  harmony  with  the 
Prophet  Joseph,  they  both  entered  into  covenant  with  the  Lord  to 
pay  tithing,  November  29th,  1834. 

On  April  3rd,  1836,  he  was  favored,  with  the  Prophet  Joseph, 
to  witness  the  marvelous  manifestations  which  occurred  in  the 
Elrtland  Temple,  when  they  saw  the  Lord  standing  upon  the 
toeastwork  of  the  pulpit,  and  received  from  Him  the  declaration 
that  their  sins  were  forgiven  them,  and  that  they  were  clean  in 
His  sight.  Immediately  after  this,  also  appeared  in  succession 
Moses,  Elias,  and  Elijah,  each  delivering  up  the  keys  and  powers 
of  their  several  missions  and  dispensations  to  Joseph  and  Oliver, 


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OLIVER  COWDERY.  98 

4iiid  while  standing  in  their  presence  declared  the  time  had  come 
for  the  taming  of  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the  children  and 
the  children  to  the  fathers,  lest  the  whole  earth  be  smitten  with  a 
curse;  and  the  keys  of  this  dispensation  were  committed  to  them 
by  the  several  administrators  who  had  held  them  in  former  dispen- 
sations. 

Oliver,  who  was  now,  and  had  been,  General  Church  Recorder, 
removed  to  Missouri,  September  17th,  1887. 

Before  leaving  Kirtland,  however,  he  was,  with  others,  ap- 
X>ointed  Assistant  Counselor  to  the  First  Presidency,  and  as  such 
went  to  the  Saints  in  Missouri.  While  spending  the  winter  there 
with  the  Saints  his  course  of  life  proved  to  be  such  that  on  the 
12th  of  April,  1838,  he  was  charged  with  misconduct  before  the 
High  Council  and  by  them  excommunicated  from  the  Church.  But 
few  in  the  history  of  the  Church  or  of  the  world  have  ever  been 
favored  with  such  intimacy  with  prophets,  angels,  and  Jesus  Christ 
Himself,  as  Oliver  had;  which  makes  it  more  marvelous  that  his 
iunbition,  without  proper  restraint,  should  lead  him,  or  cause  him 
to  be  led  where  he  must  be  severed  from  the  fellowship  of  the 
Saints. 

Without  apparently  making  any  effort  to  recover  his  standing 
or  even  visit  tiie  Prophet  Joseph,  he  removed  to  Ohio,  where  he 
spent  his  time  mostly  in  the  study  and  pursuit  of  law  practice,  and 
other  practices  of  a  literary  character,  as  he  could  not,  with  the 
knowledge  he  had,  think  of  connecting  himself  with  any  of  the 
religious  sects  of  the  day.  This  position  he  occupied  until  after 
the  Prophet's  death  and  the  removal  of  the  Saints  from  Nauvoo  to 
the  mountains  in  1847. 

In  1848,  a  yearning  which  he  had  for  the  society  of  those 
with  whom  he  had  once  been  so  familiar,  caused  him  to  visit  Eanes- 
ville,  Iowa,  where  Elder  Orson  Hyde,  then  President  of  the  Twelve 
Apostles,  was  residing,  and  make  application  for  a  reunion  with  the 
<3hurch,  which  was  granted  by  his  being  baptized  and  duly  ad- 
mitted into  the  Church  by  Elder  Hyde  officiating. 

Soon  after  this,  with  the  view  of  joining  the  Saints  in  Salt  Lake 
Valley  the  next  season,  he,  with  his  wife,  desired  first  to  visit  her 
brother,  David  Whitmer,  then  living  in  Richmond,  Missouri. 
For  this  purpose  in  the  winter  month  of  January  they  started  on 


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94  IMPROVEMENT  ERA, 

the  journey  by  team,  but  were  overtaken  by  a  severe  snow  storm 
which  compelled  them  to  seek  shelter,  which  they  obtained  with 
the  writer  of  this  article,  then  temporarily  residing  in  the  upper 
part  of  that  State.  Here  they  found  it  necessary  to  remain  some 
length  of  time  on  account  of  the  great  amount  of  snow  which  had 
fallen  completely  blockading  the  road,  and  for  a  time  preventing 
travel  by  teams. 

This  detention  of  nearly  two  weeks'  time  was  extremely  in- 
teresting and  made  very  enjoyable  to  both  parties  participating  in 
the  social  and  intellectual  feast  so  unexpectedly  provided. 

I  had  but  the  fall  before  returned  from  my  first  mission  to  the 
British  Isles,  and  was  in  the  spirit  of  inquiry  as  to  all  matters  of 
early  history  and  experiences  in  the  Church,  and  soon  found  there 
was  no  reserve  on  the  part  of  Oliver  in  answering  my  many  ques- 
tions. In  doing  so  his  mind  seemed  as  fresh  in  recollection  of 
events  which  occurred  more  than  a  score  of  years  before  as  though 
they  were  but  of  yesterday. 

Upon  carefully  inquiring  as  to  his  long  absence  from  the  body 
of  the  Church,  he  stated  that  he  had  never  met  the  Prophet  Joseph, 
after  his  expulsion  from  the  Church,  while  he  lived,  apparently 
feeling  that  the  Prophet  could  with  equal  propriety  enquire  after 
him  as  for  him  to  visit  the  Prophet,  and  as  his  pride  would  seem- 
ingly not  allow  him  to  become  a  suppliant  without  that  inquiry,  it 
was  never  made;  while  he  felt  quite  sure  that  had  he  ever  met  the 
Prophet  there  would  have  been  no  difficulty  in  effecting  a  recon- 
ciliation, as  a  feeling  of  jealousy  towards  him  on  the  part  of  his 
accusers  had  entered  largely  into  their  purpose  of  having  him  re- 
moved, which  he  thought  Joseph  must  have  discovered  after  go- 
ing up  to  Missouri. 

In  what  had  transpired  with  him  he  now  felt  to  acknowledge 
the  hand  of  God,  in  that  he  had  been  preserved;  for  if  he  had 
been  with  the  Church  he  would  have  undoubtedly  been  with  Joseph 
in  his  days  of  trial  and  shared  like  fate  with  him;  but  being  spared, 
he  now  desired  to  go  to  the  nations  and  bear  a  testimony  of  this 
work  which  no  other  man  living  could  bear;  and  he  decided  to  go 
to  the  Presidency  of  the  Church  and  offer  his  services  for  that 
purpose. 

This  indeed  seemed  to  be  his  only  ambition,  and  he  was  now 


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OLIVER  COWDERY.  95 

going  to  visit  his  wife's  brother,  David  Whitmer,  and  prepare  to  go 
to  the  mountains  and  join  the  body  of  the  Chnrch  the  f  ollovnng 
summer  and  nnite  with  them.  For  some  cause  this  was  not  per- 
mitted,  and  he  died  in  Missouri  among  relatives,  before  realizing 
the  intent  and  purpose  he  had  cherished  of  again  testifying  of  the 
great  work  and  dispensation  which  he  had  been  instrumental  with 
the  Prophet  in  opening  up  to  the  world. 

To  hear  him  describe  in  his  pleasant  but  earnest  manner  the 
personality  of  those  heavenly  messengers,  with  whom  he  and  the 
Prophet  had  so  freely  held  converse,  was  enchanting  to  my  soul. 
Their  heavenly  appearance,  clothed  in  robes  of  purity;  the  influence 
of  their  presence  so  lovely  and  serene;  their  eyes  that  seemed  to 
penetrate  to  the  very  depths  of  the  soul,  together  with  the  color 
of  the  eyes  that  gazed  upon  them,  were  all  so  beautifully  related 
as  to  almost  make  one  feel  that  they  were  then  present;  and  as  I 
placed  my  hands  upon  his  head  where  these  angels  had  placed 
theirs,  a  divine  influence  filled  the  soul  to  that  degree  that  one 
could  truly  feel  to  be  in  the  presence  of  something  that  was  more 
than  earthly;  and  from  that  day  to  this — ^now  almost  fifty  years 
ago — ^the  interest  of  those  glorious  truths  upon  the  mind  has  never 
been  lost,  but  as  a  beacon  light  ever  guiding  to  the  home  of  their 
glory  for  a  like  inheritance. 

Before  taking  his  departure  he  wrote  and  left  with  the  writer 
of  this  the  following  statement,  which  we  believe  to  be  his  last  living 
testimony,  though  oft  repeated,  of  the  wonderful  manifestations 
which  brought  the  authority  of  God  to  men  on  earth: 

TESTIMONY. 

''Whfle  darkness  covered  the  earth,  and  gross  darkness  the 
people;  long  after  the  authority  to  administer  in  holy  things  had 
been  taken  away,  the  Lord  opened  the  heavens  and  sent  forth  His 
word  for  the  salvation  of  Israel.  In  fulfillment  of  the  sacred 
scriptures,  the  everlasting  Gospel  was  proclaimed  by  the  mighty 
angel  (Moroni)  who,  clothed  with  the  authority  of  his  mission, 
gave  glory  to  God  in  the  highest.  This  Gospel  is  the  'stone  taken 
from  the  mountains  without  hands.'  John  the  Baptist,  holding  the 
keys  of  the  Aaronic  Priesthood;  Peter,  James,  and  John,  holding 
the  keys  of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  have  also  ministered  for 


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96  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

those  who  shall  be  heirs  of  salvation,  and  with  tiiese  administra- 
tions (»rdained  men  to  the  same  Priesthoods.  These  Priesthoods, 
with  their  authority,  are  now,  and  must  continue  to  be,  in  the  bodj 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Blessed  is 
the  Elder  who  has  received  the  same,  and  thrice  blessed  and  holy 
is  he  who  shall  endure  to  the  end. 

''Accept  assurances,  dear  brother,  of  the  unfeigned  prayer  of 
him  who,  in  connection  with  Joseph  the  Seer,  was  blessed  with  the 
above  mimstrations,  and  who  earnestly  and  devoutly  hopes  to 
meet  you  in  the  Celestial  Glory. 

"Oliveb  Cowdery. 
"To  Etder  Samuel  W.  Richards,  January  18tt,  1849." 

Thus,  by  the  foregoing  testimony  which  he  bears,  as  his  last 
written,  and  virtually  his  dying  testimony,  is  secured  the  promise 
made  to  him  by  the  Lord  in  the  early  part  of  his  career,  that  ''the 
gates  of  hell  should  not  prevail  against  him;  and  he  should  be 
lifted  up  at  the  last  day." 

He  went  to  his  rest  March  3rd,  1850,  entitled  to  a  glorious 
resurrection  and  crown  of  eternal  life,  such  as  the  Lord,  the 
righteous  Judge,  shall  give  to  all  those  who  keep  covenant  with 
Him. 


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GIFTS  OF  THE  GOSPEL* 

BY  SAMUEL  L.  ADAMS. 


'The  blind  receive  their  sight."  Matt,  xi:  5. 

Editor  op  the  Era: 

Dear  Brother:  Some  time  ago,  a  gentleman  by  the  name  of 
W.  T.  Morgan,  wrote  through  the  Deseret  News,  asking  for  testi- 
monies of  the  truth  of  Mormonism  by  actual  receivers  of  the  same, 
as  he  wished  to  correspond  with  them. 

I  wrote  him  an  account  of  my  first  outward  personal  experience 
in  what  is  called  ''Miracles,"  which  occurred  when  I  was  about  six- 
teen years  of  age,  while  I  was  an  apprentice  boy.  The  said  Mor- 
gan has  never  replied  to  me.  It  is  over  twelve  months  since  I 
wrote— September  24, 1897. 

Should  what  I  said  to  him  be  of  any  use  to  you  it  is  at  your 
service.  Samuel  L.  Adams. 


St.  George,  Utah,  Sept.  24, 1897. 
W.  r.  Morgan: 

Dear  Sir:  I  this  day  saw  and  read  your  letter  in  the  Deseret  News, 
and  I  decided  to  write  you;  should  my  subject  please  you,  you  may  call 
again. 

I  am  sixty-four  years  of  age,  reared  till  nineteen  in  England.  Since 
then  I  have  made  Utah  my  home,  coming  here  on  the  third  day  of  Sep- 
tember, 1852.  My  early  life  was  spent  in  helping  to  build  up  this  then 
forbidding  country;  this  will  account  for  my  lack  of  education.  But 
heaven  be  thanked  I  have  been  blessed  with  a  portion  of  the  Spirit  of 
God,  and  a  good  memory,  and  through  these  aids  I  am  prepared  to  prove 
the  truth  of  what  is  called  "Mormonism.^    I  united  myself  with  the 


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98  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Church  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  and  from  that  time  to  this  I  have  witnessed 
the  hand  of  God  moving  everywhere.  I  was  told  that  if  I  would  embrace 
the  Gospel  with  an  honest  heart  I  should  know  the  truth  of  the  doctrine 
myself.  This  I  surely  sought  to  do.  I  was  baptized  in  a  river,  as  Christ 
bur  Savior  was,  and  came  up  out  of  the  water,  and  hands  were  laid  upon 
me  for  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost;  and  I  bear  record  that  that  gift  came 
upon  me.  My  eyes  were  opened  to  see  the  things  of  God;  my  tongue  to 
speak  forth  His  praise.  I  sought  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit,  and  the  gift  of 
faith  came  upon  me;  when  I  was  sick,  I  would  call  for  the  Elders  of  the 
Church,  and  was  healed  by  the  power  of  God. 

I  will  relate  one  special  circumstance.  I  took  a  severe  cold  in  my 
eyes,  (bear  in  mind  I  was  an  apprentice  boy)  and  my  eyes  were  both 
blood-shot,  and  for  several  days  I  was  compelled  to  give  up  my  worL  I 
became  totally  blind  in  one  eye,  and  the  other  was  so  nearly  blind  that  I 
had  to  be  led  wherever  I  went.  This  brought  me  to  receive  abuse  and 
taunts  from  my  shopmates.  I  was  the  youngest  of  three  apprentices.  It 
was  my  duty  to  listen  to  the  morning  bell,  and  go  down  and  open  the  doora 
to  let  the  men  in  to  work;  this  I  failed  to  do  for  several  days.  One  Thurs- 
day evening  I  asked  my  bed-fellow  to  lead  me  to  a  Mormon  "night  meet- 
ing." He  did  so,  and  on  my  return  I  called  at  the  home  of  Brother  and 
Sister  Stokes,  two  members  of  the  Church,  where  two  Elders  were 
going  to  sleep  for  the  night.  When  I  arrived  at  the  house,  my  guide 
left  me  at  the  door,  as  he  thought  it  was  getting  very  late.  (Bear  in  mind 
my  eyes  were  two  balls  of  blood  in  appearance,  and  felt  as  though  a  hand- 
ful of  sand  had  been  thrown  into  them.)  I  was  suffering  greatly,  and  it 
was  near  11  o'clock.  I,  trembling,  said  to  those  Elders,  will  you  anoint 
my  eyes  and  pray  for  me?  They  cheerfully  consented.  Elder  Clark 
anointed  me,  and  Elder  Hodgert  was  mouth  in  prayer.  While  their  hands 
were  upon  my  head,  the  sore,  sandy  feeling  all  left  my  eyes.  Being  late, 
I  just  thanked  them  and  left  for  home.  I  had  a  joyful  heart,  I  could  see 
the  gas  lights  in  the  street  lamps,  but  I  did  not  realize  my  true  condition 
till  half  past  five  the  next  morning.  That  night  I  got  my  ears  boxed  by 
the  mistress  of  the  house  where  I  lived  who  was  waiting  at  the  door  for 
my  coming  home.  She  followed  me  through  the  hallway  to  the  foot  of 
the  stairs,  telling  me  of  my  conduct,  being  unable  to  work  and  being  out 
at  this  late  hour,  and  it  raining  and  damp.  I  did  not  say  a  word  but 
made  for  bed.  Morning  came,  the  bell  rang,  and  I  went  down  to  answer 
the  door;  the  first  man  I  saw  said,  ''Hello!  Sam,  are  you  better?"  Isaid^ 
''I  feel  so."  I  went  back  into  the  house  and  struck  a  light  in  front  of  a 
large  mirror,  when  to  my  joy  I  saw  a  pair  of  eyes  as  clear  of  blood  as 
they  ever  were  in  my  life.    I  went  into  the  shop  to  my  vise,  lit  my  gas 


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GIFTS  OF  THE  GOSPEL.  99 

and  started  to  work.  At  8  o'clock,  a  man  that  worked  two  vises  from  me 
came  in  to  work,  and  putting  his  right  hand  upon  my  left  shoulder  he  pulled 
me  around,  and  looking  me  full  in  the  face,  said:  "Hello!  those  Elders 
of  Beelzebub  have  been  performing  a  miracle  upon  you,  have  they?**  With 
that  be  kicked  and  cuffed  me  till  my  friend  and  bed-fellow  stepped  up 
with  a  rod  of  steel  in  his  hands,  and  declared  he  would  protect  me.  ''And 
are  you  a  Mormon,  too?*'  he  asked.  "No,**  replied  my  friend,  ''but  if  I 
could  learn  as  much  in  six  years  as  he  has  learned  in  six  months,  I  would 
be  baptized  tonight.**    And  that  night  he  was  baptized. 

Now,  my  friend,  this  was  the  beginning  of  outward  signs  and  mir- 
acles to  me;  and  I  bear  record  before  God,  that  mine  has  been  a  life  of 
miraculous  events,  from  that  day  to  this.  The  evidences  to  prove  Joseph 
Smith  a  Prophet  of  God  are  not  few,  but  legion. 

I  am  only  one  of  many  thousands  in  many  countries,  who  are  able  to 
tell  such  things,  and  bear  record  from  whence  they  come.  And  in  the 
language  of  the  Savior,  I  say  to  you,  "If  any  man  will  do  his  will  he  shall 
know  of  the  doctrine,  whether  it  be  of  God,  or  whether  I  speak  of  myself  .*' 

Trusting  this  will  find  a  lodgment  in  your  heart,  I  will  close,  pray- 
ing God  that  you  may  never  rest  at  ease  till  you  have  obtained  the  for- 
j^venees  of  your  sins,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  Comforter,  for  your  guide. 

I  am  yours  truly, 

Sauuel  L.  Adams. 


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WHAT  AGNOSnoSM  IS* 

BY   W.  H.  LAMA8TER,  OP  INDIANAPOLIS. 


[A  review  of  this  article  will  appear  in  the  next  number  of  the 
Era  by  one  of  the  EdUors.] 

The  first  human  thinker  in  his  ignorance  of  things  around  and 
about  him  inquired  of  the  whence  and  the  whither.  Men  are  bom 
ignorant  even  of  their  own  individual  existence.  They  emerge  as 
it  were  out  of  a  world  of  ignorance  and  enter  through  gradi^^l 
processes  of  evolution  into  another  of  more  or  less  knowledge. 
Whatever  though  may  be  their  cravings  or  their  ambitions  to  know, 
there  must  ever  lie  before  and  above  them  a  still  higher  and  a 
grander  and  a  more  elevated  plane  of  knowledge.  Men  therefore 
being  natural  bom  agnostics,  they  must  by  reason  of  their  own 
particular  environments  and  limitations  be  forever  restrained  from 
acquiring  even  that  amount  of  knowledge  they  might  desire.  With 
finite  minds,  as  well  as  with  everything  else  finite,  there  are  always 
certain  well-defined  boundary  lines  to  which  they  may  go,  but  no 
further.  Nature  has  no  pets  upon  which  it  may  be  seen  bestowing 
an  unlimited  amount  of  knowledge.  Its  bounties  whatever  they 
may  be  are  given,  even  if  plentifully,  with  a  saving  hand. 

That  men  may  acquire  more  wisdom  and  knowledge  does  not 
necessarily  make  them  any  less  agnostics.  A  Spencer,  a  Huxley  or 
a  Darwin  may  be  great  philosophers  and  scientists,  and  still  there 
is  much  even  in  their  particular  studies  they  do  not  know,  and  so 
therefore  they  are  in  spite  of  themselves  agnostics. 

The  word  agnostic  is  derived  from  the  Greek  one  agnostos,  and 
when  translated  into  the  English  language  means  'Sinknown,''  ''not 
knowing,''  "ignorant  of."    Gnosis  with  the  Greeks  signified  knowl- 


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WBAt  AGNOSTICISM  IS.  101 

6dg6y  and  80  tiffnjosfm^  haTing  a  privatiye  ''a,''  wcndd  cotiseiGpiently 
iti€d;&  a  Want  of  knowledge.  Hence  an  agnostic  as  contradistin- 
gt&Iied  from  a  Greek  gnostic — one  who  knows — ^is  one  who  does 
n(yt  know. 

Agnosticism  as  an  api^lied  theory  or  doctrine  may  tiierefore 
be  said  to  be  one  which  neither  asserts  nor  denies  the  existence  of 
the  infinite,  the  absolute.  Or,  it  may  be  defined  as  a  ^'theory  of  the 
unknowable  which  assumes  its  most  definite  form  in  the  denial  of 
the  possibility  of  any  knowledge  of  God."  And  so  the  agnostic 
may  be  said  to  be  one  who  does  not  claim  or  profess  to  know  of 
tiie  existence  of  a  supreme  being  called  God. 

Again,  an  agnostic  may  be  said  to  be  ''one  who  holds  that  the 
eidstence  of  anything  beyond  and  behind  natural  phenomena  is 
unknown,  and  (so  far  as  can  now  be  judged)  unknowable,  and  espec- 
klly  that  a  first  cause  and  an  unseen  world  are  subjects  of  which 
we  know  nothing.''  And  so  the  word  agnostic  might  very  well 
stand  as  the  alitithesis  of  the  one  gnostic,  and  might  therefore  be 
uded  to  designate  him  who  regards  phenomena  of  all  kinds  as  l^e 
result  of  unknown  or  unknowable  causes. 

Prof.  Huxley,  the  inventor  of  the  English  word  "agnosticism," 
says  of  it  that  it  is  not  a  negative  creed,  nor  even  a  creed  of  any 
kind,  "except  in  so  far  as  it  expresses  absolute  faith  in  the  valid- 
ity of  a  principle  which  is  as  much  ethical  as  intellectual;"  and 
he  adds  that  "this  principle  may  be  stated  in  various  ways,  but 
they  all  amount  to  this:  that  it  is  wrong  for  a  man  to  say  that  he 
iili  (Certain  of  the  objective  truth  of  any  proposition  unless  he  can 
produce  evidence  which  logically  justifies  that  certainty."  It  is 
upon  such  points  as  this  one  that  the  Christian  and  the  agnostic 
come  to  the  forks  in  their  religious  road. 

To  state  the  proposition  more  tersely  we  will  say  that  while 
CSiristianity  is  willing  to  rest  on  "faith"  alone  in  arriving  at  any 
one  or  more  objective  religious  truths,  agnosticism  demands 
something  more — ^it  demands  evidence  of  the  highest  character 
bef  (»re  accepting  as  very  truth  any  kind  of  a  religious  belief  or 
dogma.  Hence  we  find  Christianity  standing  for  a  bare  and  empty 
faith  and  agnosticism  for  the  strongest  and  the  most  indisputable 
of  testimony.  And  so  it  must  be  admitted  that  as  between  the 
Christian  and  the  agnostic  there  is  an  impassable  gulf. 


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102  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

And  again,  Christianity  resting  as  it  does  on  a  belief  in  the 
supematursd,  agnosticism  is  founded  only  upon  the  natural;  while 
the  one  is  dependent  upon  what  is  called  a  divine  revelation,  the 
other  relies  on  vision.  So  therefore  as  between  Christianity  and 
agnosticism  there  must  forever  remain  that  degree  of  antagonism 
which  can  never  be  obliterated  or  destroyed. 

The  fundamental  conception  then  of  Christianity  being  a 
belief  in  the  supernatural,  if  it  be  a  logical  one,  we  might  very  nat- 
urally expect  to  find  in  it  its  own  verity.  What  evidence  have  we 
though  of  any  such  verity  ? 

Now  it  is  to  be  conceded  that  it  is  among  the  possibilities  of 
the  human  mind  not  only  to  conceive  but  also  to  believe;  and  yet 
it  is  not  to  be  denied  that  there  are  also  certain  boundary  lines 
within  which  it  may  both  conceive  and  believe,  atfd  beyond  them 
it  can  not  go.  That  being  true  might  we  not  inquire,  how  is  the 
human  mind — ^it  being  fijiite — either  to  have  a  conception  or  a 
belief  about  things  infinite?  The  hxmian  mind  we  know  to  be  limited, 
and  consequently,  as  Sir  William  Hamilton  says,  it  ''can  know  only 
the  limited,  and  the  conditionally  limited."  Therefore  as  concern- 
ing things  of  the  infinite  (admitting  there  be  an  infinite)  the  human 
mind  can  have  neither  a  conception  nor  a  belief  of  any  kind  what- 
ever. 

Christianity  being  founded  upon  a  belief  in  an  infinite  God,  in 
order  that  it  should  rest  in  the  most  perfect  safety  from  any  and 
all  agnostic  attacks,  it  must  be  able  to  present  that  belief  in  such 
a  garb  and  such  a  one  only  as  may  be  seen  and  realized  as  a  veri- 
table truth  by  the  finite  human  mind;  and  so  it  might  be  well  to 
inquire:  How  is  that  to  be  done?  It  will  not  be  denied  that  human 
beliefs,  as  well  as  everything  else  about  the  human  mind,  are 
relative.  And  if  that  be  true,  how  is  finite  man  to  have  any  con- 
ception of,  much  less  any  real  foundation  whatever  for,  a  belief 
in  the  existence  of  an  infinite  God? 

Mr.  Herbert  Spencer  says  that  ''the  Infinite,  the  Absolute,  to 
be  known  at  all  must  be  classed,"  and  adds,  for  it  even  "to  be  pos- 
itively thought  of,  it  must  be  thought  of  as  such  or  such — as  of 
this  or  that  kind;"  and  he  then  inquires,  "Can  it  be  like  in  kind 
to  anything  of  which  we  have  sensible  experience?"  and  wisely 
answers,  "Obviously  not."    We  must  therefore  admit  then  if  there 


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WHAT  AGNOSTICISM  IS.  103 

is  an  infinite  God  that  we  as  finite  beings  can  know  nothing  what- 
ever of  His  existence. 

Again,  Mr.  Spencer  says,  'It  is  manifest  that,  even  if  we 
could  be  conscions  of  the  absolute,  we  could  not  possibly  know 
that  it  is  the  absolute;  and,  as  we  can  be  conscious  of  an  object 
as  such,  only  by  knowing  it  to  be  what  it  is,  this  is  equivalent  to 
an  admission  that  we  cannot  be  conscious  of  the  absolute  at  all," 
and  so  he  concludes,  as  he  should  do,  that  what  we  ignorantly  call 
the  Infinite,  the  Absolute,  is  but  a  term  expressing  no  object  of 
thought  whatever. 

It  is  therefore  upon  this  question — the  one  involving  the 
existence  of  an  infinite  God — ^that  Christianity  and  agnosticism  are 
first  seen  to  diverge.  Christianity  relying  upon  what  it  is  pleased 
to  call  a  divine  revelation,  says  there  is  an  infinite  God;  while 
agnosticism,  having  no  other  guide  but  reason,  says,  '1  don't  know." 
Hence  upon  the  one  hand  we  find  the  Christian  professing  to  have 
a  knowledge  of  the  first  and  the  final  causes  of  the  tmiverse,  and 
particularly  of  this  world  and  of  the  beings  in  it;  while  upon  the 
other  is  to  be  found  the  agnostic  confessing  his  ignorance  of  all 
such  things. 

Webster  has  the  following  definition  of  agnosticism,  and  one, 
too,  which  agnostics  themselves,  so  far  as  I  know,  are  willing  to 
accept,  viz.:  That  it  is  '"that  doctrine  which,  professing  ignorance, 
neither  asserts  nor  denies;  specifically  in  theology,  the  doctrine 
that  the  existence  of  a  personal  deity  can  be  neither  asserted  nor 
denied,  neither  proved  nor  disproved,  because  of  the  necessary 
limits  of  the  hxmian  mind  (maintained  by  Hamilton  and  Mansel)  or 
because  of  the  insufficiency  of  the  evidence  furnished  by  psychical 
and  physical  data  to  warrant  a  positive  conclusion  (as  taught  by 
Spencer  and  his  school)  opposed  alike  to  dogmatic  skepticism  and 
to  dogmatic  theism." 

To  assert,  as  does  the  theist,  that  there  is  an  infinite  God,  is 
but  saying  that  he  is  able  to  know  that  there  is  such  a  being. 
Bare  and  empty  assertions  of  the  existence  of  any  being  or  thing, 
and  without  some  sort  of  evidence  in  support  of  them,  are  neither 
pardonable  nor  even  excusable  in  any  one.  Therefore,  the  theist, 
whether  he  be  a  Christian  or  any  one  else,  if  he  says  there  is  an 
infinite  God  he  should  be  able  to  establish  such  declaration  with 


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104  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

evidence  the  most  trustworthy  and  indisputable.  Now,  osn  hie  do 
it?  and  if  so,  what  is  going  to  be  the  character  of  his  proof? 

The  Christian  relies  on  faith  and  that  alone  for  his  belief  in 
the  existence  of  an  infinite  God,  and  if  asked  to  define  what  faith 
is,  he  answers  that  it  is  ''the  substance  of  things  hoped  for,  the 
evidence  of  things  not  seen.''  This  all  may  meet  the  requirements 
of  theology,  but  philosophy  demands  something  more  logical  and 
reasonable  in  order  to  satisfy  it  of  the  existence  of  any  being 
either  finite  or  infinite. 

Agnosticism  being  unwilling  to  accept  faith  as  an  infallible 
guide  in  reaching  anything  like  a  reasonable  belief  in  the  existence 
of  an  infinite  God,  it  must  not  be  expected  that  it  is  going  to  step 
beyond  the  knowable  in  its  search  after  the  first  or  final  causes  of 
things;  neither  will  it  claim  even  the  right  to  know  the  unknow- 
able either  in  what  is  called  the  supernatural  or  natural  order  of 
things.  The  agnostic  is  therefore  satisfied  whatever  may  be  the 
objective  point  in  his  investigations,  whether  pertaining  to  tiie 
natural  or  the  supernatural,  to  keep  within  the  boundary  lines  of  his 
own  mental  powers  and  capacities.  The  Christian  may  claim  the 
right,  as  he  often  does,  to  turn  on  his  ''search  light"  of  faith,  and 
to  explore  even  the  invisible  and  the  unknowable,  but  the  agnostic 
never  does. 

Catholic  theology  at  least  teaches  that  "a  God  understood 
would  be  no  God  at  all,"  and  yet  it  would,  it  seems,  apprehend  one 
as  being  not  only  personal  and  intelligent  but  also  self -existent; 
still  whatever,  though  Christian  theology,  whether  Catholic  or  Prot- 
estant, may  teach  concerning  the  existence  of  the  Infinite,  the 
Absolute,  it  does  not  hold  or  maintain  that  it  may  be  "perfectly 
known;"  and  so  it  might  be  after  all  that  Prof.  Huxley  was  not 
very  far  wrong  in  asserting  as  he  once  did  that  "with  scientific 
theology,  agnosticism  has  no  quarrel." 

We  read  in  the  Christian  scriptures  themselves,  "Canst  thou  by 
searching  find  out  God?  Canst  thou  find  out  the  Almighty  unto 
perfection?"  And  again,  that  "no  man  can  find  out  the  work  that 
God  maketh  from  the  beginning  to  the  end."  Agnosticism  must 
therefore  be  acknowledged  to  have  existed,  if  not  as  a  formulated 
doctrine,  at  least  as  a  practical  idea  among  men  throughout  all 
past  ages. 


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WHAT  AGNOSTICISM  IS.  105 

Agnosticidm  has  not  only  characterized  modem  thought  but 
also  the  highest  and  the  grandest  of  ancient  as  well.  The  first  of 
the  Greek  philosophers,  commencing  with  the  physicists  under 
Thales,  the  mathematicians  under  Anaximander  and  Pythagoras,  and 
the  eleatics  under  Xenophanes  and  Zeno,  while  confining  themselves 
in  their  inquiries  to  speculations  concerning  the  natural  order  of 
things,  were  practically  agnostics.  In  fact  it  was  left  to  the  last 
of  those  schools  to  lay  the  foundations  of  that  skeptical  philosophy, 
which  afterwards  so  revolutionized  Greek  thought,  by  boldly  pro- 
claiming their  ignorance  of  the  first  and  final  causes  of  things;  and 
while  Anaxagoras  was  the  first  of  the  Greek  philosophers  to 
announce  his  belief  in  a  Supreme  Intelligence  as  the  primal  cause,  he 
was  nevertheless  willing  to  acknowledge  that  there  still  remained 
much  of  it  all  that  he  did  not  know. 

It  might  here  be  well  to  note  that  as  Democritus  affirmed  the 
Anaxagorian  doctrine  of  a  "Personal  Prime  Principle"  he  has  been 
justly  styled  the  real  founder  of  both  ancient  and  modem  agnosti- 
cism. Others  though,  since  him,  like  Bacon,  Huxley  and  Spencer, 
have  builded  anew  on  the  foundation  he  had  laid  and  have  reared  a 
more  imposing  agnostic  strocture  than  it  was  ever  in  the  power  of 
his  mind  to  conceive. 

As  man  is  a  finite  being,  and  limited  in  knowledge  as  well  as 
he  is  in  everything  else,  there  will  ever  be  something  of  which  he 
can  know  nothing  whatever.  It  must  therefore  be  the  infinite 
being,  if  any  at  all,  who  is  able  to  understand  and  to  know  all 
things.  The  finite  one  being  circumscribed  and  limited,  his  knowl- 
edge must  necessarily  be  also  circumscribed  and  limited,  and  there- 
fore he  is,  his  desires  and  his  ambitions  to  the  contrary  notwith- 
standing to  know  all  things,  an  agnostic. 

While  again,  the  very  fact  of  men's  power  to  increase  in 
knowledge  and  wisdom  is  evidence  sufficient  even  of  itself  to  prove 
that  there  is  also  a  power  within  them,  if  exerted,  to  know  some- 
thing they  do  not  know.  They  are  thus  compelled,  whatever  may 
be  their  professions  to  the  contrary,  in  the  most  practical  sense  to 
be  agnostics. 

Agnosticism  being  the  antithesis  of  Christianity  it  must  there- 
fore stand  for  that  philosophy  and  that  only  which  inspires  men  to 
inquire  into  and  to  investigate  the  hitherto  unknown  even  in  the- 


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106  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

ology.  Hence  it  might  be  denominated  that  branch  of  philosophy 
which  will  accept  nothing  as  true,  and  particularly  that  pertaining 
to  religious  creeds  and  beliefs,  not  in  harmony  with  men's  reason 
and  observation. 

Again,  agnosticism,  unlike  Christianity,  claims  to  have  no 
knowledge  of  what  is  called  the  unseen  world  or  the  future  state 
of  mankind,  and  yet  it  is  always  willing  to  inquire  and  to  know  if  pos- 
sible what  is  and  what  is  not  in  the  beyond  of  this  life  for  all  men. 
Whatever  though  may  be  the  extent  of  its  inquiries,  they  must  be 
along  scientific  lines;  and  whatever  maybe  the  amount  of  its  knowl- 
edge, it  must  be  gained  through  such  channels  and  such  only  as  the 
best  philosophy  may  devise.  Agnosticism  will  take  nothing  as  true 
without  some  reasonable  proof,  even  if  it  should  be  labeled  a  ''thus 
saith  the  Lord." 

With  what  is  called  divine  revelation  agnosticism  has  nothing 
whatever  to  do  except  it  be  to  attack  after  the  most  scientific 
methods  the  weakness  of  its  very  foundation  stone.  It  must,  there- 
fore, as  it  does,  dispute  every  claim  that  Christianity  makes  in  favor 
of  the  doctrine  of  the  divinity  of  the  Jewish  and  Christian  Scrip- 
tures. Neither  does  it  stop  with  these  scriptures,  but  others, 
whether  they  be  those  of  the  Vedas  or  the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Koran 
or  the  Book  of  Mormon,  it  weighs  and  measures  in  the  scales  of 
science,  and  one  and  all  of  them  it  pronounces  to  be  the  produc- 
tions of  finite  men  instead  of  an  infinite  God. 

And  yet  whatever  may  be  the  antagonism  of  agnosticism  to  any 
form  of  so-called  revealed  religion  it  still  is  ever  ready  to  accept 
religious  truth  wherever  it  may  be  found.  It  is  therefore  religious 
truth,  and  it  alone,  it  seeks  to  find,  and  whether  it  be  locked  up  in 
creeds,  or  in  dogmas,  or  fioating  as  it  were  on  the  breeze  of  free 
human  thought,  after  finding  it,  it  utilizes  it  for  man's  good  and 
for  man's  glory. 

To  sum  up:  agnosticism  inquires,  explores  and  investigates 
the  unknown,  and  having  for  its  objective  point  the  highest  truth, 
it  will  accept  nothing  whatever  as  truth  unless  there  is  that  amount 
of  evidence  which  will  justify  its  certainty.  It  puts  no  reliance 
whatever  in  any  blind  religious  faith;  but  reaches  out  and  lays  hold 
on  that  religious  belief,  if  any  at  all,  which  reason  upholds.  Neither 
will  it  accept  any  religious  doctrine  or  belief  as  either  logical  or 


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WHAT  AGNOSTICISM  IS.  107 

true  unless  it  meets  every  demand  of  both  science  and  philosophy. 
I  will  only  add  that  true  religion  wherever  found,  and  whether 
it  be  the  one  of  Brahma  or  Bnddha,  Mohanuned'or  Christ,  will  suffer 
no  injury  from  agnosticism.  The  philosophy  of  inquiry,  or  even 
one  of  skepticism,  never  has  and  never  will  destroy  a  religious 
truth.  That  being  so,  the  Church  of  Christ  instead  of — as  it  is 
often  seen  doing — denouncing  the  agnostic,  should  welcome  him  as 
a  harbinger  of  a  grander  and  a  more  holy  religion.  It  is  indeed 
he  who,  above  all  others,  is  pointing  to  a  new  and  better  way. 


PROM  THE  ARABIC. 


The  mom  that  usher'd  thee  to  life,  my  child, 
Saw  thee  in  tears,  whilst  all  around  thee  smiled. 
When  summoned  hence  to  thy  eternal  sleep. 
Oh,  may'st  thou  smile,  whilst  all  around  thee  weep. 


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A  VOICE  FROM  THE  SOIL. 


BEING  A  STUDY  IN  SCIENCE  AS  A  WARRANT  OP  FATEH. 

BY  JOHN  A.  WIDTSOB. 


[The  following  letter  from  Prof esdOr  Widtsoe  is  sach  an  appropriate 
preface  to  his  very  valoable  paper,  ''A  Voice  From  the  Soil,"  that  we 
publish  it  as  such,  and  it  adds  much  to  the  value  of  the  paper. — Editon.] 

Von  Kendell,  Unterb  Earspule  14, 

GoTTiNGEN,  Germany, 

October  12, 1898. 
Editors  Improvement  Era,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah: 

Dear  Brethren:  I  have  been  a  careful  reader  of  the  Improvement 
Era  since  its  first  appearance,  a  year  ago,  and  have  found  real  enjoy- 
ment in  the  study  of  the  articles  it  has  contained.  Its  evident 
enthusiastic  spirit  of  helping  the  young  men  of  Zion  in  every  possible 
way  has  encouraged  me  to  send  the  enclosed  article. 

I  have  come  into  frequent  contact  with  the  class  of  young  people,  of 
our  advanced  schools,  who  are  just  beginning  the  study  of  modem 
science.  To  these  young  people  the  numberless  phenomena  of  nature 
confuse  the  mind,  and  any  theory  suggested  by  the  teacher  or  by  books 
is  eagerly  seized  as  a  means  of  clearing  the  mist.  The  real  meaning  of 
a  scientific  theory  is  forgotten,  or  not  understood;  the  theories  become 
supreme,  and  the  apparently  intangible  nature  of  faith  and  the  princi- 
ples depending  upon  it  is  magnified.  To  the  thinking  boy,  brought  up  in 
the  fear  of  the  Lord,  comes  a  stage  when  there  is  a  desperate  effort  to 
reconcile  science  and  religion;  but  the  task  is  made  difficult  for  want 
of  deep  scientific  knowledge  and  a  mind  trained  in  discrimination;  and 


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A  VOICE  FROM  THE  SOIL,  109 

-often  the  faith  of  the  boy  is  weakened  for  a  season.  Of  course,  there  is 
no  real  conflict  between  science  and  religion;  and  no  reconciliation  is 
needed  except  by  the  drifting  mind.  Yet  as  long  as  science  is  what  it 
is  today,  and  the  teachers  of  science  half-tanght,  this  condition  will  exist 
in  our  schools.  My  experience  as  a  student  and  teacher  in  the  Church 
and  State  schools  of  Utah  has  impressed  this  fact  deeply  upon  my  mind; 
I  have  myself  gone  through  the  critical  period  when  science  itnd  religion 
seemed  to  rise  up  against  one  another;  and  can  sympathize  keenly  with 
every  young  person  who  is  in  the  same  condition. 

In  my  study  of  science  and  the  gospel  I  have  ever  found  that  the 
conflicts  l^etween  them  were  due  to  insufficient  knowledge,  on  the  part  of 
science — science  is  imperfect;  the  gospel,  as  far  as  we  know  it,  is  perfect. 
My  testimony  is  that  the  study  of  modern  science  furnishes  countless 
evidences  for  the  divinity  of  the  gospel.  I  have  also  found  that  a  little 
guiding  will  set  maty  a  doubting  student  back  into  the  channels  of  cor- 
rect thought.  Often  have  I  seen  the  value  of  the  last  part  of  "A  New 
Witness  for  God"  in  this  respect.  Such  are  the  thoughts  that  prompted 
me  to  select  a  humble  subject  in  science,  and  to  arrange  it  in  a  way  to 
indicate  how  it  may  be  a  strengthener  of  faith.  It  is  but  one  out  of  a 
thousand. 

In  writing  the  accompanying  paper,  three  objects  have  been  kept  in 
view:  1 — ^To  let  science  confirm  the  gospel;  2 — ^To  teach  some  useful 
facts  of  science  without  making  the  didactic  purpose  too  evident;  and 
3 — ^To  set  the  mind  to  thinking. 

*  *  *  With  the  sincere  hope  that  the  Era  may  be  as  useful, 
to  all  who  love  the  gospel,  this  year  as  it  was  last  year,  I  am 

Ver  yrespectfully, 

John  A.  Widtsoe. 


A  VOICE  PROM  THE  SOIL. 

To  a  Mormon  there  is,  in  all  his  experiences,  a  Mormon  point 
of  view.  Let  his  work  be  of  any  nature,  physical  or  mental,  with 
men  or  with  books,  it  will  in  some  way  connect  itself  with  his 
religious  beliefs.  The  unique  missionary  system  of  our  Church  causes 
every  man,  who  is  at  all  devout  in  his  belief,  to  prepare  himself  for 
defending  and  explaining  his  beliefs.  In  this  preparation  he  seeks 
for  material  wherever  he  goes  and  does  not  confine  himself  to  the 
Holy  Scriptures  or  to  the  inspired  writings  of  the  latter-day  prophets. 


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110  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

There  is  a  finn  belief  in  the  heart  of  every  thinking  member  of  this 
Church  that,  were  our  knowledge  perfect  enough,  every  phenomenon 
in  nature  would  be  a  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the  gospel. 

It  is  not  surprising,  therefore,  that  the  young  men  of  the 
Church,  who  devote  themselves  to  a  study  of  modem  science,  should 
find  within  its  domain  evidence  upon  evidence  confirming  in  a 
decided  manner  the  inspired  nature  of  the  latter-day  work.  In  a 
recent  study  of  the  soils  of  Utah,  the  writer  had  occasion  to  bring 
together  a  number  of  historical  and  natural  scientific  facts  which 
added  another  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the  gospel  of  Christ  as 
understood  by  the  Latter-day  Saints. 


" the  defenced  city  shall  be  desolate,  and  the  habitation  for- 
saken, and  left  like  a  wilderness/' — Isaiah^  xxvii:  10. 

It  is  a  fact,  which  has  impressed  itself  upon  all  readers  of 
history,  that  countries  which  have  been  the  homes  of  the  most 
powerful  and  cultured  nations,  are  now  great  stretches  of  the  veri- 
est desert.  No  country  teaches  this  truth  better  than  the  extensive 
valley  of  the  Mesopotamia  which  looms  giant-like  in  the  dawn  of 
history.  Upon  its  plain  and  highlands,  the  great  nations  of  an- 
tiquity acted  the  tragedies  of  their  existences;  like  the  schoolboys' 
snow-man,  they  rose,  with  vast  proportions,  in  a  day;  and  fell  ere 
the  setting  of  the  next  sun.  In  this  district,  advanced  and  retreated 
with  wonderful  precision,  as  it  appears  to  us  so  many  ages  re- 
moved from  the  time  of  action,  the  Chaldeans,  the  Babylonians  and 
the  Assyrians;  here  the  Modes  and  Persians  achieved  the  victories 
that  made  them  famous;  and  here  came  all  the  great  generals  of 
old  to  crown  their  successes.  A  hundred  populous  cities  clustered, 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  valley,  around  Babylon  the  great,  the  most 
marvelous  city  of  any  past  age;  a  hundred  cities  were  in  the  upper 
half,  with  Nineveh,  also  magnificent  and  great,  as  their  center. 
From  Mesopotamia  come  evidences  of  art — ^painting,  sculpture, 
music,  literature  and  architecture — the  indication  of  a  higher  civfl- 
ization.  Still,  today,  even  the  sites  of  many  of  the  great  cities  are 
lost,  and  Mesopotamia  is  a  stretch  of  barren  land. 

To  the  west  of  Mesopotamia  is  the  valley  containing  the  prom- 
ised land  of  Palestine — ^it,  also,  has  fallen  from  its  former  splendor^ 


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A  VOICE  FROM  THE  SOIL.  Ill 

and  is  a  desert  compared  with  the  days  of  its  greatest  prosperity. 
Still  further  west  and  south  lies  the  land  of  Egypt,  in  the  valley  of 
the  Nile.  It  was  the  fostermother  of  science,  and  the  shaker  of 
empires.  It,  too,  has  fallen;  and  a  blight  has  come  upon  the  soil, 
until  it  bears  the  appearance  of  a  sandy  waste.  Over  the  sites  of 
other  famous  nations  of  antiquity,  in  Europe  and  Asia,  hovers,  today, 
the  spirit  of  desolation. 

The  same  story  is  told  on  the  American  continent.  Peru,  the 
land  of  the  Incas,  once  populous,  powerful,  wealthy,  is  today  largely 
a  wilderness.  Mexico,  the  Aztec  home,  is  now  a  vast  desert,  in 
spite  of  the  evidence,  through  the  discovered  ruins  of  mighty  cities 
and  gigantic  temples,  that  it  was  once  the  home  of  a  strong  people. 
Central  America  tells  a  similar  story.  It  seems  to  be  a  general 
.  fact  that  wherever  a  large  people  lived  formerly,  there,  today,  a 
desert  often  occurs. 

However,  these  countries  are  deserts  only  because  human  effort 
is  no  longer  applied  to  them;  by  proper  treatment  the  lands  would 
again  be  raised  to  the  flourishing  condition  that  prevailed  in  their 
prosperous  days.  Intrinsically  the  soils  are  extremely  fertile,  but 
are  dry  and  require  the  application  of  water  to  make  the  fertility 
suitable  for  the  use  of  crops.  The  soils  of  Babylon,  Assyria,  Egypt, 
Peru  and  Mexico,  raise  crops  of  wonderful  yields  when  properly 
irrigated;  and  there  is  abundant  proof  that  in  former  days  irriga- 
tion was  practiced  in  these  countries  on  a  scale  far  larger  than  in 
Utah  or  in  any  other  country  of  the  present  day. 

Many  of  the  old  irrigation  canals  of  Babylon  still  exist,  and 
prove  the  magnitude  of  the  practice,  there,  of  the  art  of  irrigation. 
The  old  historians,  also,  agree  in  explaining  the  ingenious  devices 
by  which  whole  rivers  were  turned  from  their  courses  to  flow  over 
the  soil.  In  Egypt,  likewise,  irrigation  was  more  commonly  prac- 
ticed in  the  past  than  it  is  today;  though  even  now  a  large  portion 
of  the  soil  of  that  country  is  made  to  yield  crops  by  the  artificial 
application  of  water.  In  Peru,  Central  America,  and  Mexico,  the 
irrigation  canals  that  remain  from  prehistoric  days  are  even  more 
wonderful  as  feats  of  engineering  and  as  evidences  of  a  popu- 
lous and  enlightened  condition  of  the  country  than  the  massive 
temples  and  extensive  cities  that  are  also  found.  In  the  construc- 
tion of  these  canals  every  precaution,  apparently,  was  taken  to  have 


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112  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  water  applied  to  the  lands  in  the  right  manner,  and  to  reduce 
the  loss  to  a  minimum.  In  some  places  immense  canals  remain,  that 
are  tiled  for  miles,  on  sides  and  bottom,  in  order  to  render  them 
water-tight,  and  thus  prevent  any  loss  by  seepage. 

Instead  of  saying,  then,  that  the  countries  where  most  great 
nations  have  lived  are  now  deserts,  we  may  as  well  say  that  most 
great  nations  have  lived  in  countries  where  irrigation  was  necessary: 
in  fact,  that  history  indicates  that  a  dense  population,  and  high 
culture,  usually  go  hand  in  hand  with  a  soil  that  thirsts  for  water. 
What  can  science,  the  great  explainer,  say  on  this  subject? 

n. 

"Science  moves,  but  slowly,  slowly,  moving  on  from  point  to  point." 
—LoekdeyHaU. 

A  plant  feeds  in  two  ways — by  its  leaves,  and  by  its  roots.  * 
The  leaves  feed  from  the  air;  the  roots  from  the  soil.  In  the  air 
is  found  a  colorless,  heavy  gas,  known  as  carbon  dioxide,  which  is 
made  up  partly  of  the  element  carbon,  or  charcoal.  When  an 
animal  or  a  plant  is  burned  with  a  low  heat,  it  first  chars,  showing 
the  presence  of  charcoal;  then  if  the  burning  be  continued,  it 
disappears,  with  the  exception  of  the  ash,  as  a  colorless  gas,  car- 
bon dioxide.  Since  animal  and  vegetable  matters  are  constantly 
being  burned  upon  the  earth's  surface,  naturally  the  air  contains  a 
perceptible  quantity  of  carbon  dioxide.  The  leaves  of  a  living 
plant,  waving  back  and  forth,  draw  into  themselves  the  carbon 
dioxide  with  which  they  come  into  contact,  and  there  break  it  up 
and  take  the  carbon  away  from  it.  The  carbon  thus  obtained  by 
the  leaves  is  built  into  the  many  ingredients  of  a  plant,  and  carried 
to  the  parts  that  are  in  greatest  need.  The  plant  is  able  to  do 
this  by  virtue  of  the  peculiar  properties  of  the  green  coloring 
matter  in  all  its  leaves,  leaf  green;  which  acts,  however,  only  in 
the  presence  of  bright  sunlight.  Since  one-half  or  more  of  the 
dry  matter  of  a  plant  is  carbon,  the  importance  of  the  leaf-air- 
feeding  of  a  plant  may  be  understood. 

The  water  which  a  plant  contains  and  the  incombustible  por- 
tions, the  mineral  matters  or  ash,  are  taken  directly  from  the  soil 
by  means  of  the  roots.  The  old  idea  that  vegetable  mould  and 
other  carbonaceous  matters  are  also  taken  from  the  soil  by  the 


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A  VOICE  FROM  THE  SOIL.  113 

roots  has  been  shown  to  be  erroneous.  The  mineral  portions 
of  a  plant  are  of  the  highest  value  to  the  life  of  the  plant — ^with- 
out them,  in  fact,  it  languishes  and  dies.  If  a  soil  on  which  a 
plant  is  growing  contains,  for  instance,  no  iron,  the  leaves  become 
pale,  soon  white,  and  finally  they  lose  the  power  of  appropriating 
carbon  from  the  air.  If  potash  is  absent  from  the  soil,  the  plants 
growing  upon  it  will  develop  in  a  one-sided  way  and  finally  die. 
It  has  been  found  by  careful  experiment  that  seven  mineral  sub- 
stances must  be  found  in  every  soil,  if  it  shall  support  the  life  of 
plants,  namely:  (1)  Potash;  (2)  lime;  (3)  magnesia;  (4)  oxide  of 
iron  or  iron  rust;  (5)  sulphuric  acid  or  oil  of  vitriol;  (6)  phos- 
phoric acid,  and  (7)  nitric  acid  or  aqua  f ortis.  The  fertility  of 
any  sofl  or  soil  district  is  determined  by  the  quantity  of  these  in 
dispensable  ash  ingredients  contained  by  it. 

All  soils  are  produced  by  the  breaking  down  of  the  mountains 
under  the  influence  of  weathering.  The  broken  down  rock  is 
washed  into  the  hollows  and  lowlands  by  the  rains  and  floods  of 
melted  snow,  and  there  forms  soil.  Soil  may,  therefore,  be  defined, 
in  a  general  way,  as  pulverized  rock.  Nearly  all  rocks  contain  the 
elements  above  enumerated  as  being  essential  to  a  plant's  life;  and 
nearly  every  soil  will,  consequently,  be  in  possession  of  them. 
Rocks,  however,  in  being  subjected  to  the  action  of  weathering^ 
undergo  other  changes  than  mere  pulverization.  The  potash,  lime 
and  other  plant  foods  held  by  a  rock  are  in  an  insoluble  condition, 
and  can  not  be  taken  up  with  any  ease  by  the  plant  roots.  As  the 
rock  is  pulverized  in  the  process  of  weathering,  it  is  also  made 
more  soluble,  and  the  juices  of  the  plant  roots  can  then  absorb 
the  needed  foods  with  greater  facility.  This  process  of  making 
the  soil  more  soluble,  continues  while  time  lasts,  and  every  year 
will  find  the  soil  more  soluble  than  the  year  before,  if  there  are 
no  opposing  actions.  Therefore,  the  fertility  of  a  soil  is  deter- 
mined not  only  by  the  quantity  of  plant  food  it  contains,  but  also 
by  the  condition  of  solubility  the  soil  constituents  are  in. 

According  to  the  facts  above  given,  it  would  be  fair  to  infer 
that  a  soil  becomes  more  fertile  with  every  year  that  passes.  This 
woxdd  be  the  case  were  it  not  for  opposing  tendencies.  First,  the 
crops  grown  upon  a  soil  remove  yearly  considerable  quantities  of 
mineral  plant  food.    This  alone  would  not  seriously  affect  the  f er 


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114  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

tility  of  a  soil  did  not  other  forces  act  in  conjunction  with  it. 
The  most  important  canse  of  lowering  the  fertility  of  soils  is 
the  loss  of  plant  food  due  to  drainage.  In  districts  of  abundant 
rainfall,  as,  for  instance,  the  Eastern  United  States,  sufficient  rain, 
falls  to  soak  the  soil  thoroughly  and  to  drain  through  and  go  off 
as  drainage  water.  The  water,  in  passing  through  the  soil,  will 
dissolve,  as  far  as  it  can,  the  soluble  ingredients,  including  the 
plant  foods,  and  carry  them  away  into  the  rivers  and  finally  into 
the  ocean.  This  action,  continued  for  many  years,  will  rob  the  soil 
to  feed  the  ocean;  in  fact,  the  saltness  of  the  ocean  is  due,  largely^ 
to  the  substances  washed  out  of  the  soils.  Most  of  the  poor  soils, 
of  the  world  have  been  rendered  infertile  in  this  way.  If,  on  the 
other  hand,  only  a  small  quantity  of  rain  falls  upon  the  soil — bh 
amount  sufficient  to  soak  the  soil  without  draining  through — ^the 
water  will  gradually  be  evaporated  back  into  the  air,  and  there 
will  be  no  loss  of  plant  food.  In  such  a  district  the  soils,  if  they 
are  treated  right,  become  richer  year  by  year,  even  though  sub- 
•  jected  to  tillage. 

In  every  rainless  district,  or  in  every  district  where  the  rain- 
fall is  so  slight  as  to  render  irrigation  necessary,  the  soils  would 
be  expected  to  be  richer  than  in  a  place  of  abundant  rainfall. 
Leaving  out  of  consideration  differences  due  to  local  conditions,, 
this  has  been  verified  by  the  study  of  soils  from  many  parts  of  the 
world.  The  soils  of  an  arid  district  contain  more  soluble  plant 
food  than  those  of  a  humid  district,  and,  with  proper  treatment, 
will  not  only  raise  larger  crops,  but  remain  fertile  much  longer. 
They  will  also  bear  harsher  treatment,  closer  cultivation,  and  are  in. 
every  respect  superior  to  the  water-washed  soils  of  a  humid 
country.  A  recent  study  of  the  soils  of  Utah  has  shown  that  the 
fertility  of  our  soils  is  exceedingly  high,  and  that  they  will  endure 
long  and  close  cultivation;  that  is,  that  because  of  the  peculiar 
climatic  conditions  of  the  State,  they  can  support  bountifully  a 
large  population. 

Several  years  ago  an  eminent  student  of  climate  and  soils 
threw  out  the  suggestion  that  in  the  facts  just  discussed  rested 
the  explanation  of  the  historical  datum  that  the  great  nations  of 
antiquity  on  this  and  on  other  continents  sought  for  their  abodes  the 
rainless,  arid  stretches  of  the  world.    A  large,  active  population^ 


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A  VOICE  FROM  TEE  SOIL.  115 

-which  do6B  not  depend  on  other  peoples  for  its  support,  must  of 
necessity  possess  the  most  fertile  lands,  which  are  found  only  in 
districts  of  limited  rainfall.  In  the  whole  history  of  the  world, 
the  great  granaries  of  the  world  have  been  located  on  the  arid 
stretches;  and  on  onr  continent,  the  great  West,  largely  arid,  is 
becoming  the  source  of  the  food  staples  of  the  nation.  Utah  is 
the  heart  of  the  arid  region  of  North  America;  her  soils  are  heavy 
with  wealth  of  plant  food.  If  the  time  come  that  her  valleys  be 
filled  with  people,  crowding  in  from  the  nations  of  the  earth,  her 
soils,  responding  to  the  better  treatment  which  science  is  develop- 
ing day  by  day,  will  display  their  strength,  and  feed  the  worlds 
should  the  demand  be  made. 

m. 

"Therefore  will  I  make  solitary  places  to  bud  and  blossom,  and  to 
bring  forth  in  abundance,  saith  the  Lord." — Doctrine  and  Covenants. 

Sixty  years  ago  the  facts  of  plant  feeding,  as  just  outlined, 
were  practically  unknown.  The  erroneous  ideas  of  the  preceding 
century  still  held  full  sway.  In  1840  Ldebig  published  his  treatise 
on  agricultural  chemistry  which  threw  a  faint  light  on  the  relation 
of  the  plant  and  the  soil.  During  the  twenty  years  following,  the 
indispensable  nature  of  some  of  the  plant  foods  was  ascertained ; 
and  it  is  only  within  the  last  ten  or  fifteen  years  that  the  superi- 
ority of  arid  districts  over  humid  ones,  for  the  purpose  of  support- 
ing man,  has  been  demonstrated.  Even  today  it  is  a  new  light 
which  has  not  been  fully  received. 

In  1842  Joseph  the  Prophet  wrote:  "I  prophesied  that  the 
saints  would  continue  to  suffer  much  affliction  and  would  be  driven 
to  the  Rocky  Mountains  *  *  *  and  some  of  you  will  live  to 
go  and  assist  in  making  settlements  and  build  cities  and  see  the 
saints  become  a  mighty  people  in  the  midst  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains." Why  did  Joseph  Smith  speak  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  as  a 
gathering  place  for  his  people?  Was  it  sunply  because  the  place 
was  far  off  and  offered,  apparently,  good  security?  If  so,  he 
builded  better  than  he  knew.  But  what  prompted  Brigham  Young 
to  plant  his  cane  by  the  shore  of  an  alkali  lake  and  say.  Here  we 
shall  remain?  That  certainly  was  not  for  security  only.  Perhaps  he 


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116  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

was  tired  of  wandering?  Tkoogh  he  may  have  been  flo»  yet  he 
was  not  the  man  to  give  up  when  near  8<Hnething  beti;^.  Perh^)B 
he  thought  the  valley  fair,  and  the  blue  mountains  may  have  rested 
his  eyes?  Was  that  tiie  motive  of  setUement?  He,  too^  builded 
better  thanhe  knew.  Certain  it  is  that  these  two  men  who  hiaton- 
cally  hold  the  responsibility  for  bringing  the  Latter-day  Saints 
here,  did  not  know,  by  the  world's  learning,  that  the  valleys  of  Utah 
were  filled  with  the  richest  soil,  waiting  only  to  yield  manifold  to 
the  husbandman ;  for  the  world  did  not  yet  know,  and  had  no 
means  of  predicting  it.  These  men  were  not  scientists*  They  had 
no  laboratories  in  which,  by  long  hours,  over  long  drawn  fires^  and 
among  a  hundred  fumes,  to  draw  out  for  themselves  the  lanr 
of  the  fertility  of  arid  soils,  which  has  but  recently  become  the 
property  of  modem  science.  It  is  not  likely  that  the  records  of 
a  lost  learning,  unknown  today,  taught  them  this  fact.  Though  they 
had  had  such  records,  they  were  unlettered  men,  and  the  ancient 
tongues  would  have  been  dead  indeed  to  them,  had  they  attempted 
an  interpretation  by  their  own  efforts.  Why  then,  did  they  bring 
the  people  here?  Was  it  a  chance  move?  A  blind  effort,  acting 
out  the  desperation  that  comes  from  long  persecution?  If  an  ele- 
ment of  chance  entered  into  the  location  in  the  valleys  of  Utah,  it 
was  akin  to  wisdom. 

And  it  was  wisdom  of  the  highest  kind;  at  which  the  world 
ever  stands  in  reverent  wonder;  inspiration  from  the  living  God. 
The  logic  that  science,  itself,  applies  to  facts  in  the  deduction  of 
its  laws,  makes  it  impossible  to  believe  that  the  settlement  of  the 
pioneers  in  the  Salt  Lake  Valley  was  a  chance  move.  Nothing 
from  the  point  of  view  of  human  wisdom,  encouraged  the  pioneers 
to  remain  in  Utah — ^they  were  in  the  center  of  a  desert;  and  the 
leaders  were  urged  by  many  of  the  company  to  go  on,  for  there 
were  fairer  climes  to  the  west  or  the  south,  or  on  the  islands  of  the 
sea.  But  the  leaders  were  possessed  of  a  wisdom  higher  than  that 
of  men,  and  founded  an  empire  on  the  wastes  of  the  Great  Amer- 
ican Desert. 

Now,  let  every  reader  of  this  paper  consider  these  wonderful 
facts:  Of  the  vast  possibilities  of  agriculture  in  Utah  being  the 
same  with  those  of  the  countries  where  the  great  nations  of  the 
world  have  lived;  of  a  people,  claiming  that  the  nations  shall  in 


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A  VOICE  FROM  THE  SOIL.  117 

the  future  flee  to  it  for  safety,  making  its  home  in  a  place  which 
1)08806808  the  capabilities  of  supporting  the  nations;  and  of  the 
choice  of  that  country  when  it  was  named  a  desert;  when  science, 
the  world's  knowledge,  did  not  dream  of  the  fertility  of  that  des- 
ert any  more  than  it  was  able  to  give  a  correct  explanation  of  the 
fertility  of  the  valley  of  Mesopotamia:  and  every  honest  heart 
will  recognize  the  unseen  hand  of  the  God  of  Israel,  guiding  the 
people  of  God  to  the  destined  end. 


AUTUMN    DAYS.     ■ 

Rustle,  rustle  little  leaves, 

O'er  the  chilly  ground, 
Tell  us  that  the  winter-time 

Is  coming  'round. 
Tell  us  that  the  birds  are  gone, 
With  their  mirthful,  merry  song, 
But  they  will  not  tarry  long, 
WiUthey?    No. 

Ah,  the  sad,  sweet  autumn  days. 

Sad  yet  fair; 
With  their  gold  and  bronzine  leaves 

Flying  everywhere — 
Little  messengers  are  they 
Speaking  to  the  cold,  dark  clay. 
Of  the  death  of  summer  days 
For  awhile. 

Blow  across  the  hills,  oh  winds. 

Blow,  blow — 
Tell  us  of  the  winter  days. 

Of  the  snow 
And  the  icy  river-bed. 
Where  the  frosty  fairies  tread. 
By  the  hoary  snow-king  led 
To  and  fro. 


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118  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Dreary  winds,  oh  dreary  winds. 

Haste  away 
Over  hill  and  dreamy  dell, 

Brown  and  gray; 
Tell  the  flowers  on  yonr  way. 
Tell  the  blasts  that  'round  you  stray, 
Of  the  coming  winter  days 
Now  so  near. 

Playful  little  mountain  streams. 

Swiftly  run 
With  a  message  to  the  sea. 

Where  the  sun 
Soon  will  smile  so  coldly  down, 
On  old  Winter's  chilly  frown, 
While  he  sits  in  snowy  gown 
On  his  throne. 

Little  stream,  oh  little  stream. 

As  you  go. 
Tell  the  fish  along  your  way, 

So  they'll  know 
That  the  winter-time  is  near, 
Then  they  all  will  disappear. 
For  old  Winter's  face  they  fear, 
That  we  know. 

But  we  love  you.  Autumn  days, 

For  you  seem 
To  our  weary  laden  hearts, 

A  grateful  dream; 
Treading  'neath  your  sky  of  gray. 
We  forget,  the  while  we  stray. 
Welcome,  welcome  autumn  days. 
Once  again. 

Nina  Winslow  Eckart. 
Salt  Lake  City,  Nov.  1898. 


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THE  MORMON  POINT  OF  Vffi  W  IN  EDU- 

CATIOR 

BY  B.  H.  ROBERTS. 


The  title  of  the  subject  implies  that  Mormons  holds  a  differ- 
ent point  of  view  as  to  education  than  that  which  is  received  in  the 
world. 

This  can  not  be  as  to  education  itself.  The  whole  world  agrees 
that  education  is  not  reading,  writing,  or  arithmetic — nor  even 
higher  mathematics,  chemistry  and  languages  added.  Everybody 
concedes  that  it  is  the  proper  training  and  full  development  of  the 
whole  man — ^physically,  mentally,  and  spiritually,  the  latter  includ- 
ing moral  development  or  education. 

If  there  is  anything  distinct  in  the  Mormon  point  of  view  in 
education  it  must  be  in  respect  of  which  of  the  three  great  depart- 
ments of  man's  education  is  placed  first,  or  emphasized.  And  when 
it  is  taken  into  account  that  the  Mormon  people  are  connected  with 
the  greatest  religious  movement  of  this  or  any  other  age — a  move- 
ment which  clahns  for  itself  nothing  less  than  being  the  dispensa- 
tion of  the  fullness  of  times — ^in  which  all  things  in  Christ  will  be 
gathered  into  one — ^it  will  not  be  difficult  to  forecast  what  depart- 
ment of  education  Mormonism  makes  of  first  importance. 

Essentially  a  religious  people  and  charged  with  the  evangeliza- 
tion of  the  world  to  their  faith,  it  can  not  be  otherwise  than  that 
the  words  of  Solomon  will  be  the  key  to  their  point  of  view  in  edu- 
cation— 'The  fear  of  the  Lord  is  the  beginning  of  knowledge;"  and 
they  might  not  object  to  the  marginal  rendering  of  the  passage — 
'*The  fear  of  the  Lord  is  the  principal  part  of  knowledge."  Or  in 
the  words  of  Job,  ''Behold  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  that  is  wisdom;  and 
to  depart  from  evil  is  understanding." 


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120  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Moreover,  the  conception  which  Mormonism  teaches  of  man — 
the  fact  that  it  regards  man's  spirit  as  verily  the  offspring  of  Deity, 
and  that  that  spirit  had  an  existence  before  it  tabernacled  in  the 
flesh;  that  man's  spirit  is  by  nature  inmiortal,  a  spark  struck  from 
the  blaze  of  Deity  himself — ^would  further  incline  Mormons  to  re- 
gard the  proper  spiritual  development,  or  spiritual  education  of 
man,  as  being  of  first  importance. 

It  should  further  be  observed  that  as  it  is  taught  in  Mormon 
theology  that  the  spirit  of  man  is  by  nature  immortal,  and  had  an 
existence  before  this  present  one,  so  is  it  taught  that  this  life  is  a 
probation — one  of  the  departments  in  fact  of  God's  great  university, 
through  which  men  are  destined  to  pass  in  the  course  of  their  eternal 
and  progressive  existence.  In  which,  though  I  would  not  disparage 
the  value  of  book  lore,  and  what  commonly  passes  in  the  world  for 
polite  education — ^yet  are  there  more  important  matters  than  book 
learning  and  a  mastery  of  the  curriculum  of  our  academies  and  imi- 
versities.  Even  these  more  weighty  matters,  however,  are,  never- 
theless, in  the  way  of  education,  but  relate  more  especially  to  the 
spiritual  and  moral  development  of  man  than  to  his  mental  training. 

In  other  words,  it  is  of  first  importance,  from  the  Mormon  point 
of  view  in  education,  that  the  student  be  taught  the  truth  about 
himself,  his  own  origin,  nature,  and  destiny;  his  relationship  to  the 
past,  to  the  present,  to  the  future;  his  relationship  to  Deity,  to 
his  fellow-men  and  to  the  universe.  And  then  from  this  vantage 
ground  of  ascertained  relationships  he  is  in  a  position  to  go  forth 
conquering  and  to  conquer  until  all  things  are  subdued  under  his 
feet — except,  as  it  is  said  of  Christ,  Except  him  which  doth  put  all 
things  under  man.  And  when  all  things  shall  be  subdued  unto  man, 
then  shall  man  also  be  subject  unto  God,  that  God  may  be  all  in  alL* 

I  pray  you  think  for  a  moment  what  effect  these  doctrines  must 
have  upon  a  people's  views  of  education: 

Man's  spirit,  the  offspring  of  Deity — ^not  in  any  mystical  sense, 
but  actually;  as  much  so  as  any  child  on  earth  is  the  offspring  of  his 
parents! 

In  a  pre-existent  state,  as  a  spirit,  man  lived  through  long  ages — 


♦I  Cor.  xv:  27,  28. 


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THE  MORMON  POINT  OF  VIEW  IN  EDUCATION       121 

how  long  we  do  not  know.  But  in  that  pre-existent  state  he  lived 
and  doubtless  learned  much  of  the  universe. 

Then  there  came  a  time,  when,  in  order  for  further  develop- 
menty  the  spirit  must  tabernacle  in  flesh  and  learn  the  lessons  that 
a  probation  in  a  world  of  sorrow,  trial,  pain,  sin,  sickness  and  death 
has  to  teach.  That  man  might  learn  to  love  truth,  by  seeing  it  in 
contrast  and  in  conflict  with  ^ror.  That  he  might  learn  to  love  vir- 
tue, by  seeing  it  in  contrast  and  conflict  with  vice.  That  be  might 
learn  to  appreciate  everlasting  life,  by  coming  in  contact  with  and 
submitting  for  a  moment  to  death.  That  he  might  learn  to  walk 
by  faith  through  the  midst  of  doubt;  make  probability  the  basis  of 
action,  rather  than  absolute  knowledge;  and  learn  to  trust  the  wis- 
dom and  goodness  of  God,  where  the  Divine  Providence  can  aot  be 
followed  in  absolute  certainty,  and  by  the  light  of  reason.  And 
above  all,  to  demonstrate  his  fidelity  to  God  in  all  the  variety  of 
trying  circumstances  in  which  he  may  be  placed  in  this  life;  that  he 
might  prove  himself  worthy  of  that  eternal  and  exceeding  weight  of 
glory  t^t  is  prepared  of  God  for  all  those  who  by  patience  and 
well-doing  shall  fill  the  measure  of  their  creation  in  this  life. 

View  also,  I  pray  you,  the  Mormon  doctrine  of  man's  future 
existence  as  well  as  his  past  existence,  and  the  purposes  of  his  pres- 
ent life.  In  Mormon  doctrine  the  resurrection  of  man,  that  is,  the 
resurrection  of  his  body,  and  its  union  with  the  spirit,  is  no  myth; 
the  future  life  is  to  be  no  land  of  shadows  and  unreality.  But  it  is 
to  be  an  existence  where  we  shall  live  in  all  the  warmth  and  full- 
ness of  life;  where  we  shall  eat  and  drink,  even  as  the  risen  Bedeemor 
did;  where  we  shall  see,  and  hear,  and  feel,  and  make  use  of  all  the 
faculties  and  senses  of  the  mind,  and  experience  and  enjoy  all  the 
sentiments  of  the  heart ;  where  we  shall  stand  each  in  his  own  identity 
— knowing  and  being  known;  where  we  shall  build  and  inhabit;  visit 
with  our  friends  and  be  visited  by  them  in  return;  where  we  shall  travel 
from  sphere  to  sphere — ^from  one  planetary  system  to  another — ^from 
one  universe  to  another  (if  you  will  pardon  the  apparent  error  of 
speech) ;  where  we  shall  learn  something  of  the  beginniugless  past,  and 
something  of  an  eternal  future;  something  of  worlds  that  have  been, 
and  worlds  yet  to  be ;  where  we  shall  look  upon  matter  organized  into 
innumerable  suns  and  planetary  systems ;  and  where  we  shall  see  it  roll- 
ing and  tumbling  in  reckless,  heaving,  shapeless  chaos,  covered  with 


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122  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

blackness,  waiting  to  be  spoken,  some  day,  into  order  and  organized 
into  worlds  to  be  inhabited  by  the  children  of  the  Grods.  Man's  future 
existence,  according  to  Mormon  doctrine,  contemplates  all  this,  and 
more.  It  teaches  that  man  in  his  future  life  will  associate  in  coun- 
cils with  exalted  men  who  have  long  since  passed  over  the  pathway 
that  now  may  be  new  to  his  feet;  he  will  learn  by  association 
with  them  the  wisdom  of  the  ages;  and  acquire  and  learn  to  exer- 
cise creative  powers  and  the  mighty  science  of  government  as  it 
exists  with  the  Gods.  He  will  not  only  learn  but  in  his  turn  will 
teach  those  less  advanced  than  himself;  and  thus,  learning  on  the 
one  hand  from  those  more  experienced  and  wiser  than  himself;  and 
on  the  other  teaching  those  not  so  far  advanced  as  himself,  man 
stands,  according  to  Mormon  doctrine,  in  the  midst  of  eternal  pro- 
gression— a  son  of  God,  mingling  with  the  Gods,  and  conjoint-heir 
with  them  in  all  that  is,  whether  past  or  present  of  that  which  is  to 
come. 

Look  upon  man  then  in  this  light,  as  Mormon  doctrine  reveals 
him,  and  what  is  likely  to  be  the  Mormon  point  of  view  in  educa- 
tion? Unquestionably  the  very  broadest  view  possible.  It  will 
lift  all  thoughts  of  education  far  above  the  mere  utilitarian  notion 
of  education.  It  will  not  insist  on  reading,  merely  because  it  may 
be  a  prevention  against  being  taken  in;  on  writing,  that  one  may 
sign  checks  and  bonds  and  write  business  letters;  on  arithmetic, 
that  one  may  cast  up  accounts  and  compute  interest;  on  chemistry, 
that  one  may  keep  a  drug  store.  Education  to  the  Mormon  must 
ever  mean  more  than  this  severely  commercial  or  utilitarian  view 
of  it. 

The  Mormon  point  of  view  in  education  will  regard  man's  past 
and  man's  future,  and  will  arrange  its  curriculum  of  instruction 
with  reference  to  both  that  past  and  future.  And  it  will  and  does 
emphasize  the  spiritual — which  also  includes  the  moral — education 
of  man.  Hence  it  is  that  the  Church  provides  academies  and 
colleges  where  theology,  that  is  to  say,  the  science  which  teaches 
the  relationship  of  Deity  and  man,  and  the  science  of  right-living, 
is  made  a  prominent  feature  in  the  course  of  studies. 

And  yet  I  would  not  have  my  readers  think  that  the  Mormon 
point  of  view  in  education  emphasizes  the  spiritual  education  of 
man  to  the  neglect  of  his  intellectual  and  physical  education.    Nor 


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THE  MORMON  POINT  OF  VIEW  I^  EDUCATION.       123 

do  Mormons  regard  intellectual  and  physical  education  in  less 
esteem  than  other  people  do.  It  is  not  a  case  of  esteeming  intel- 
lectual and  physical  education  less,  but  of  esteeming  spiritual 
education  more.  I  think  no  other  people  are  more  impressed  with 
the  importance  of  mental  and  physical  development  than  are  the 
Latter-day  Saints.  ^  It  was  their  great  prophet  Joseph  Smith  who 
was  the  first  to  teach  that  ''a  man  is  saved  no  faster  than  he  gets 
knowledge,  and  if  he  does  not  get  knowledge,  he  will  be  brought 
into  captivity  by  some  evil  power  in  the  other  world,  as  evil  spirits 
will  have  more  knowledge,  and  consequently  more  power,than  many 
men  who  are  on  earth.*^ 

He  was  the  first  to  say:  'It  is  impossible  for  a  man  to  be 
saved  in  ignorance."t 

The  first  to  say,  so  far  at  least  as  I  know:  '^Whatever  princi- 
ples of  intelligence  we  attain  unto  in  this  life,  it  will  rise  with  us  in 
the  resurrection;  and  if  a  person  gains  more  knowledge  and  intelli- 
-gence  in  this  life  through  his  diligence  and  obedience  than  another, 
he  will  have  so  much  the  advantage  in  the  world  to  come.'^j: 

This  is  said  of  knowledge  in  general,  and  evidently  applies, 
Aot  only  to  knowledge  of  facts  either  moral  or  intellectual,  but  also 
to  an  application  of  this  knowledge  of  facts  to  conduct,  that  is, 
to  applied  knowledge,  either  of  an  intellectual  or  moral  character. 

Looking  at  the  scope  of  knowledge  in  the  field  to  which  Mor- 
monism  invites — ^nay,  commands — its  devotees  to  enter,  one  must 
be  struck  with  the  comprehensiveness  of  it;  for  it  seems  to  me 
that  it  covers  every  possible  source  from  which  knowledge  can  be 
obtained.  You  will  find  warrant  for  what  I  say  in  a  revelation 
given  on  the  27th  of  December,  1832.  It  is  true  this  revelation 
was  given  to  a  number  of  elders  about  to  engage  in  the  ministry, 
but  they  were  only  commanded  to  learn  that  which  they  were 
expected  to  teach  to  the  world  and  to  the  Saints,  hence  indi- 
rectly we  may  say  that  it  is  an  admonition  that  applies  to  all  the 
Saints,  as  well  as  to  the  Elders  of  the  Church.  Following  is  the 
passage: 


*  Millennial  Star  Vol.  xix,  p.  321. 
t  Doctrine  and  Covenants  Sec.  131:  6. 
t  Doctrine  and  Covenants  Sec.  130:  18, 19. 


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124  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

''And  I  give  unto  yon  a  commandment  that  you  shall  teaeh 
one  anoth^  the  doctrine  of  the  kmgdom;  teach  ye  diligently,  and 
my  grace  shall  attend  you,  that  you  may  be  instructed  more  per- 
fectly in  theoiy,  in  principle,  in  doctrine,  in  the  law  of  the  goi^, 
in  all  things  that  pertain  unto  the  kingdom  of  God,  that  are  expe- 
dient for  you  to  understand;  of  things  both  ii^  heaven  and  in  the 
earth;  things  which  have  been,  things  which  are,  things  which 
must  shortly  come  to  pass;  things  which  are  at  home,  things  which 
are  abroad;  the  wars  and  the  perplexities  of  the  nations,  and  the 
judgments  which  are  on  the  land,  and  a  knowledge  also  of  countries 
and  kingdoms.  *  *  *  And  as  all  have  not  faith,  seek  ye  diligently 
and  teach  one  another  w<»ds  of  wisdom,  yea,  seek  ye  out  of  the 
best  books  words  of  wisdom,  seek  learning  even  by  study,  and  also 
by  faith.'^ 

I  think  I  may  safely  challenge  any  one  to  point  out  a  broader 
field  of  knowledge  than  is  here  indicated.  It  includes  all  spiritual 
truth,  all  scientMc  truth,  all  secular  knowledge — ^knowledge  of 
the  past,  of  the  present,  of  the  future;  of  the  heavens,  and  of  the 
earth.  A  knowledge  of  all  countries,  their  geography,  languages, 
history,  customs,  laws  and  governments — everything  in  fact  that 
pertains  to  them.  There  is  nothing  in  the  heights  above  or  the 
depths  below  that  is  not  included  in  this  field  of  knowledge  into 
which  the  commandment  of  (rod  directs  his  servants  to  enter. 
I  may  claim  for  it  that  it  includes  the  whole  realm  of  man's  intel- 
lectual activities.  And  the  doctrine  that  whatever  principles  of 
intelligence  man  attains  unto  in  this  life  will  rise  with  him  in  tiie 
morning  of  the  resurrection — this  doctrine  that  nothing  acquired 
in  respect  to  knowledge  is  ever  lost,  must  forever  form  the  most 
powerful  incentive  to  intellectual  effort  that  possibly  can  be  con- 
jured up  by  the  wit  of  man.  So  that,  referring  to  the  acquirement 
of  knowledge,  and  intellectual  development,  Mormonism  at  once 
both  indicates  the  broadest  field  and  fimiishes  the  grandest  incen- 
tive to  intellectual  effort. 

In  respect  of  physical  development  or  education,  we  may  also 
say  that  Mormonism  affords  the  strongest  incentives  to  its  highest 
attaumient.     Teaching  as  it  does  that  the  body  is  to  be  the 


*  Doctrine  and  Covenants  Sec.  88:  77-79, 118. 


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THE  MORMON  POINT  OF  VlhW  IN  EDUCATION.       125 

eternal  tabernacle  of  the  spirit  of  man;  that  the  identical  body 
through  which  the  spirit  has  manifested  itself  in  this  life  shall  be 
raised  firom  the  dead  and  again  be  inhabited  by  the  spirit;  teach- 
ing, in  fact,  that  ''the  spirit  and  the  body  is  the  soul  of  man,"  and 
that  ''the  resurrection  from  the  dead  is  the  redemption  of  the 
soal,''  it  can  not  but  follow  that  where  such  views  are  held  in 
respect  to  the  resurrection  of  the  body  and  its  eternal  reunion  with 
the  spirit,  the  most  lively  interest  will  be  felt  for  its  develop- 
ment or  education,  and  for  its  proper  preservation.  In  pursuance 
of  this,  God  has  given  a  revelation  commonly  known  among  us  as 
the  Word  of  Wisdom,  that  has  for  its  direct  object  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  body  from  those  ill  effects  which  follow  from  the  use 
of  tobacco,  wine,  strong  drinks  and  the  excessive  use  of  meats; 
and  gives  us  the  unbounded  assurance  that  if  in  addition  to  keep- 
ing the  commandments  of  God  we  also  observe  this  word  of  coun- 
sel or  wisdom,  then  the  body  will  perform  to  the  uttermost  the 
functions  assigned  to  it.  Those  who  fulfill  these  conditions  we  are 
told  shall  run  and  not  be  weary,  shall  walk  and  not  faint;  and 
further,  the  destroying  angel  shall  pass  by  them  as  in  the  case  of 
the  children  of  Israel  and  not  slay  them.  Nor  is  this  all;  but  the 
mind  reding  in  the  delight  of  union  with  a  tabernacle  so  pre- 
served shall,  in  responsive  sympathy,  "find  wisdom,  and  great 
treasures  of  knowledge — even  hidden  treasures."  That  means,  as  I 
view  it,  not  the  mass  of  knowledge  that  others  have  learned  and 
written  in  books,  or  that  lives  in  traditions,  but  it  means  access  to 
the  greater  mass  of  knowledge  not  yet  made  known  to  man,  but 
waiting  to  be  revealed  for  the  increased  blessing  of  our  race. 

And  now  at  this  point  I  think  I  am  prepared  to  say  what  per- 
haps at  first  I  could  not  have  said,  viz.,  that  while  undoubtedly  one 
of  the  distinctive  features  in  the  Mormon  point  of  view  in  educa- 
tion is  to  regard  the  spiritual,  including  the  moral,  education  of 
man  as  of  first  importance — emphasizing  that — ^yet  another,  a 
broader  distinctive  characteristic,  and  one  that  includes  the  first 
one  pointed  out  and  perhaps  all  others,  is  that  in  the  Mormon  point 
of  view  in  education  all  departments  in  education,  intellectual  and 
physical  alike,  should  be  sanctified  by  being  overshadowed  by  the 
spiritual.  That  is,  both  mental  and  physical  education  should  have 
a  dash  of  spiritualism  in  them.    All  educational  effort  should  be 


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126  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

xmdertaken  and  pursued  with  reference  to  their  effect  upon  man, 
not  as  a  being  whose  existence  terminates  with  the  grave,  but  who 
ia  to  live  forever  and  who  may,  if  he  will,  become  a  conjoint  heir 
with  Jesus  Christ  to  all  the  thrones,  principalities,  powers,  and 
dominions  that  the  Father  hath.  This,  as  I  view  it,  is  the  Mor- 
mon point  of  view  in  education — it  has  regard  not  only  to  the 
preparation  of  man  for  the  duties  and  responsibilities  of  the 
moment  of  time  he  lives  in  this  world,  but  aims  to  prepare  him  for 
eternal  life  in  the  mansions  and  companionship  of  the  Gods. 


PAST  AND  FUTURE. 

WRITTEN  FOR  THE  ERA  BY  JAMES  INGEBRETSEN. 


In  the  misty  shades  of  twilight,  out  upon  the  ocean  beach, 

Where  the  murm'ring  of  the  billows  mingle  not  with  human  speecb,- 

Long  I  wandered,  lost  in  thinking,  on  that  lonely  ocean  strand. 
Seeking  solace  from  the  waters  sporting  on  the  wavy  sand. 

There  before  me  was  the  prospect  of  the  boundless,  restless  sea; 
Instigating  dreamy  fancies  of  the  Past  and  Is-to-be: 

Quoth  I:  "In  the  slimy  contents  of  thy  water-covered  bed. 
Are  there  skillful  genii  can  relate  the  secrets  of  the  dead? 

"Grant  that  one  may  come  and  tell  me  of  the  wonders  that  have  been- 
Tell  to  me  the  mystic  stories  of  the  changes  he  has  seen." 

Then  arose  a  shape  fantastic,  vestured  not  in  earthly  dress, 
Chiird  me  with  a  subtle  terror  that  my  nerves  could  scarce  repress. 

Game  a  voice,  so  deep,  sepulchrs^l,  all  my  being  stood  aghast! 
"Mortal,  listen  to  the  promptings  of  the  hoary-headed  Past!" 

Now  a  mixed,  discordant  mutt'ring  fell  upon  my  straining  ears. 
Shaping  here  and  there  a  sentence  from  the  leaves  of  ancient  years.. 

But  no  tale  could  I  distinguish,  till  the  voice  had  reached  the  end. 
Where  the  misty  Past  and  Future  with  the  living  Present  blend. 


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PAST  AND  FUTURE.  127 

'"Spirit,"  quoth  I,  "of  the  hidden  chambers  of  the  days  of  yore,' 
Finite  mind  cannot  detect  the  meaning  of  thy  musty  lore. 

'Tell  me  of  the  coming  epochs,  of  the  days  that  are  to  be; 
Show  my  soul  the  future  records;  take  the  Past  back  to  the  sea." 

Silence  reigned  upon  the  waters,  and  the  shape  was  wrapped  in  gloom. 
Bat  again  I  heard  the  accents  of  a  voice  as  from  the  tomb. 

Long  I  looked,  intent,  expectant,  for  some  strange,  mysterious  form; 
But  instead,  the  darkness  deepened,  like  the  blackest  clouds  of  storm. 

And  I  looked  in  vain  for  Future;  only  Darkness  there  amassed; 
And  the  only  voice  I  heard  there  was  the  accents  of  the  Past: 

''Mortal,  fix  thy  wand'ring  mind  upon  the  ever  living  now; 
Let  thy  curious  inclination  to  the  active  Present  bow. 

"You  can  only  judge  the  future  by  the  whisp'rings  of  the  past, — 
Judge  the  next  occurrence  only  by  the  one  that  happened  last. 

"As  the  pages  of  the  past  are  torn,  and  blurred,  and  darkly  dim. 
So  the  record  of  the  future  cannot  yet  be  clearly  seen. 

"Work  and  struggle  while  the  flying  moments  of  to  day  remain; 
Shun  the  crooked  paths  and  by-way;  seek  but  for  the  narrow  lane.' 

Truth  the  only  light  to  guide  you  'mid  the  darkness  of  the  way, 
Truth,  the  Spirit  of  our  Father,  leading  to  the  brighter  day.' 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR 

BETWEEN  SPAIN  AND  THE  UNITED  STATES  OP  AlffiRICA. 


(CONTINUBD  FROM  PAGE  66,  NO.  1.) 

vn. 

For  some  time  im  expedition  to  Porto  Rico  had  been  contem- 
plated by  the  military  authorities  at  Washington,  and  when  Santiago 
fell  it  .was  immediately  decided  that  a  military  force  should  be  sent 
to  take  possession  of  that  valuable  island.  Accordingly  on  July  2l8t 
the  main  body  of  the  military  expedition  destined  for  Porto  Rico 
sailed  from  Guantanamo  Bay  under  command  of  General  Miles.  The 
invading  army  was  conveyed  to  its  destination  by  the  MasBochusdU^ 
Dixie,  GloueesteTf  Oincinnati,  Annapolis,  Wasp,  Yale  and  Cohmbia. 
The  troops  numbered  about  3,400  men,  including  four  light  batteries 
of  the  Third  and  Fourth  Artillery,  and  Battery  B  of  the  Fifth  Artil- 
lery.  The  landing  was  effected  at  Guanica,  a  port  on  the  southern 
coast  of  Porto  Rico,  fifteen  miles  west  of  Ponce. 

Only  slight  resistance  was  offered  by  the  Spaniards,  consisting 
of  a  skirmish  between  the  GUmcester^s  launch  crew  and  a  small 
force  of  Spanish  troops.  The  Americans  then  occupied  the  place 
under  General  Miles,  and  the  stars  and  stripes  were  raised  amid 
great  enthusiasm,  the  inhabitants  professing  loyalty  to  the  United 
States. 

After  effecting  this  landing  and  the  capture  of  Ponce,  the 
invading  army  marched  across  the  island  north  in  the  direction  of  San 
Juan,  situated  on  the  north  coast  of  Porto  Rico,  as  that  was  the 
army's  objective  point.    But  little  resistance  was  offered,  the  invad- 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  129 

ers  being  generally  welcomed  by  the  inhabitants,  who  had  grown 
tired  of  Spanish  tyranny.  At  Coamo  there  was  a  slight  resistance, 
but  the  Americans  captured  the  town  after  killing  three  Spanish 
officers  and  nine  privates.  There  was  also  an  artillery  fight  near 
AibonitOy  one  American  officer  was  killed  and  four  privates  wounded, 
after  which  the  place  surrendered. 

In  the  meantime  the  invading  army  was  drawing  near  San  Juan, 
when  further  hostilities  were  stopped  by  the  arrival  of  the  news 
that  the  peace  protocol  had  been  signed  at  Washington  and  orders 
given  to  stop  fighting. 

MOVEMENTS  IN  THE   PHILIPPINES. 

Meantime  some  interesting  events  were  taking  place  in  the 
Philippine  Islands.  On  the  22nd  of  July  Aguinaldo,  the  Philippine 
insurgent  leader,  having  grown  insolent,  proclaimed  himself  dictator 
of  the  Islands.  On  July  29th  the  American  troops  who  had  been 
quartered  at  Cavite,  were  moved  forward  in  the  direction  of  Manila 
as  far  as  Malate.  On  the  31st  of  July  they  were  attacked  in  the 
night  by  Spanish  troops,  who  were  repulsed  with  great  loss.  It  was 
at  this  battle  that  the  Utah  troops,  especially  those  in  Battery  A, 
Captain  Richard  W.  Young  commanding,  distinguished  themselves. 
Following  is  a  detailed  account  of  the  fight  sent  from  Manila  via 
Hong  Eong,  on  August  9th.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  report  that 
the  arrival  of  several  American  expeditions,  which  had  been  sent  to 
Manila,  had  made  the  Spaniards  desperate.  The  story  of  the  battle 
begins  with  an  account  of  the  forces  under  Greneral  Greene  moving 
up  from  Cavite  to  Malate: 

"Gen.  Greene's  force,  numbering  4,000  men,'had  been  advancing  and 
intrenching.  The  arrival  of  the  third  expedition  filled  the  Spaniards  with 
rage,  and  they  determined  to  give  battle  before  Camp  Dewey  could  be 
reinforced.  The  trenches  extended  from  the  beach  three  hundred  yards 
to  the  left  flank  of  the  insurgents. 

"Sunday  was  the  insurgent  feast  day  and  their  left  flank  withdrew, 
leaving  the  American  right  flank  exposed.  Companies  A  and  E  of  the 
Tenth  Pennsylvania  and  Utah  battery  were  ordered  to  reinforce  the  right 
flank. 

"In  the  midst  of  a  raging  typhoon,  with  a  tremendous  downpour  of 
rain,  the  enemy's  force,  estimated  at  3,000  men,  attempted  to  surprise 


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130  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

ifae  camp.  Oar  pioketB  were  driven  in  and  the  trenches  aasanlted.  Tte 
Inrave  Pennsylvania  men  never  flinched,  bat  stood  their  ground  under  a 
withering  fire. 

**  The  alarm  spread,  and  the  First  California  regiment,  with  two  com- 
panies of  the  Third  artillery,  who  fight  with  rifles,  were  sent  ap  to  rein- 
force the  Pennsylvanians.  The  enemy  were  on  top  of  the  trenches  when 
these  reinforcements  arrived,  and  never  was  the  discipline  of  the  regulars 
better  demonstrated  than  by  the  work  of  the  Third  artillery  under  Cap- 
tain O'Hara.  Nothing  could  be  seen  but  flashes  of  Mauser  rifles.  Men  ran 
right  up  to  the  attacking  Spaniards  and  mowed  them  down  with  regular 
volleys. 

UTAH  BATTERY  COVERED  WITH  GLORY. 

"The  Utah  battery,  under  Capt.  Young,  covered  itself  with  glory. 

'^he  men  pulled  their  guns  through  mud  axle  deep.  Two  guns  were 
sent  around  on  the  flank  and  poured  in  a  destructive  enfilading  fire.  The 
enemy  was  repulsed  and  retreated  in  disorder.  Our  infantry  had  exhausted 
its  ammunition  and  did  not  follow  the  enemy.  Not  an  inch  of  ground 
was  lost,  but  the  scene  in  the  trenches  was  one  never  to  be  forgotten. 

"During  the  flashes  of  lightning  the  dead  and  wounded  could  be  seen 
lying  in  blood-red  water,  but  neither  the  elements  of  heaven  nor  the 
destructive  power  of  man  could  wring  a  cry  of  protest  from  the  wounded. 
They  encouraged  their  comrades  to  flght  and  handed  over  their  cartridge 
belts. 

"During  the  night  the  Spanish  scouts  were  seen  carrying  off  the  dead 
and  wounded  of  the  enemy.  The  American  dead  were  buried  next  day  in 
the  convent  of  Maracaban. 

"On  the  night  of  August  Ist  the  fighting  was  renewed,  but  the 
enemy  had  been  taught  a  lesson  and  made  the  attack  at  long  range  with 
heavy  artillery. 

''The  Utah  battery  replied  and  the  artillery  duel  lasted  an  hour.  One 
man  was  killed.  He  was  Fred  Springstead,  First  Colorado,  and  two  men 
were  wounded. 

"On  the  night  of  August  2nd  the  artillery  duel  was  renewed.  Two 
men  were  badly  wounded  and  are  this  morning  reported  dead,  which 
brings  the  total  dead  to  thirteen,  with  ten  in  the  hospital  mortally  hurt. 

"Gen.  Greene  issued  this  address  to  the  troops:  'Camp  Dewey,  near 
Manila. — ^The  Brigadier-General  commanding  desires  to  thank  the  troops 
engaged  last  night  for  gallantry  and  skill  displayed  by  them  in  repelling^ 
such  a  vigorous  attack  by  largely  superior  forces  of  Spaniards. 

"  'Not  an  inch  of  ground  was  yielded  by  the  Tenth  Pennsylvania  infant 
try  and  Utah  artillery  stationed  in  the  trenches. 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  131 

"  'A  iMbttalion  of  the  Third  artillery  and  First  regiment  California 
in&ntry  moved  forward  to  their  rapport  through  a  galling  fire  with  the 
ntanost  intrepidity.  The  conrage  and  steadiness  shown  by  all  in  the 
oigagement  is  worthy  of  the  highest  commendation/  ^ 

Notwithstanding  the  fierceness  of  the  battle  and  the  prominent 
part  the  Utah  troops  took  in  it,  there  were  none  killed  or  wonnded. 

The  press  dispatches  throughout  the  country  all  spoke  in  the 
highest  terms  of  the  bravery  and  eflSciency  of  the  Utah  battery^ 
and  of  the  admirable  way  in  which  Captain  Young  handled  his  men» 
The  New  York  World  of  the  11th  of  August,  in  speaking  editorially 
of  the  part  taken  by  the  Utah  troops,  said: 

''Our  latest  State  has  borne  its  share  in  adding  to  the  glory  of  the 
nation.  In  the  battle  of  Malate  the  Utah  light  artillery,  whose  guns 
were  dragged  through  deep  mud  to  send  shrapnel  into  the  Spaniards'  ranks^ 
showed  itself  deserving  of  all  honor.  Utah  has  had  its  troubles  in  the 
past,  but  when  she  sends  such  a  contribution  to  the  nation  We  wipe  out 
the  memory  of  all  troubles.'' 

On  the  7th  of  August,  Admiral  Dewey  and  General  Merritt 
joined  in  demanding  the  surrender  of  Manila,  which,  however,  was 
refused,  and  preparations  for  taking  the  city  by  storm  were  at  once 
made,  and  on  August  13th,  the  fleet  under  Admiral  Dewey  and  the 
troops  under  General  Merritt  made  a  simultaneous  attack  on  the 
city  of  Manila.  The  troops  led  by  Generals  McArthur  and  Greene 
carried  the  Spanish  works  with  a  loss  in  killed,  missing,  and 
wounded  of  about  fifty  men.    The  navy  sustained  no  loss  whatever. 

After  six  hours'  hard  fighting  the  Spanish  authorities  sur- 
rendered the  city  with  about  7,000  prisoners.  The  following  are 
the  terms  of  capitulation: 

First — ^The  Spanish  troops,  European  and  native,  capitulate  the  city 
and  defenses,  with  all  honors  of  war,  depositing  their  arms  in  the  places 
designated  by  the  authorities  of  the  United  States,  and  remaining  in  the 
quarters  designated  and  under  the  orders  of  their  officers  and  subject  to 
control  of  the  aforesaid  United  States  authorities  until  the  conclusion  of 
the  treaty  of  peace  between  the  two  belligerent  nations.  All  persons 
included  in  the  capitulation  remain  at  liberty;  the  officers  remaining  in 
their  respective  hoxoes,  which  shall  be  respected  as  long  as  they  observe 
the  regulations  prescribed  for  their  government  and  the  laws  in  force. 


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132  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Second — ^The  officers  shall  retain  their  side  arms,  horses  and  private 
property.  All  public  horses  and  public  property  of  all  kinds  shall  be 
turned  over  to  the  staff  officers  designated  by  the  United  States. 

THiRD-^Complete  returns  in  duplicate  of  men  by  organizations  and 
full  lists  of  public  property  and  stores  shall  be  rendered  to  the  United 
States  within  ten  days  from  this  date. 

Fourth — ^All  questions  relating  to  the  repatriation  of  officers  and 
men  of  the  Spanish  forces  and  of  their  families  and  of  the  expenses  which 
said  repatriation  may  occasion,  shall  be  referred  to  the  government  of 
the  United  States,  at  Washington.  Spanish  families  may  leave  Manila  at 
any  time  convenient  to  them.  The  return  of  arms  surrendered  by  the 
Spanish  forces  when  they  evacuate  the  city,  or  when  the  Americans  evacute. 

Fifth — Officers  and  men  included  in  the  capitulation  shall  be  sup- 
plied by  the  United  States,  according  to  their  rank,  with  rations  and 
necessary  aid,  as  though  they  were  prisoners  of  war,  until  the  conclusion 
of  •a  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  and  Spain.  All  the  funds 
in  the  Spanish  territory  and  all  other  public  funds  shall  be  turned  over 
to  the  authorities  of  the  United  States. 

Sixth — ^This  city,  its  inhabitants,  its  churches  and  religious  worship, 
its  educational  and  business  and  its  private  property  of  all  descriptions 
are  placed  under  the  safeguard  of  the  faith  and  honor  of  the  American 
army. 

Military  government  was  immediately  proclaimed  by  General 
Merritt.  Thus  the  city  of  Manila,  together  with  the  whole  group 
of  the  Philippine  Islands,  were  at  the  disposal  of  the  American  gov- 
ernment. 

The  disastrous  events  which  had  overtaken  the  Spanish  gov- 
ernment in  this  war  with  America,  and  the  singular  immunities  from 
the  accidents  of  war  on  the  part  of  the  Americans,  compelled  the 
Spanish  to  take  into  consideration  the  necessity  of  suing  for  peace; 
and  accordingly  on  the  25th  of  July  a  message  was  drawn  up  by 
the  Spanish  government  addressed  to  the  government  at  Washing- 
ton proposing  an  armistice  for  the  purpose  of  drafting  terms  upon 
which  peace  with  the  United  States  could  be  arranged.  The  day  fol- 
lowing, through  M.  Jules  Cambon,  ambassador  of  France  to  the 
United  States,  Spain  opened  negotiations  looking  toward  the  estab- 
lishment of  peace.  For  some  time  there  was  diplomatic  fencing  on 
the  part  of  Spain  to  obtain  the  most  advantageous  terms  upon  which 
peace  could  be  secured,  and  her  representatives  manifested  a  dis- 


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PROGRESS  OF  THE  WAR.  133 

position  to  resort  to  the  dilatory  tactics  for  which  Spanish  diplo- 
macy is  famous;  but  the  American  government  was  not  in  a  mood 
to  yield  too  much;  and  at  last,  on  the  12th  of  August,  the 
peace  protocol  was  signed,  at  4:23  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  Secre- 
tary Day  representing  the  United  States  and  M.  Cambon,  the  French 
ambassador,  representing  the  Spanish  government.  The  following 
conditions  of  the  peace  protocol  were  officially  announced: 

First — ^That  Spain  will  relinquish  all  claims  of  sovereignty  over  and 
title  to  Cuba. 

Second — ^That  Porto  Rico  and  other  Spanish  islands  in  the  West 
Indies,  and  an  island  in  the  Ladrones,  to  be  selected  by  the  United  States, 
shall  be  ceded  tb  the  latter. 

Third — ^That  the  United  States  will  occupy  and  hold  the  city,  bay 
and  harbor  of  Manila,  pending  the  conclusion  of  a  treaty  of  peace  which 
shall  determine  the  control,  disposition  and  government  of  the  Philippines. 

Fourth — ^That  Cuba,  Porto  Rico  and  other  Spanish  islands  in  the 
West  Indias  shall  be  immediately  evacuated,  and  that  commissioners  to 
be  appointed  within  ten  days  shall  within  thirty  days  from  the  signing  of 
the  protocol  meet  at  Havana  and  San  Juan  respectively  to  arrange  and 
execute  the  details  of  the  evacuation. 

Fifth — ^That  the  United  States  and  Spain  will  each  appoint  no  more 
than  five  commissioners  to  negotiate  and  conclude  a  treaty  of  peace.  The 
commissioners  are  to  meet  at  Paris,  no  later  than  the  1st  of  October. 

Sixth — On  the  signing  of  the  protocol,  hostilities  will  be  suspended 
and  notice  to  that  effect  will  be  given  as  soon  as  possible  by  each  gov- 
ernment to  the  commanders  of  its  military  and  naval  forces. 

As  soon  as  the  peace  protocol  was  signed,  the  president  of  the 
United  States  issued  the  following  proclamation: 

By  the  President  of  the  United  States  of  America— A  Proclamation. 

Whereas,  By  a  protocol  concluded  and  signed  August  12, 1898,  by 
William  R.  Day,  Secretary  of  State,  of  the  United  States,  and  his  excel- 
lency, Jules  Cambon,  Ambassador  Extraordinary  and  Minister  Plenipo- 
tentiary of  the  Republic  of  France,  at  Washington,  respectively  represent- 
ing for  this  purpose  the  government  of  the  United  States  and  the  gov- 
ernment of  Spain,  the  United  States  and  Spain  have  formally  agreed  upon 
the  terms  on  which  negotiations  for  the  establishment  of  peace  between 
the  two  countries  shall  be  undertaken;  and. 

Whereas,  It  is  in  said  protocol  agreed  that  upon  its  conclusion  and 
signature,  hostilities  between  the  two  countries  shall  be  suspended  and 


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184  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

notice  to  that  effect  shall  be  given  as  soon  as  possible  by  each  goveni- 
ment  to  the  commanders  of  its  militarj  and  naval  forces — 

Now,  therefore,  I,  William  McKinley,  President  of  the  United  States, 
do  in  accordance  with  the  stipulations  of  the  protocol  declare  and  proclaim 
on  the  part  of  the  United  States  a  suspension  of  hostilities  and  do  hereby 
command  that  orders  be  immediately  given  through  the  proper  channel 
to  the  military  and  naval  forces  of  the  United  States  to  abstain  from  all 
acts  inconsistent  with  this  proclamation. 

In  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  caused  the  seal 
of  the  United  States  to  be  affixed. 

Done  at  the  City  of  Washington,  this  12th  day  of  August,  in  the  year 
of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  ninety-eight,  and  of  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States  the  one  hundred  and  twenty-third. 

William  McKinley. 

Orders  were  sent  to  the  American  commanders  everywhere  in 
the  field  to  cease  fighting,  the  blockades  of  Havana,  Porto  Rico  and 
Manila  were  raised,  and  the  war  between  America  and  Spain  may 
be  said  to  have  closed. 

Peace  conmiissioners  were  appointed  by  the  respective  gov- 
ernments to  draw  up  the  final  treaty  of  peace,  and  settle  all  the 
terms  upon  which  it  was  to  be  granted.  The  peace  commissioners 
on  the  part  of  America  are:  Mr.  W.  R.  Day,  late  Secretary  of 
State;  Mr.  Whitelaw  Reid;  Senator  Gray;  Senator  Prye;  Senator 
Davis;  and  Mr.  Moore  was  made  Secretary. 

The  peace  commissioners  appointed  on  the  part  of  Spain  are: 
M.  Eugene  Montero  Rios,  president;  General  R.  Cerero;  M.  J.  de 
Gamica;  M.  W.  Z.  de  Villaurrutia;  and  M.  Buenaventura  Abarzoza. 

This  peace  commission  is  now  holding  its  sessions  in  Paris. 
When  its  labors  shall  have  been  accomplished  the  results  will  be 
published  in  the  Era;  and  with  that^  the  extended  series  of  articles 
on  the  War  between  Spain  and  the  United  States  will  be  closed. 


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EDITOR'S  TABLE. 


Quite  recently  there  appeared  in  the  St.  Louis  Globe-Democrat 
an  account  of  the  closing  up  of  the  affairs  and  discharging  the 
receiver  of  the  New  Icarian  Community,  and  formally  declaring  the 
Community  imd  all  its  affairs  ended.  The  order  was  entered  by 
Judge  H.  M.  Lowner  in  the  district  court  at  Coming,  Iowa.  Mr. 
Bettannier,f  ormerly  a  member  of  the  conmiunity,  was  the  receiver  so 
discharged. 

The  Globe-Demoeraty  in  giving  its  account  of  the  closing  up  of 
the  affairs  of  this  Community,  speaks  of  it  as|''the  most  long-lived, 
and  undoubtedly  the  most  nearly  successful  of  all  the  experiments 
ever  made  in  the  western  hemisphere  with  pure  communism'';  and 
it  refers  to  the  founder  of  the  society,  Etienne  Cabet,  as  a  ''scholar, 
historian,  socialist  and  philimthropist,  who  two  generations  ago  was 
stirring  all  France  with  his  socialistic  and  conmiunistic  writings  imd 
who  contributed  much  toward  inciting  the  revolution  of  1848,  of 
which  he  was  afterwards  the  historian.'' 

Our  chief  interest  in  the  closing  up  of  this  Icarian  Conmmnity's 
affairs,  and  its  formally  going  out  of  existence  lies  in  the  fact  that 
it  is  an  institution  which  at  one  point  of  its  history  touched  ''Mor- 
monism."  That  is,  soon  after  the  Latter-Day  Saints  evacuated 
Nauvoo,  the  Icarian  Society  went  there  under  M.  Cabet,  and  pur- 
chased much  of  the  property  held  by  the  saints  and  for  a  time  tried 
the  experiment  of  their  qrstem  in  that  favored  land.  It  failed,  of 
course,  as  it  subsequently  did  at  Cheltenham,  in  Missouri;  and  finally, 

as  above  stated,  at  Coming,  Iowa. 

******* 

This  attempt  on  the  part  of  M.  Cabet  and  his  associates  to 
found  communistic  societies  here  in  America  is  but  one  out  of  many 
efforts  made  by  well-meaning  philosophers  and  philanthropists  to 


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136  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

bring  to  pass  the  betterment  of  human  affairs.  They  have  seen  and 
deplored  the  evils  of  our  modem  system  of  economics,  and  have 
sought  with  such  wisdom  as  they  were  masters  of  to  set  humanity 
right. 

Of  these,  some  have  suggested  co-operative  methods  in  trade, 
in  manufactures,  in  conunerce,  and  other  labor,  with  an  equal  dis- 
tributioli  of  profits,  as  not  only  securing  the  conservation  of  energy 
but  also  as  a  more  equitable  basis  of  economics  than  our  present 
individual  and  competitive  methods.  Many  attempts  have  been 
made  to  carry  out  these  principles  in  practice,  and  for  a  time,  in 
several  instances,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Icarian  Society,  partial  suc- 
cess has  been  attained.  In  the  end,  however,  human  greed,  weak- 
ness, or  individual  necessity,  real  or  imagined,  together  with  inabil- 
ity to  make  the  system  universal — a  condition  necessary  to  the  sys- 
tem's success,  accordmg  to  the  claims  of  its  advocates — have  proven 
too  much  for  these  attempts  at  co-operation,  and  the  several  enter- 
prises have  either  drifted  into  the  hands  of  a  corporation,  become 
the  concerns  of  individuals,  or  else  have  been  absolutely  abandoned. 

Others  seeing  the  failures  of  voluntary  attempts  to  secure  the 
benefits  of  the  co-operative  system,'have  advocated  the  enlargement 
of  the  powers  of  the  state  to  the  extent  of  consigning  to  it  the  man- 
agement of  all  industry;  so  far  taking  control  of  the  individual  as  to 
compel  him  to  work,  according  to  his  capacity,  imd  remunerate  him 
according  to  his  wants. 

Others  have  gone  even  further  than  this,  and  proposed  not 
only  to  make  the  individual  a  creature  of  the  state,  in  relation  to 
the  matter  of  labor  and  wages,  but  to  control  him  in  all  the  rela. 
tions  of  life,  even  invading  the  domestic  relation  to  the  extent  of 
abolishing  the  marriage  institution  and  all  domestic  government 
founded  on  paternal  authority.  These  last  two  suggestions,  with 
various  amplifications,  are  classed  as  socialism  and  communism 
respectively.  The  former  has  many  advocates  in  nearly  all  civil- 
ized countries,  especially  in  Germany  and  France,  where  they  wield 
a  political  influence  of  considerable  potency.  The  latter,  commun- 
ism, since  the  abortive  efforts  of  Robert  Owen,  in  England,  of  St. 
Simon  and  Fourier,  in  France,and  M.  Cabet — the  disciple  of  Fourier — 
at  Nauvoo,  may  be  considered  as  relegated  to  the  graveyard  of 
impracticable  theories  which  from  time  to  time  have  engaged  the 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  137 

/attention  of  philosophical  minds  with  a  bent  for  speculation  in 
human  affairs. 

But  bad  as  our  modem  system  of  economics  may  be,  with 
all  its  manifest  absurdities  in  the  waste  of  energy,  the  unfair- 
ness in  the  distribution  of  the  products  of  industry,  still  mankind 
has,  so  far,  preferred  to  endure  its  known  evils  and  incongruities 
rather  than  to  trust  their  fortunes  to  the  proposed  systems  of  the 
socialists  and  communists. 

It  is  a  problem  too  difficult  for  human  wisdom  to  solve — this 

setting  the  world  right  in  respect  of  the  matters  above  referred 

to.    It  is  a  world  that  has  gone  astray,  it  will  be  God  who  will  set 

it  right, — ^when  it  is  righted;  and  he  in  his  own  good  time  and 

way  will  reveal  such  truths  and  give  to  humanity  such  powers  as 

will  enable  it  to  accomplish  the  needed  reformation. 

*  *  *  *  *  *  * 

An  interesting  incident  occurred  in  the  experience  of  the  late 
President  John  Taylor  which  is  also  connected  with  this  same 
Icarian  Society. 

Among  the  many  interesting  people  whom  Elder  Taylor  met 
while  on  his  mission  to  France  in  1850-1,  was  M.  Erolokoski.  He 
was  a  disciple  of  M.  Fourier,  the  distinguished  French  socialist, 
and  a  gentleman  of  some  standing,  being  the  editor  of  a  paper 
published  in  Paris  in  support  of  Fourier^s  views.  He  was  also  an 
associate  of  M.  Gabet,  and  knew  all  about  the  affairs  of  the 
Icarian  Society  at  Nauvoo.  At  his  request  Elder  Taylor  explained 
to  him  the  leading  principles  of  the  gospel.  At  the  conclusion  of 
that  explanation  the  following  conversation  occurred: 

M.  Krolokoski. — "Mr.  Taylor,  do  you  propose  no  other  plan  to 
ameliorate  the  condition  of  mankind  than  that  of  baptism  for  the 
remission  of  sins?** 

Elder  Taylor. — "This  is  all  I  propose  about  the  matter." 

M.  Krolokoski.— '*Wel\  I  wish  you  every  success ;  but  I  am 
afraid  you  will  not  succeed.'' 

EMer  Taylor. — "Monsieur  Erolokoski,  you  sent  Monsieur 
Cabet  to  Nauvoo  some  time  ago.  He  was  considered  your  leader 
— the  most  talented  man  you  had.  He  went  to  Nauvoo,  shortly 
after  we  had  deserted  it.  Houses  and  lands  could  be  obtained  at 
a  mere  nominal  sum.    Rich  farms  were  deserted,  and  thousands  of 


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138  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

us  had  left  our  houses  and  furniture  in  them,  and  almost  everj- 
thing  calculated  to  promote  the  happiness  of  man  was  there. 
Never  could  a  person  go  to  a  place  under  more  happy  circum- 
stances. Besides  all  the  advantages  of  having  everything  made 
ready  to  his  hand,  M.  Cabet  had  a  select  company  of  colonists. 
He  and  his  company  went  to  Nauvoo — ^what  is  the  result?  I  read 
in  all  your  reports  from  there — published  in  your  own  paper  here 
in  Paris,  a  continued  cry  for  help.  The  cry  is  'Money,  money!' 
*We  want  money  to  help  us  carry  out  our  designs.'  While  your 
i^lony  in  Nauvoo  with  all  the  advantages  of  our  deserted  fields 
and  homes —  that  they  only  had  to  move  into — ^have  been  dragging 
out  a  miserable  existence,  the  Latter-day  Saints,  though  stripped 
•of  their  all  and  banished  from  civilized  society  into  the  valleys  oi 
the  Rocky  Mountains,  to  seek  that  protection  among  savages — 
among  the  peau  rouges  as  you  call  our  Indians — ^which  Christian 
•civilization  denied  us — there  our  people  have  built  houses,  enclosed 
lands,  cultivated  gardens,  built  school  houses  and  have  organized 
a  government  and  are  prospering  in  all  the  blessings  of  civilized 
life.  Not  only  this,  but  they  have  sent  thousands  and  thousands 
of  dollars  over  to  Europe  to  assist  the  suffering  poor  to  go  to 
America,  where  they  might  find  an  asylum. 

"The  society  I  represent,  M.  Krolokoski,"  continued  Elder 
Taylor,  "comes  with  the  fear  of  God — the  worship  of  the  Great 
Eloheim;  we  offer  the  simple  plan  ordained  of  God,  viz:  repentance, 
baptism  for  the  remission  of  sins,  and  the  laying  on  of  hands  for 
the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  Our  people  have  not  been  seeking 
the  influence  of  the  world,  nor  the  power  of  government,  but  they 
have  obtained  both;  whilst  you,  with  youi  philosophy,  independ- 
ent of  God,  have  been  seeking  to  build  up  a  system  of  communism 
and  a  government  which  is,  according  to  your  own  accounts,  the 
way  to  introduce  the  Millennial  reign.  Now,  which  is  the  best, 
our  religion,  or  your  philosophy?" 


BOOK-COMPANIONS. 


The  old  adage,  "A  man  is  known  by  the  company  he  keeps,**  is 
80  commonly  used  that  it  may  be    considered  hackneyed;  and 


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EDITORS  TABLE,  139 

therefore  by  writers  of  delicate  tastes,  and  sticklers  for  the  nice 
obderraace  of  roles  of  composition,  would  be  avoided.  But  it  so 
aptly  expresses  a  great  moral  trath  that  we  nse  it  despite  its  being 
so  conmionly  employed.  Back  of  the  tmth  expressed  in  the  above 
adage  is  the  great  principle  expressed  in  another  homely  old  say- 
ing, ''^ds  of  a  feather  flock  together."  But  to  state  the  prin- 
ciple in  more  dignified  diction:  light  seeketh  light;  intelligence 
cleaveth  unto  intelligence;  virtue  delights  in  virtue,  and  seeks  her 
own;  and  persons  possessing  intelligence  and  the  qualities  of  refine- 
ment and  virtue,  by  a  law  of  their  nature  that  is  as  eternal  as  the 
Gods,  are  drawn  together  by  that  natural  aflSnity  they  possess. 

Then  the  converse  of  the  last  statement  is  true.  Ignorance 
cleaveth  unto  ignorance;  wickedness  delights  in  wickedness;  cor- 
ruption seeketh  corruption  and  revels  in  its  baseness;  and  as  the 
pure  in  heart  rejoice  in  the  companionship  of  those  of  like  nature, 
so  the  corrupt,  the  vile,  the  wicked,  take  pleasure  only  in  the  asso- 
ciation of  those  of  like  vicious  natures  as  themselves. 

When  you  undertake  to  violate  these  truths  by  bringing 
together  dements  that  have  no  afiSnity  for  each  other,  or  persons 
that  have  no  sympathies  in  common — say  a  wise  man  and  a  fool — 
you  learn  at  once  how  absolute  the  truth  is  that  says,  like  cleaveth 
imto  like. 

It  may  be  relied  upon,  then,  as  a  general  truth,  that  a  man  is 
known  by  the  company  he  keeps.  Indeed,  so  generally  is  the  maxim 
accepted  as  true,  that  people  with  a  proper  degree  of  self-respect 
are  very  cautious  as  to  the  company  they  keep,  and  are  also  par- 
ticular as  to  the  kind  of  companionship  formed  by  their  sons  and 
daughters.  All  this  is  eminently  proper.  It  is  something  that 
every  parent  who  understands  the  force  that  associations  have  in 
forming  the  character  of  mankind,  and  who  has  a  proper  solicitude 
for  the  welfare  of  his  offspring,  will  carefully  look  after. 

But  while  parents,  as  a  rule,  are  careful  in  the  selection  of 
ordinary  associates  for  their  sons  and  daughters,  there  is  a  class  of 
companions  they  allow  them  to  select  at  their  own  sweet  pleasure; 
they  are  often  met  by  accident,  and  some  of  them  of  the  most 
vicious  natures.  They  are  capable  of  poisoning  the  very  well- 
springs  of  life,  and  making  moral  shipwreck  of  careers  which,  but 
for  these  unhappy  associations,  might  have  been  useful  to  their 


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140  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

fellow-men,  and  a  crown  of  glory  to  their  parents.  And  yet  parents 
and  guardians  neglect  to  use  any  influence  in  relation  to  the  selec- 
tion of  these  companions  alluded  to,  although  they  will  have  a  won- 
derful influence — either  for  good  or  evil — in  forming  the  charac- 
ter of  those  which  nature  or  law  has  placed  under  their  watch- 
care.  The  companions  we  refer  to  are  books.  Books  are  nothing 
but  companions,  and  as  a  man  is  known  by  the  companions  he  con- 
sorts with,  so  also  may  he  be  known  by  the  books  which  he  reads; 
and  though  these  companions  may  be  regarded  as  silent  ones  on 
first  thought,  still  you  have  but  to  look  at  them  and  they  speak; 
their  influence  for  weal  or  woe  will  be  found  as  potent  as  the 
influence  of  our  ordinary  associations  in  life,  and  should  be  selected 
with  just  as  much  care.  Yet  how  neglectful — criminally  neglect- 
ful— are  parents  in  the  selection  of  books  for  their  children! 
*  *  *  *  *  *  * 

An  old  Spanish  proverb  says,  ''falsehood  travels  with  a  hun- 
dred legs;  the  truth  with  but  one."  In  like  manner  it  would  appear 
that  all  evil  is  more  readily  presented  to  poor  humanity,  to  tempt 
it  and  lead  it  astray,  than  good  is  to  influence  it  in  seeking  all  that 
is  purest,  noblest  and  best  in  life.  But  a  few  years  ago  the  only 
cheap  literature  thrown  off  by  the  press  was  that  usually  known  as 
'*yellow-backed,"  which  consisted  for  the  most  part  of  hair-raising, 
blood-curdling  Indian  stories  or  sea  tales,  which  ordinarily  produced 
a  species  of  insanity  in  the  minds  of  the  constant  readers  of  this 
''dime-nover  trash.  The  boys  all  wanted  to  be  Indian  scouts  and 
trappers,  with  long  Kentucky  rifles,  slouched  hats,  fringed  buck- 
skin breeches  and  hunting  shirt  of  the  same  material,  drawn 
together  at  the  waist  with  a  wide  belt  bristling  with  shooting  irons 
and  bowie  knives;  and  their  feet  incased  in  neatly  fitting  moccasins, 
etc.,  etc.  They  had  no  relish  whatever  for  following  the  plow  or 
harrow  in  the  spring  time,  or  gathering  the  harvest  in  the  autumn, 
or  attending  to  the  studies  of  the  school  room  in  the  winter.  Their 
brains  were  fired  with  visions  of  life  on  the  plains;  their  hearts  were 
throbbing  with  intense  desire  to  hunt  down  the  wily  savages  of  the 
forest  and  prairie,  or  track  to  his  retreat  the  villainous  renegade 
who  had  spirited  away  some  beautiful  maiden,  and  arrive  just  in 
time  to  rescue  her  from  a  fate  worse  than  death,  etc.,  etc.,  just  as 
"Wild  Bill,"  "Buffalo  Bill,"  "Ned  Buntline,"  "Big  Mouthed  Jim"  and 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  141 

tacoree  of  others  had  done,  according  to  the  tales  of  the  novels. 
This  bosh  they  read  unnerved  them  for  any  of  the  natural  and  use- 
ful pursuits  of  life.  They  fed  on  the  feverish  trash,  and  wasted 
the  precious  period  of  youth — that  youth  in  which  so  much  might 
have  been  done  in  the  way  of  preparation  for  the  realities  of  life. 
Equally  destructive  to  the  noble  sentiments  of  the  heart  and 
mind  is  the  driveling  love  tale  published  in  the  sensational  story- 
papers  that  are  spread  out  on  the  stationer's  counter  to  attract  the 
«ye  of  the  unwary.  But  the  poet  Cowper  has  so  aptly  expressed 
the  mischievous  effects  of  this  kind  of  literature  on  the  mind  of 
the  maiden,  that  we  quote  it  here  for  the  consideration  of  our 
readers: 

**Ye  writers  of  what  none  with  safety  reads, 
Footing  in  the  dance  that  fancy  leads; 
Ye  novelists  who  mar  what  ye  would  mend. 
Sniveling  and  driveling  folly  without  end; 
Whose  corresponding  misses  fill  the  ream 
With  sentimental  frippery  and  dream. 
Caught  in  a  delicate,  soft,  silken  net 
By  some  lewd  Earl  or  rake-hell  Baronet  — 
Ye  pimps,  who,  under  virtue's  fair  pretense 
Steal  to  the  closet  of  young  innocence; 
And  teach  her  unexperienced  yet  and  green 
To  scribble  as  you  scribbled  at  fifteen; 
Who,  kindling  a  combustion  of  desire 
With  some  cold  moral  think  to  quench  the  fire: 
Though  all  your  engineering  proves  in  vain 
The  dribbling  stream  ne'er  puts  it  out  again. 
0,  that  a  man  had  power,  and  could  command. 
Far,  far  away,  these  flesh  flies  from  the  land; 
Who  fasten  without  mercy  on  the  fair, 
And  suck  and  leave  a  craving  maggot  there; 
Howe'er  disguised  the  inflammatory  tale. 
And  covered  with  a  fine  spun  specious  veil. 
Such  writers  and  such  readers  owe  the  gust 
And  relish  of  their  pleasure  all  to  lust." 
****** 

We  have  quoted  the  Spanish  proverb  about  a  lie  traveling 
with  a  hundred  legs,  and  the  truth  with  but  one;  but  for  all  that 


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142  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  trath  not  unfrequently  overtakes  the  lie,  tnd  puts  it  to  open 
shame.  And  in  like  manner  flie  trashy,  worthless  literature  that 
the  press  flooded  the  country  with  in  its  first  triiunphs  of  produc- 
ing cheap  reading  matter,  is  being  overtaken;  the  press  is  giving 
the  productions  of  the  foremost  minds  in  the  republic  of  letters 
to  readers,  and  at  rates  that  are  as  cheap  as  the  dime  novel  has 
been  or  is  now. 

The  triumphs  of  the  steam  printing  press,  owing  to  the 
improvement  of  the  machinery,  and  the  manner  of  its  manipula- 
tion, place  the  works  of  the  masters— historians,  philosophers, 
statesmen,  poets  and  writers  of  the  best  classes  of  fiction  within 
the  reach  of  all.  There  is  no  family,  however  humble  its  circum- 
stances, but  may  have  in  its  possession  now  the  wiurks  of  mast^ 
minds  in  the  various  departments  of  literature. 

Books,  then,  being  so  cheap  that  all  parents  can  at  least 
furnish  their  children  with  a  small  collection,  it  is  more  binding 
upon  the  parents  to  see  to  it  that  these  book-companions,  these 
silent  yet  powerful  associates,  are  of  the  best  quality,  and  they 
ought  to  be  just  as  cautious  in  their  selection  as  they  would  be  in 
selecting  the  society  in  which  they  prefer  their  children  to  move. 

Another  thing  should  be  considered  in  this  matter  of  select- 
ing book-companions  for  the  young.  In  society  you  cannot  expect 
the  young  to  relish  always  the  gra^e  conversation  of  old  philoso- 
phers and  scientists  as  they  struggle  with  their  weighty  hypothe- 
ses. They  may  listen  to  their  expositions  of  various  subjects  both 
with  pleasure  and  profit,  but  {^ter  a  season  they  will  want  a 
change.  They  will  want  more  lively  associates,  and  lighter  things 
to  think  about.  Well,  it  is  so  in  reading.  You  cannot  expect  the 
young  to  always  pore  over  the  stately  pages  of  Gibbon;  discuss 
political  questions  with  Macaulay;  or  religious  ones  with  Adam 
Clark  or  the  first  Christian  fathers;  or  delve  into  the  intricacies  of 
the  law  with  Blackstone  or  Greenleaf ;  or  of  philosophy  with 
Newton,  Bacon,  or  Spencer.  The  young  will  want  to  break  away 
from  such  authors  at  times,  and  listen  to  the  pleasant  tales  of 
Washington  Irving;  hear  the  half  weird  legends  of  Scotland  as 
sung  or  related  by  Scott;  or  wander  out  in  the  spring  time,  sum- 
mer or  autumn  with  Thompson,  or  read  the  adventure  of  Tam 
O^hanter  with  Bums,  or  laugh  with  Dickens  at  the  dilemmas 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  145 

of  the  unfortunate  Mr.  Pickwick,  or  follow  the  meanderingB 
of  Nicholas  Nickleby.  They  may  want  to  do  all  this,  but  only  let 
the  parent  see  to  it  they  have  a  Scott,  Bnms,  Thompson,  Dickens, 
Co^ii^)er,  a  Milton  or  a  Shakespeare  for  companions,  and  you  give 
to  them  some  of  the  noblest  associates,  who  will  appeal  to  all  that 
is  noblest,  purest  and  most  god-like  in  their  own  natures — com- 
pimions  that  will  call  into  play  the  noblest  sympathies  of  their 
hearts  until  virtuous  sentiments  wiU  become  living,  active  princi* 
pies  within  them. 


REBATE  ON  SUBSCRIPTIONS  TO  THE  STAKES. 


At  the  meeting  of  the  General  Board  of  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  held 
on  the  19th  of  October,  a  resolution  was  adopted  providing  that 
to  every  stake  where  the  subscriptions  to  Volume  IL  of  the  Era 
should  reach  five  per  cent,  of  the  Latter-day  Saint  population 
a  sum  equal  to  twenty-five  cents  for  every  fully  paid-up 
subscription  taken  within  the  stake,  should  be  presented  to  the 
Stake  Board  to  be  devoted  by  them  to  Mutual  Improvement  pur- 


This  action  will  give  one  more  demonstration  that  the  Era  is 
not  a  private  enterprise,  conducted  in  the  interests  of  any  man  or 
corporation  of  men,  but  solely  in  the  interests  of  the  great  cause 
of  Mutual  Improvement;  and  indicates  the  intention  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board  to  devote  any  profits  that  may  arise  from  the  publica- 
tion of  the  magazine  to  Mutual  Improvement  purposes.  We  call 
attention  to  this  fact  in  order  that  the  officers  of  associations, 
called  to  devote  more  or  less  time  in  furthering  the  interests  of 
the  Era,  may  know  that  they  are  working  for  the  general  cause 
and  not  for  the  advantage  of  private  individuals. 

The  General  Board  decided  that  the  above  percentage  should 
apply  to  stakes  which  last  year  succeeded  in  securing  the  per- 
centage of  the  population  named  on  their  subscription  list;  and 
accordingly  a  sum  of  money  has  been  forwarded  to  the  following 
stakes:  Alberta,  Canada;  Eanab,  Utah;  Juarez,  Mexico;  Morgan^ 


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144  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Utah;  San  Juan,  Utah;  St.  George,  Utah,  and  St.  Johns,  Arizona, 
each  of  which  met  the  conditions  above  described. 

The  money  sent  to  Alberta  Stake  was  returned  to  the  General 
Board  with  the  statement  that  the  superintendency  of  Alberta 
Stake  had  decided  "to  contribute  the  same  to  the  General  Board 
for  the  purpose  of  supplying  the  missionaries  with  Volume  II.  of 
the  Era,*^  but  the  Stake  Superintendencies  are  at  liberty  to  make 
such  use  of  the  rebate  to  their  stakes  as  they  may  see  proper,  so  long 
as  it  is  devoted  to  Mutual  Improvement  interests  in  some  one  or 
other  of  its  branches;  such  as  meeting  the  necessary  expenses  of 
the  Stake  Boards,  or  aiding  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations 
within  the  respective  wards  of  their  stakes.  In  this  matter  Stake 
Superintendencies  are  at  liberty  to  use  their  own  judgment,  the 
limit  being  only  that  the  money  be  carefully  used  for  the  general 
cause  of  Mutual  Improvement. 

It  is  both  hoped  and  believed  that  this  arrangement  will  cause 
the  officers  of  the  associations  to  work  with  renewed  zeal  for  the 
wide  circulation  of  our  magazine,  which  is  calculated  to  accom- 
plish so  much  good  among  the  youth  of  the  Church  of  Christ 


NOTES. 


It  is  not  enough  that,  in  following  his  occupation,  the  worker  inci- 
dentally helps  the  world  along;  what  is  required  is  that  he  desires  to  do 
it,  plans  to  do  it,  and  finds  a  large  part  of  his  reward  in  the  consciousness 
of  having  done  it. 

Mental  differences  are  legion.*  No  two  minds  run  in  the  same  chan- 
nels, or  think  exactly  each  other's  thoughts.  Truth  is  many-sided,  and 
multitudes  of  men  and  women  stand  still  viewing  continually  but  one  of 
her  phases.  Did  they  but  move  around  her,  changing  their  respective 
attitudes,  they  would  appreciate  one  another  far  better. 

Aged  people  have  a  claim  on  the  young,  a  claim  for  delicate  con- 
sideration, for  tender  care,  for  unfailing  reverence.    Each  new  genera- 


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hOTES.  145 

tion  is  apty  as  it  comes  joyously  to  the  front,  to  look  down  with  a  slight 
condescension  on  the  one  which  is  withdrawing  from  the  active  scene; 
bnt  the  looking  down  should  be  looking  up,  for  the  old  have  borne  and 
suffered,  endured  and  triumphed,  in  order  that  the  path  for  their  suc- 
cessors may  be  easier. 

We  can  brood  upon  our  troubles  until  they  become  unbearable,  or 
we  can  dwell  upon  our  blessings  until  our  hearts  are  melted  into  thank- 
fulness. We  can  ponder  the  faults  of  our  neighbors  until  we  are  imbued 
with  disapproval  and  contempt,  or  we  can  muse  upon  their  redeeming 
qualities  till  the  kindly  sympathies  of  our  nature  assert  themselves. 

There  are  times  when  silence  is  golden,  and  there  are  times  when  it 
is  the  basest  alloy.  There  are  times  when  it  stands  for  truth  and  gener- 
osity; and  there  are  times  when  it  stands  for  a  mean  and  selfish  lie. 
When  justice  calls  us  to  proclaim  a  fine  performance,  a  noble  deed,  an 
heroic  achievement,  and  to  reveal  to  the  world  the  man  who  has  fairly 
earned  the  forthcoming  meed  of  honor  and  gratitude,  then  silence  is 
a  sin. 

Perform  a  kind  action,  and  you  will  find  a  kind  feeling  growing 
within  you  even  if  it  was  not  there  before.  As  you  increase  the  number 
of  your  kind  and  charitable  interests,  you  find  that  the  more  you  do  for 
others  the  more  you  love  them.  Serve  them,  not  because  they  are  your 
friends,  not  because  they  are  interesting,  not  because  they  are  grateful 
— serve  them  for  the  simple  reason  that  they  are  your  brethren,  and 
then  you  will  very  soon  find  that  a  fervent  heart  keeps  time  with 
charitable  hands. 

'^e  repentance  of  the  understanding^  is  seldom  enjoined  and  seldom 
felt,  but  it  would  often  be  a  most  salutary  and  beneficial  experience. 
Let  a  man,  for  example,  on  discovering  that  he  has  decided  unwisely  in 
some  more  or  less  important  matter,  instead  of  consoling  himself  with 
the  reflection  that  he  acted  up  to  the  best  light  that  he  then  had,  and  is 
therefore  blameless,  reflect  upon  the  mental  obligations  that  must  have 
accompanied  the  decision,  and  ask  himself  whether  he  might  not  have 
trained  his  judgment  to  a  better  degree  of  sagacity,  so  as  to  have  ren- 
dered the  error  impossible.  It  will  be  strange  indeed  if  in  such  an 
investigation  he  finds  nothing  of  which  to  repent. 

"That  boy  must  be  bom  in  very  unfortunate  circumstances,"  says  a 
sensible  writer, ' Vhose  father  and  mother  could  not,  if  they  chose,  do 


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146  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

more  for  his  moral  training  than  a  schoolmaster,  who  has  perhaps  fifty 
to  attend  to,  without  the  parental  interest  in  any  of  them."  It  is  just 
this  moral  education  that  belongs  specially  to  the  home,  and  that,  if 
neglected  there,  can  never  be  obtained  elsewhere,  which  is  the  only 
trustworthy  safeguard  that  society  can  have  against  much  of  the  vice 
and  crime  which  corrupt  and  demoralize  her.  Parents  who  trust  to  the 
schools  to  inculcate  this  are  shirking  their  own  most  solemn  obligations, 
and  have  no  right  to  expect  their  sons  and  daughters  to  grow  up  into 
upright  and  honorable  men  and  wome^. 

Porto  Rico,  the  fourth  in  size  of  the  Greater  Antilles,  and  now  one 
of  the  many  provinces  possessed  by  the  United  States,  Hes  70  miles  west 
of  Hayti,  and  it  is  about  1,000  miles,  as  the  crow  flies,  from  Havana  to 
the  harbor  of  San  Juan  (Porto  Rico).  It  forms  an  irregular  parallelo- 
gram, 108  miles  long  and  37  miles  broad;  its  area  is  3,550  miles,  which 
is  less  than  that  of  the  island  of  Jamaica.  The  inhabitants  of  Porto 
Rico  numbered,  in  1877,  813,937,  the  negroes  being  over  300,000.  San 
Juan,  the  capital,  has  about  28,000  inhabitants.  It  is  on  the  north-east 
shore  of  the  island.  The  harbor  is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  West  Indies, 
being  large,  sheltered,  and  capable  of  accommodating  any  number  of 
the  largest  ships,  having  anchorage  in  it  from  three  to  seven  fathoms. 

Some  European  countries  have  huge  standing  armies  even  in  time  of 
peace.  Russia  heads  the  list  with  858,000  men,  or  nine  per  1,000  of  her 
population.  Next  comes  Germany,  with  580,000,  which  is  13  per  1,000; 
while  France  has  512,000,  or  14  per  1,000.  The  Austrian  army  is  380,- 
000,  or  10  per  1,000;  Italy,  300,000,  also  10  in  the  1,000;  England, 
230,000,  six  per  1,000;  Spain,  100,000,  equally  six  per  1,000.  Belgium's 
army  comprises  31,000  men,  or  eight  in  the  1,000;  and  little  Switzer- 
land musters  actually  131,000,  or  45  per  1,000.  France  and  Russia 
united  can  muster  in  time  of  peace  between  them  1,400,000  men,  in  time 
of  war  9,700,000.  The  Triple  Alliance  in  time  of  peace  can  bring 
together  1,192,000,  or  7,700,000  in  war-time.  The  huge  European 
armaments  called  armies  on  a  peace  footing  cost  about  $1,100,000,000  a 
year  to  keep  up. 

The  following  statistics  on  marriages,  births  and  deaths  in  some 
leading  European  countries  can  scarcely  fail  to  be  of  interest:  For 
1,000  marriageable  persons  of  both  sexes,  there  are  in  France  45 
marriages;  in  Holland,  49;  in  Italy,  50;  in  Austria,  51;  in  England  and 
Denmark,  52;  and  in  Germany,  53.  On  an  average  in  France  there  are 
163  births  per  1,000  married  women  from  26  to  50  years  of  age;  whereas 


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NOTES.  147 

there  are  270  in  Germany,  269  in  Scotland,  261  in  Belgium,  251  in  Italy, 
250  in  England  and  Austria,  240  in  Sweden  and* Ireland,  and  236  in 
Switzerland.  The  average  mortality  in  France  is  lower  than  in  any 
other  country.  It  is  put  at  22i  per  1,000,  whereas  it  is  35  per  1,000  in 
Russia,  28  in  Italy,  a  little  over  22i  in  Sweden,  and  close  on  23  in 
Germany. 

In  all  true  education  the  amount  of  knowledge  communicated,  how- 
ever important  it  may  be,  is  an  entirely  subordinate  matter  compared 
with  the  mental  desires  that  are  aroused  and  the  mental  power  that  is 
stored  up.  Ck>uld  there  be  a  youth  who  found  no  difficulty  in  the  tasks 
assigned  him  he  would  miss  the  grandest  opportunity  which  education 
has  to  offer — ^that  of  strengthening  the  mind  by  the  continual  stress 
and  strain  of  effort.  Perhaps  one  reason  why  dull  and  backward  boys 
sometimes  develop  into  distinguished  men  is  that  they  have  had  so  many 
difficulties  to  overcome  that  the  discipline  has  intensified  their  powers 
and  deepened  their  natures.  The  quick-witted  child,  to  whom  study  is 
easy,  often  loses  this  opportunity;  and  possibly  this  fact  may  afford  a 
partial  answer  to  the  oft-repeated  query,  "What  becomes  of  all  the 
promising  children?"  At  any  rate,  it  should  be  an  encouragement  to 
those  who  have  the  training  of  dull  minds  to  know  that  the  very  efforts 
their  possessors  are  obliged  to  make  beyond  their  companions  may  enable 
them  to  overtake,  and  perhaps  even  eventually  to  surpass  them. 

In  all  the  armies  of  the  world,  says  a  writer  in  a  contemporary, 
musical  war  signals  are  considered  not  only  useful,  but  absolutely  indis- 
pensable. Every  one  is  familiar  with  such  expressions  as  ''drumming  up 
recruits,"  ''drumming  out  deserters,"  and  so  on.  Zoller,  the  African 
traveler,  says  that  "among  all  savage  and  half -civilized  races  song  and 
dance  are  considered  as  indispensable  aids  to  military  training  as  drilling 
and  drumming  in  our  armies."  The  marvelous  precision  with  which 
these  primitive  races  execute  their  war  songs  and  dances  has  been  com- 
mented upon  by  many  admiring  explorers;  and,  as  the  value  of  perfect 
drill  and  co-operation  are  well  understood,  music,  which  supplies  the 
r^ularity  of  rhythm,  is  seen  to  be  of  paramount  importance.  When 
our  armies  parade,  they  always  do  so  to  the  measured  beat  of  military 
band  or  drum  and  fife.  A  military  writer  says  that  the  drum  in  the 
army  is  used  "especially  for  inspiring  the  soldiers  under  the  fatigue  of 
march  or  in  battle."  This  function  of  military  music  reminds  one  of  the 
primitive  custom  of  singing  in  order  to  facilitate  work.  It  is  recognized 
by  the  greatest  authorities.    Lord  Wolseley,  f or.instance,  wrote  not  long 


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148  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

ago  that  "troops  that  sing  as  they  march  will  not  only  reach  their  desti- 
nation more  quickly  and  in  better  fighting  condition  than  those  who 
march  in  silence,  but,  inspired  by  the  music  and  words  of  national  songs, 
will  feel  that  self-confidence  which  is  the  mother  of  victory." 


m  LIGHTER  MOOD. 


A  workman,  who  was  repairing  the  roof  of  one  of  the  highest  band- 
ings in  Dublin,  lost  his  footing  and  fell,  but,  striking  a  telegraph  line,  he 
managed  to  grasp  it.  "Hang  on  for  your  lifeP  shouted  a  fellow-work- 
man, while  some  of  the  spectators  rushed  off  to  procure  a  mattress  on 
which  he  could  drop.  He  held  on  for  a  few  seconds,  when  suddenly,  with 
a  cry,  "Sthand  from  undher,"  he  dropped  and  lay  senseless  in  the  street 
He  was  brought  to  the  hospital,  and  on  his  recovery  was  asked  why  he 
did  not  hold  out  longer.    "Shure,  I  was  afraid  the  wire  wud  break,"  he 

replied  feebly. 

*  *  * 

They  were  at  a  picnic.  "You  see,"  he  explained,  as  he  showed  her  the 
wish-bone  of  a  chicken  at  luncheon,  "you  take  hold  here  and  I'll  take  hold 
here.  Then  we  must  both  wish  a  wish  and  pull,  and,  when  it  breaks, 
the  one  who  has  the  bigger  part  of  it  will  have  his  or  her  wish  gratified.** 
"But  I  don't  know  what  to  wish  for,"  she  protested.  "Oh,  you  can  think 
of  something,"  he  said.  "No,  I  can't,"  she  replied;  "I  can't  think  of  any- 
thing I  want  very  much."  **Well  I'll  wish  for  you!"  he  exclaimed.  "Will 
you  really?"  she  asked.  "Yes."  "Well,  then  there's  no  use  fussing  with 
the  old  wish-bone,"  she  interrupted,  with  a  glad  smile.    "You  can  have 

me!" 

«  *  * 

The  following  anecdote  bears  witness  that  from  of  old  Spain  has 
been  more  or  less  foolish  on  the  subject  of  "honor:" 

When  the  Duke  of  Wellington  was  co-operating  with  the  Spanish 
army  in  the  Peninsula  against  Napoleon,  he  was  desirous  on  one  occasion^ 
during  a  general  engagement,  that  the  general  commanding  the  Spanish 
contingent  should  execute  a  certain  movement  on  the  field.  He  com- 
municated the  wish  to  the  Spaniard  personally,  and  was  somewhat  taken 
aback  on  being  told  that  the  honor  of  the  king  of  Spain  and  his  army 


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IN  LIGHTER  MOOD.  149 

wonld  compel  a  refusal  of  the  reqaest  unless  Wellington,  as  a  foreign 
officer,  graciously  permitted  to  exist  and  fight  on  Spanish  soil,  should  pre- 
sent the  petition  on  his  knees.  The  old  duke  often  used  to  tell  the  story 
afterwards,  and  he  would  say,  "Now,  I  was  extremely  anxious  to  have 
the  movement  executed,  and  I  didn't  care  a  twopenny  dash  about  getting 
on  my  knees,  so  down  I  plumped  r 

*  *  * 

During  the  present  era  of  good  feeling  between  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  States  it  is  not  amiss  to  call  attention  to  the  following  bond 
between  the  two  governments: 

'The  desk  used  at  the  White  House,  Washington,  by  the  President  of 
the  United  States  is  interesting  in  itself,  apart  from  its  connection  with 
the  ruler  of  a  nation,  for  it  is  a  token  of  the  good-will  existing  between 
two  peoples.  Although  occupying  so  prominent  a  place  in  the  official 
residence  of  America's  chosen  governor,  it  is  not  of  American  manufac- 
ture. It  was  fashioned  in  England,  and  was  a  present  from  the  Queen  to 
a  former  President.  It  was  made  from  the  timbers  of  H.  M.  S.  Resolute, 
which  was  sent  in  search  of  Sir  John  Franklin  in  1852.  The  ship  was 
caught  in  the  ice,  and  had  to  be  abandoned.  It  was  not  destined,  how- 
ever, to  go  to  pieces  in  frozen  waters.  An  American  whaler  discovered 
and  extricated  it  in  1855,  and  it  was  subsequently  purchased  and  sent  to 
Her  Majesty  by  the  President  and  people  of  the  United  States  as  a  token 
of  good-will  and  friendship.  In  an  English  dockyard  the  Resolute  was  at 
last  broken  up,  and  from  her  timbers  a  desk  was  made,  which  was  sent 
by  Her  Majesty  "as  a  memorial  of  the  courtesy  and  loving-kindness  which 
dictated  the  offer  as  a  gift  of  the  Resolvie!*  At  this  desk,  itself  a  repre- 
sentative of  the  kindly  feeling  of  both  nations,  the  President  does  the 

greater  part  of  his  writing. 

*  *  * 

We  are  happy  to  note  that  the  people  of  England  are  taking  kindly 
to  '!Mark  Twain."  By  which,  of  course,  we  mean,  they  are  taking  kindly 
to  his  humor;  and  the  British  press  is  glad  to  repeat  his  droll  stories. 

Michael  Davitt,  the  Irish  leader,  has  published  a  book  under  the  title 
"Life  and  Progress  in  Australia,"  where  the  author  has  spent  some  time. 
On  his  journey  from  Melbourne  to  New  Zealand  he  was  fortunate  enough 
to  have  "Mark  Twain"  for  a  fellow  passenger,  and  he  enlivens  some  of 
the  passages  of  his  book  with  two  or  three  capital  anecdotes  related  on 
the  voyage  by  the  great  humorist.  The  Irish  leader  found  "Mark  Twain" 
easily  approached.    He  says: 

There  is  absolutely  no  "side"  hitched  on  to  his  genius.  The  kindliest 
of  smiles  and  of  laughing,  good-natured  gray  eyes  make  you  immedi 


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150  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

ately  welcome.  You  are  made  to  feel  at  once  that  you  are  in  the  presence 
of  a  man  whom  fame  or  fortune  could  not  deprive  of  his  natural  disposi- 
tion to  make  you  laugh  away  the  worries  and  troubles  of  the  moment 
Mark  Twain  is  not  parsimonious  with  his  talent.  He  entertained  us  in 
the  smoking  room  of  the  Maroroa  with  some  capital  anecdotes,  whicb 
however,  cannot  be  done  justice  to  in  the  re-telling.  It  is  in  the  art  of 
telling  a  story  where  the  mirth  and  merit  lie,  and  Mark  Twain's  yams  in 
anyone  else's  narration  is  worse  than  leaving  the  Prince  of  Denmark  out 
of  "Hamlet." 

Nevertheless,  even  with  this  princely  omission,  the  yams  are  amus- 
ing enough.  Two  of  them  were  at  the  expense  of  some  friends  and  the 
custom  house  of  New  York. 

Some  of  the  boys  had  made  up  their  minds  to  play  a  trick  on  Mark. 
They  each  planted  their  smuggled  cigars  among  his  small  baggage  and 
awaited  results.  They  knew  he  would  not  deny  possession  of  such  wares 
when  questioned,and  they  all  crowded  around  him  when  the  customs  officers 
came  up.  They  counted  upon  his  being  compelled  to  pay  up  for  the  cargo. 

"They  stood  around  when  the  critical  moment  arrived  and  were 
ready  to  explode  with  laughter  at  my  expense.    This  is  how  it  ended: 

"The  customs  officer — Tour  name,  please?' 

"'Mr.  Clemens.' 

"'Are  you  Mark  Twain?' 

"'Yes.' 

"  'Then  pass  on.' 

"So,"  said  Mark,  laughing  at  the  recollection  of  the  incident,  "I  was 
neither  asked  to  pay  nor  to  lie,  and  I  had  all  the  cigars  to  myself,  for 
you  may  be  sure  I  did  not  deliver  any  of  them  to  those  who  tried  to  play 
that  little  game  on  me." 

On  another  occasion  he  encountered  a  much  more  exacting  customs 

official  at  the  same  port. 

"I  had  nine  parcels  from  Liverpool,"  he  explained,  "and  I  badly 
wanted  to  get  them  through  without  their  being  opened.  I  gave  the 
number  and  was  asked  to  open  some  of  them. 

"  'Weil,  I  am  Mark  Twain,'  I  pleaded,  'and  you  surely  don't  suspect 
me  of  harboring  any  evil  against  Uncle  Sam?* 

"  'But  we  have  a  duty  to  perform.' 

"  'Yes,  of  course,  but  the  custom  regulations  don't  say,  in  teaching 
the  mles  of  duty,  you  must  rummage  and  upset  Mark  Twain's  personal 
effects  when  he  comes  back  to  the  land  of  his  birth?' 

"  *We  are  sorry,  but  we  have  no  alternative.' 

"  'Did  you,'  I  cut  in,  'compel  General  Sherman  to  open  his  trunks 
when  he  came  back,  a  short  time  ago?' 


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IN  LIGHTER  MOOD.  151 

"  'Oh,  we  couldn't  trouble  General  Sherman.    You  know  he  is' 

"  'No,  you  can  allow  General  Sherman  to  pass,  a  man  whom  I  made 
famous,  and  you  stop  me!  You  give  a  pass  to  the  pupil  and  you  deny  the 
same  right  to  the  master;  F 

"Official  to  customs  officer — liet  his  go;*  and  I  got  my  nine  parcels 
through  all  right." 

Mark  Twain  gave  the  Irish  leader  an  infallible  remedy  for  insomnia, 
with  which  the  latter  was  sorely  afflicted. 

'1  suffered  much  from  that  malady  years  ago,"  said  Mark.  'It  does 
not  trouble  me  now,  though  my  work  is  still  heavy  and  more  exacting  as 
the  years  steal  on.  I  began  the  search  for  a  cure  by  drinking  a  glass  of 
beer  on  going  to  bed.  This  gave  a  little  relief  for  a  short  time.  Then  I 
exchanged  my  beer  for  a  little  prescription  of  two  ounces  of  whisky. 
This  worked  the  desired  cure.  It  proved  the  real  remedy — so  much  so  that 
I  began  to  like  my  medicine.  The  two  ounces  of  Scotch  grew  into  five 
ounces.  Then  the  trouble  began  again.  It  was  the  old  story  of  taking 
too  much  of  a  good  thing.  The  five  ounces  sent  me  off  all  right,  and 
brought  about  a  kind  of  angelic  sensation  in  my  head,  but  in  a  couple  of 
hours  sleep  would  leave  me,  and  the  old  trouble  came  back  to  stay  all 
night  I  then  sought  another  remedy  and  found  it — ^yes,  sir,  an  infallible 
remedy.  I  got  hold  of  it  by  accident.  It  was  a  child's  German  grammar. 
I  began  to  read  it  on  lying  down.  I  never  got  through  a  single  page  at  a 
time.  Sleep  came  along  and  never  gave  the  grammar  a  chance.  Try  it, 
and  you  will  find  it  a  dead  certain  cure.  I  tried  hard  to  induce  the  late 
General  Grant  to  adopt  it,  but  I  could  not  succeed.  Otherwise  he  might 
not  have  died  so  soon." 


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OUR  WORK. 


THE  "PAR  EAST  IMPROVEMENT  ASSOCIATION. 


AN  INTERESTING  ACCOUNT  OP  THE  ORGANIZATION  OP  AN  IMPROVE- 
MENT ASSOCIATION  AT  MANILA,  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS. 


Manila,  P.  I.,  Sept.  20, 1898. 
To  the  Improvement  Era,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah: 

The  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association  of  the  "Far 
East"  sends  you  greeting.  The  June  number  of  your  issue  came  to  us 
two  weeks  ago,  and  found  us  just  beginning  our  work.  We  received  the 
Era  with  welcome,  and  return  our  thanks  for  the  favor  you  have  con- 
ferred by  placing  those  valuable  pages  before  us.  In  return  we  furnish 
a  few  notes  treating  on  our  organization,  and  the  hopes  we  have  for  its 
usefulness. 

Before  we  left  San  Francisco,  the  advisability  of  an  organization 
for  our  young  men  was  suggested  to  the  writer  by  Elder  E.  H.  Nye, 
president  of  the  California  Mission;  and  also  by  Captain  R.  W.  Young. 
While  on  our  ocean  voyage,  and  before  we  reached  Honolulu,  Captain 
Young  called  me  to  his  state  room,  and,  showing  me  a  letter  he  had  re- 
ceived from  Apostle  Young,  written  by  direction  of  the  Council  of  the 
Apostles,  advising  some  kind  of  organization,  he  suggested  that  the 
matter  of  organizing  a  Mutual  Improvement  Association  be  taken  up  at 
once.  Acting  on  his  suggestion.  Elders  Willard  Call  and  Jos.  J.  Holbrook 
and  myself,  all  from  Bountiful,  began  to  discuss  the  subject  with  our 
companions  in  Battery  A.  All  whom  we  approached,  with  one  or  two 
exceptions,  seemed  highly  pleased  with  the  idea,  and  gave  their  names  as 
wishing  to  join  when  the  organization  should  be  formed.  The  number 
of  names  thus  secured  was  thirty-seven. 


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OUR  WORK. 


153 


No  opportunity  whatever  offered  for  our  meeting  aboard  the 
crowded  vessel.  When  we  landed  at  Camp  Dewey,  little  better  oppor- 
tunity was  afforded.  The  campaign  before  Manila  began  soon,  taking  a 
considerable  part  of  our  number  to  the  front  every  day,  and,  though  the 
time  for  a  meeting  was  settled  on  two  or  three  times,  we  were  prevented 
from  meeting.  Our  opportunity  came  with  our  first  Sunday  evening 
in  Manila,  August  22nd. 

We  were  given  ample  quarters  in  the  Cuartd  Meisie,  with  a  large 
vacant  room  to  spare.  In  that  room  a  few  of  us  met  (the  number  was 
not  very  great,  mail  having  just  arrived  from  home),  and  exchanged 
views  on  the  subject  of  an  organization.  In  compliance  with  the  sug- 
gestion of  Captain  Young,  which  was  approved  by  the  Council  of  the 
Apostles,  it  was  decided  that  our  organization  should  be  termed  a  Young 
Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  following  in  organization,  and 
as  nearly  as  possible  in  work,  those  organizations  at  home.  A  president 
was  elected  but  further  organization  was  postponed  for  one  week  to 
allow  more  to  be  present. 

The  next  Sunday  our  pleasure  was  again  our  misfortune.  The 
recruits  had  just  arrived  and  the  opportunity  which  that  afforded  for  the 
war-scarred  (not  war-scared)  veterans  to  tell  the  tales  of  pleasure, 
work,  and  narrow  escapes,  proved  more  enticing  than  church,  and  the 
tent  we  had  pitched  for  meeting  purposes  (Battery  B  was  now  occupying 
our  meeting  room)  was  by  no  means  full.  Nothing  daunted,  we  again 
^)ostponed  the  election  of  officers  and  proceeded  with  the  discussion  of 
Acts,  1st  chap.,  the  lesson  prepared  for  the  evening.  We  had  a  very 
interesting  meeting,  and,  when  we  parted  to  meet  the  following  Sunday 
evening,  all  felt  that  success  was  assured.  During  the  week  we  talked 
the  matter  up  among  some  of  the  influential  men  in  both  batteries,  and 
at  our  next  meeting  we  were  much  gratified  to  see  our  tent  packed.  The 
whole  of  our  short  session  was  taken  up  in  the  election  of  officers,  and  in 
that  connection  some  timely  advice  from  Captain  Young  proved  very 
valuable.  Following  is  a  list  of  officers  as  finally  selected: 
President,  Geo.  A.  Seaman,        Battery  A,  Bountiful,  Utah. 

First  Counselor,     Godfrey  J.  Bluth,      Battery  B,  Ogden,  Utah. 
Second  Counselor,  Nephi  W.  Otteson,    Battery  B,  Manti,  Utah. 


Secretary, 
Treasurer, 
Librarian, 

Program 
Committee, 


Nelson  Margetts, 

Barr  W.  Musser, 

Stephen  Bjamson, 

r  Chas.  R.  Mabey, 

]  Dr.  H.  A.  Young, 

(  Don  C.  W.  Musser 


Battery  A,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Battery  B,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Battery  B,  Spanish  Fork,  Utah. 

Battery  A,  Bountiful,  Utah. 

Battery  A,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 

Battery  B,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. 


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154  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Godfrey  J.  Blath  leaves  for  home  aboard  the  hospital  ship  on  the 
22nd  inst. 

The  committee  'met  the  evening  following  the  election  of  officers, 
and  in  its  deliberations,  in  which  it  was  assisted  by  Captain  Young,  it 
was  decided  that  at  each  meeting  a  subject  from  the  "Acts  of  the  Apos- 
tles" should  be  treated  upon  by  some  member  of  the  association;  and 
also  that,  as  we  might  be  able  to  secure  lecturers,  a  secular  subject  of 
interest  be  given.  Songs,  recitations,  etc.,  are  to  form  an  interesting 
diversion.  Already  we  have  had  interesting  talks  from  Sergeant  D.  H. 
WqIIs  on  'The  Philippines,"  and  Don  Musser  on  "A  Moslem  Tradition." 

Corporal  Geo.  S.  Backman,  a  student  of  Spanish,  proffered  his  ser- 
vices as  a  teacher  to  the  association  if  it  wished  to  organize  a  Spanish 
class  as  an  adjunct  to  the  association.  We  accepted  his  generous  offer 
and  met  last  night  for  the  first  time. 

Following  the  example  of  our  parent  associations  we  have  extended 
invitation  and  welcome  to  all,  whether  they  are  Latter-day  Saints  or 
not.  They  praise  our  liberal  views  that  will  admit  them  to  member- 
ship, and  already  several  have  applied  for  membership.  The  Spanish 
class  offers  an  inducement  to  them  to  join  us.  We  expect  to  get 
in  touch  with  Utah  men  in  all  the  commands,  and  to  that  end  a  com- 
mittee is  to  be  appointed  to  look  them  up  and  invite  them  to  join  us. 
We  have  ample  room  now,  as  a  large  hall  has  been  reserved  for  meeting 
purposes  and  as  a  library  room. 

While  we  have  many  disadvantages  to  contend  with,  we  hope  by 
assiduous  labor  to  do  some  good  by  diverting  the  minds  of  some  from 
gaming  and  other  idle  practices,  that  are  so  apt  to  accompany  the  eaae 
and  laziness  of  barrack  life,  and  shall  seek  to  center  them  upon  more 
holy  things. 

Your  Brother  in  the  Gospel, 

Geo.  a.  Seaman,  President  of  the  Association. 
Battery  A,  Utah  Volunteers. 


MUTUAL   IMPROVEMENT    ASSOCIATION    OFFICERS   TO   BE 

SET  APART. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  General  Board  of  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.,  held  on  the 
9th  of  November,  the  following  recommendation  was  passed: 

"This  Board  recommends  that  all  officers  of  Mutual  Improvement 


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OUR  WORK.  155 

Associations  be  blessed  and  set  apart  by  the  presidents  of  stakes  and 
l>ishops  of  wards  or  under  their  direction." 

In  accordance  with  this  resolution  the  General  Board  desires  that 
whenever  stake  officers  are  chosen  they  be  blessed  and  set  apart  by 
the  stake  president,  or  under  his  direction;  and  when  ward  officers  are 
chosen  they  are  to  be  set  apart  by  the  bishop  of  the  ward  or  by  some- 
one acting  under  his  direction.  The  brethren  of  the  General  Board  feel 
that  when  a  young  man  is  called  to  be  an  officer  in  these  associations  he 
gains  strength  from  the  blessings  of  his  brethren,  and  they  desire  that 
any  young  man  chosen  for  these  positions  should  have  all  the  help  possi- 
ble for  the  performance  of  his  labors. 

It  was  also  decided  by  the  General  Board,  at  the  above  meeting,  that 
the  young  men  who  have  been  called  to  act  as  missionaries  among  the 
members  of  the  associations  be  set  apart  previous  to  leaving  for  their 
fields  of  labor;  and  some  time  ago  a  letter  instructing  the  young  men 
called  on  missions  to  apply  to  the  president  of  their  respective  stakes  to 
be  set  apart  before  leaving  their  homes  to  commence  their  labors,  was 
sent  out,  and  we  trust  that  it  reached  the  brethren  in  time  for  them  to 
receive  the  blessings  of  their  president. 


AS  TO  MUSIC. 


The  following  suggestion  comes  from  a  correspondent  in  Richfield 
relative  to  music  for  the  associations: 

Dear  Brother: 

An  idea  has  occurred  to  me,  and  I  hasten  to  give  the  same  to  you* 
We  have  no  n^usic  of  our  own  suitable  for  the  Young  Men's  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations,  that  is,  for  devotional  exercises.  How  would 
it  be  if  you  were  to  induce  some  of  our  own  musicians  to  compose  or 
arrange  pieces  for  male  voices  suitable  for  this  purpose  and  publish  them 
in  the  Era;  publishing  one  piece  in  each  number?  This  would  make  the 
Era  our  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association  glee  book,  and 
we  need  one  very  much.  Geo.  M.  Jones. 

Our  correspondent  makes  a  splendid  suggestion,  and  we  may  say  that 
we  have  had  this  matter  in  mind  for  some  time;  and  as  soon  as  we  can 
get  to  it,  it  is  the  intention  to  furnish  the  associations  with  something 
of  this  kind  through  the  Era. 


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156  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

A  WORD  TO  MISSIONARIES. 


By  the  time  this  number  of  the  Era  reaches  the  hands  of  onr 
officers  and  members  of  the  associations  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  missionary 
work  will  be  well  under  way.  Quite  a  number  of  brethren  have 
been  called  by  the  General  Superintendency  to  engage  in  this  work, 
and  most  of  them  are  now  in  their  respective  fields  of  labor.  We^ 
desire  to  say  to  them  on  behalf  of  the  committee  having  the  work  in 
charge  that  we  sincerely  hope  that  the  instructions  contained  in  the  letter 
already  sent  out  to  them  will  be  carefully  followed;  but  in  addition 
to  what  is  there  said  for  their  instruction,  we  desire  to  say  further  that 
this  season's  missionary  work  should  differ  from  that  of  last  year  in  this 
particular:  that,  whereas  the  objective  point  last  year  in  the  main  seems 
to  have  been  to  induce  the  great  number  of  young  men  who  were  not 
connected  with  the  associations  to  become  members;  we  desire  now  to 
urge  that  the  objective  point  shall  more  especially  be  to  convert  them  to 
the  truth  of  the  gospel.  The  missionaries  will  find  that  many  of  our 
young  men  who  have  a  standing  in  the  associations,  are  not  really  estab- 
lished in  their  faith  in  the  great  latter  day  work,  and  we  are  anxious  that 
all  should  be  done  that  can  be  done  to  ground  them  in  that  faith. 

The  membership  of  the  associations  was  very  much  enlarged  by  the 
missionary  efforts  of  last  seasoji;  but  many  of  those  who  gave  in  their 
names  to  become  members  of  the  associations  failed  to  become  actually 
interested  in  the  work  of  mutual  improvement.  It  was  decided  at  the 
last  annual  conference  of  the  associations  that  the  enrollment  of  names 
should  be  preserved;  and  that  no  one  should  be  dropped  from  the  enrolled 
membership  but  for  cause.  The  fact  that  a  young  man  has  his  name 
among  the  enrolled  members  of  an  association  should  be  made  a  basis  of 
missionary  work  with  him.  Our  brethren  charged  with  the  duties  of 
seeking  out  the  youth  of  Israel  and  converting  them  to  the  truth  of  the 
great  latter-day  work,  should  call  upon  all  those  who  have  failed  to 
become  real  members  of  the  associations,  and  should  strive  earnestly  for 
their  conversion  both  to  mutual  improvement  effort  and  to  the  gospel. 
None  should  be  allowed  to  escape;  and  not  only  should  our  missionary 
brethren  labor  with  them,  but  the  local  officers  and  members  of  the  asso- 
ciations should  also  bring  to  bear  upon  them  their  personal  influence  and 
give  them  encouragement  to  persevere  in  the  good  work  of  the  Lord. 

We  urge  upon  our  missionaries  to  take  plenty  of  time,  and  not  be  in 
too  great  a  hurry  to  cover  a  large  field  in  their  operations,  but  to  do 
their  work  thoroughly  as  they  go. 


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OUR  WORK.  157 

One  other  thing  we  would  also  urge— don't  mistake  timidity  for 
humility.  We  want  to  see  our  missionaries  humble,  of  course.  It  is  one 
of  the  first  elements  necessary  to  their  success.  But  humility  of  soul  is 
not  incompatible  with  boldness  of  action  in  the  matter  of  discharging  a 
duty;  and  it  does  not  always  follow  that  a  timid  man  is  necessarily  a  prop- 
erly humble  man.  Be  humble,  brethren,  but  be  bold  also  and  fearless:  you 
cannot  succeed  in  the  work  assigned  you  unless  you  are  bold  as  well  as 
humble.  You  are  sent  to  call  the  wayward  sons  of  Zion  to  repentance — 
search  them  out,  let  none  escape,  and  when  you  find  them  deliver  the 
message  to  them  without  fear  and  in  the  power  of  God.  Remember 
you  bear  the  priesthood  of  God,  you  have  the  truth  and  are  especially 
commissioned  to  teach  the  same;  and  thus  equipped  there  should  be  no 
timidity  in  your  movements.  When  you  go  to  a  settlement,  seek  out  the 
authorities  of  the  ward,  both  the  bishop  and  the  president  of  the  associa- 
tion, put  yourselves  at  their  disposal,  procure  a  list  of  delinquent  mem- 
bers of  the  association  and  those  who  have  so  far  refused  to  identify  them- 
selves with  this  great  cause  of  improvement,  and  then  seek  them  out  and 
begin  your  work.  Hold  such  public  meetings  as  you  may  find  convenient 
and  as  may  be  agreeable  to  the  local  authorities.  Make  arrangements 
wherever  possible  for  "cottage  meetings,"  get  as  many  of  the  careless 
and  indifferent  ones  as  you  can  to  attend,  sing  with  them,  pray  with 
them,  and  get  them  to  pray;  preach  to  them,  converse  with  them,  answer 
their  questions,  disperse  their  doubts,  silence  their  fears,  help  them  to 
shake  off  their  indifference,  and  lead  them  to  God  and  righteousness  in 
faith. 

Finally,  brethren,  the  Lord  be  with  you! 


OUR  COURSE  OF  STUDY. 


We  desire  to  call  attention  to  this  year's  course  of  study  provided 
for  in  our  Manual  for  1898-9,  "The  Apostolic  Age."  Under  this  title  we 
have  given  our  young  men  a  subject  that  is  in  every  way  worthy  of  their 
attention.  It  has  already  been  stated,  perhaps  a  number  of  times,  that 
the  chief  object  of  mutual  improvement  is  to  beget  faith  in  the  hearts  of 
our  young  men  in  God's  great  latter-day  work;  and  it  may  seem  by  some 
that  by  starting  for  this  objective  point  by  devoting  one  year's  study  to 
the  life  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  following  that  by  another  year's  study  of 
the  "Apostolic  Age,"  and  the  last  subject,  perhaps,  with  one  that  will 
.  treat  on  the  interim  between  the  close  of  the  "Apostolic  Age"  to  the 


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158  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

opening  of  the  'Dispensation  of  the  Fullness  of  Times,"  which  began 
with  the  revelations  of  the  Lord  to  Joseph  Smith — all  this,  we  repeat^ 
may  seem  a  round-about  way  in  which  to  reach  our  really  objective 
'  point;  but  we  are  confident,  nevertheless,  that  all  this  is  necessary  to  the 
right  understanding  of  that  great  dispensation  which  later  on  is  to  occupy 
our  attention,  and  the  best  efforts  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associa- 
tions. We  urge  our  young  men,  therefore,  to  their  very  best  effort  in 
studying  the  ''Apostolic  Age,"  and  ask  them  to  be  especially  thorough  in 
their  study  of  this  period  of  development  and  decline  of  that  institution 
founded  by  the  personal  ministry  of  Jesus  and  the  apostles. 

The  most  valuable  records  to  consult  with  reference  to  the  events  of 
that  age  are  to  be  found  in  the  "Acts  of  the  Apostles,"  and  the  epistles  of 
the  New  Testament;  and,  indeed,  these  are  about  the  only  authoritative 
documents  that  can  be  consulted  with  any  degree  of  assurance  that  they 
are  not  mixed  with  error.  After  the  documents  of  the  New  Testament 
come  the  writings  of  the  "Apostolic  Fathers"  and  the  "Apologists"  of  the 
second  century.  These  include  the  epistles  of  Clement,  of  Rome;  Ignatius, 
of  Antioch;  Polycarp,  of  Smyrna,  and  the  epistles  of  Bamabus.  Perhaps 
the  most  accessible  works  containing  these  epistles  and  much  other  early 
Christian  literature  are  a  series  of  works  called  "Primers  of  Early 
Christian  Literature,"  edited  by  Prof.  George  P.  Fisher,  and  pub- 
lished by  D.  Appleton  &  Co.,  New  York.  After  these  works,  for  the 
benefit  of  those  who  desire  to  enter  deeply  into  a  consideration  of  this 
interesting  period  of  the  Church,  we  recommend  "Eusebius'  Ecclesiastical 
History,"  which  treats  of  the  first  three  centuries  of  church  history  by 
one  who  was  very  close  to  the  events  which  he  relates.  We  also  recom- 
mend Canon  Farrar's  "Early  Days  of  Christianity,"  "The  History  of  the 
Christian  Church,"  during  the  first  ten  centuries,  by  Phillip  Smith,  under 
the  title  of  "The  Student's  Ecclesiastical  History,*"  "The  History  of  Chris- 
tianity," by  Henry  H.  Milman,  generally  published  in  two  volumes;  "The 
Life  of  Paul,"  by  Conybeare  and  Hawson,  and,  of  course,  Mosheim's  "Eccle- 
siastical History"  and  Milner's  "History  of  the  Church." 

None  of  these  works  are  expensive,  and,  in  the  main,  can  be  procured 
through  our  Salt  Lake  book-dealers,  especially  through  Cannon  &  Sons 
of  Salt  Lake  City;  and  while  it  may  be  true  that  our  young  men  cannot 
undertake  to  purchase  all  of  them,  still  any  one  of  those  recommended 
would  be  of  great  assistance,  and  perhaps  each  association  could  secure 
them  as  works  of  reference  for  the  association.  In  that  event  the  bind- 
ings ought  to  be  especially  good,  and  the  books  would  then  be  an  excel- 
ent  start  toward  an  ecclesiastical  library  that  would  be  of  great  value,, 
not  only  in  the  present  manual  course  but  in  others  that  are  to  follow. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH. 

BT  THOMAS  HULL,  SECRETARY  OF  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF  T.  M.  M.  L  A. 


October  \Wt:  The  United  States  takes  formal  possession  of  the 
island  of  Porto  Rico.  The  following  dispatch  is  received  at  the  war 
department  from  General  Brooke: 

San  Juan,  Porto  Rico, 
Oct.  18, 1898. 
Secretary  qf  War,  Washington: 

Flags  have  been  raised  on  public  buildings  and 
forts  in  this  city  and  sainted  with  national  salutes. 
The  occupation  of  the  island  is  now  complete. 

Brooke. 
20th:    Utah  day  at  Trans-Mississippi  Exposition.    A  speech  of  wel- 
come is  made  by  the  president  of  the  Exposition  and  responses  by  Gover- 
nor Wells,  and  by  Lorenzo  Snow,  George  Q.  Cannon,  and  Joseph  F.  Smith, 
Presidency  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

22nd:  An  outbreak  of  bubonic  plague  resulting  from  experiments 
with  the  plague  bacillus  in  a  bacteriological  establishment  causes  a  panic 
in  Vienna,  Austria. 

23rd:  Serious  race  trouble  occurs  in  the  eastern  part  of  Tennessee 
resulting  from  an  attempt  to  arrest  a  negro  who  had  had  trouble  with 
his  employer,  a  white  man.  One  white  deputy  and  nine  negroes  have 
been  killed.    *    *    *    A  peace  jubilee  opens  in  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

24th:  The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  hands  down  a  deci- 
sion in  which  the  railway  trust  known  as  the  Joint  Traffic  Association  is 
held  to  be  an  illegal  organization.  ♦  ♦  ♦  The  Second  Volunteer  Cav- 
alry, Torrey's  Rough  Riders,  is  mustered  out  of  service.  ♦  ♦  ♦  Gen- 
eral Wesley  Merritt,  United  States  army,  and  Miss  Williams,  of  Chicago, 
are  married  in  London,  England. 

25th:  The  time  limit  for  the  evacuation  of  Cuba  is  extended  until 
January  1st,  1899.    ♦    ♦    ♦    The  French  ministry  resigns. 


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160  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

29tli:  The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Utah 
Pioneers  is  held  at  Prove,  Utah.  ♦  ♦  ♦  Col.  George  E.  Waring  dies 
in  New  York  City  of  yellow  fever.  He  returned  October  25th  from 
Havana,  Cuba,  where  he  had  been  sent  by  the  United  States  government 
as  special  commissioner  to  ascertain  the  exact  sanitary  condition  of  the 
city.  ♦  ♦  ♦  The  French  court  of  cassation  decides  to  grant  a  revi- 
sion of  the  Dreyfus  case  and  give  Dreyfus  a  new  trial. 

31st:  The  United  States  peace  commissioners  at  Paris  present  to 
the  Spanish  commissioners  their  decision  to  retain  the  Philippines  and 
reimburse  Spain  for  expenditures  for  the  betterment  of  the  island. 

November  ^h:  The  Spanish  peace  commissioners  refuse  to  accept 
the  proposition  of  the  Americans  in  relation  to  the  Philippines. 

5th:  By  the  collapse  of  a  theatre  building  in  course  of  erection  in 
Detroit,  Michigan,  fifteen  workmen  are  killed  and  many  injured.  *  *  ^ 
Word  is  received  at  the  Navy  department  that  the  crusier  Ittfavla  Maria 
Teresa  which  was  one  of  Cervera's  squadron  and  which  had  been  raised 
by  Naval  Constructor  Hobson,  was  lost  on  November  first  in  a  heavy  gale 
about  thirty  miles  north  -of  San  Salvador,  while  on  her  way  to  New 
York. 

6th:  An  explosion  of  gas  followed  by  fire  in  the  National  Capitol 
at  Washington  does  great  damage  to  the  central  eastern  portion  of  the 
building.  *  *  *  A  fire  breaks  out  in  the  great  snow  sheds  of  tiie 
Southern  Pacific  Railway  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains  and  several 
thousand  feet  of  sheds  are  destroyed.  Great  delay  will  be  occasioned 
thereby  to  the  traffic  over  that  portion  of  the  road. 

8th:  B.  H.  Roberts  is  elected  as  Utah's  representative  to  Congress, 
and  Robert  N.  Baskin  is  elected  to  the  Utah  Supreme  bench.  *  *  * 
Theodore  Roosevelt  is  elected  governor  of  New  York.  ♦  ♦  •  The 
wrecking  company  which  had  the  contract  in  hand  for  raising  tiie 
Maria  Teresa  receives  word  that  she  is  ashore  at  Cat  Island  about  thirty 
miles  south-west  of  where  she  was  supposed  to  have  foundered. 

10th:  Serious  trouble  occurs  between  negroes  and  whites  in  Wil- 
mington, N.  C,  over  an  editorial  derogatory  of  white  women,  published 
by  a  negro  newspaper.  The  publishing  house  is  destroyed  and  eight 
negroes  killed  and  others  wounded. 

11th:  The  National  W.  C.  T.  U.  Convention  begins  in  St.  Paul. 
Minn. 

14th:  Word  reaches  Skaguay,  Alaska,  that  on  October  16th,  Daw- 
son City,  in  the  Klondike  country,  was  partially  destroyed  by  fire.  The 
loss  is  estimated  at  $500,000. 

15th:  Mrs.  Lillian  M.  Stevens,  of  Maine,  is  elected  president  of  the 
W.  C.  T.  U. 


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IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 


Vol.  n.  JANUARY,  1899.  Na  8. 


MANILA 


AND  THE    PART  TAKEN    BY  THE  UTAH    BATTERIES  IM 
ITS  CAPTURE. 

BY  MAJOR  RICHARD  W.  YOUNG. 


I  had  formed  in  my  mind  a  picture  of  Manila  very  different 
from  the  original.  The  picture  you  are  not  interested  in.  The 
city  itself  is  extremely  interesting.  It  fronts  on  the  bay  now 
chiefly  famous  as  the  scene  of  Dewey's  great  victory,  and  stretches 
back  from  the  shore  for  several  miles  on  both  sides  of  the  Pasig 
river. 

It  contains  several  hundred  thousand  inhabitants,  of  whom 
about  16,000  are  Spanish  soldiers,  several  thousand  are  Ehiropeans 
engaged  in  civil  pursuits,  many  thousands  are  Chinese,  and  the 
balance  are  natives.  But  do  not  jump  at  the  conclusion  that  the 
natives  are  worthless  savages.  Nearly  all  speak  Spanish.  They 
furnish  the  clerks,  tradesmen  and  artisans  of  the  city.  They  read 
and  write.  They  are  very  cleanly  in  their  attire,  the  men  in  their 
suits  of  white,  and  the  women  in  their  picturesque  and  modest 
costumes.  The  sound  of  guitars,  harps  and  violins  greets  your  ears 
as  you  pass  through  their  streets  at  night.  Despite  the  enervating 


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162  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

infltience  of  a  tropical  sun,  they  are  ceaselessly  energetic  and 
industrious.  The  men  with  sticks  across  their  shoulder  from  the 
ends  of  which  depend  great  loads,  and  the  little  women  with  large, 
round  baskets  on  their  heads,  actually  trot  through  the  merciless 
sunshine  to  and  from  their  busy  markets.  The  children  are  bright 
and  quick.  Many  already  salute  you  with  '^  Good  morning,^'  or 
''How  de  do,"  pronounced  with  all  the  grandeur  and  politeness  of 
their  erstwhile  Spanish  masters.  In  the  evening,  a  company  of 
these  black-headed,  short-cropped,  straight,  quick,  good  natured, 
bare  footed,  sometimes  pantless,  little  fellows  will  march  by  in 
military  order  with  sticks  for  guns,  carrying  a  United  States  and 
insurgent  flag,  and  performing  military  evolutions  with  surprising 
accuracy.  One  cannot  help  becoming  attached  to  these  sunny 
little  boys  and  girls,  so  polite  to  the  stranger  and  so  forbearing  in 
their  conduct  with  each  other. 

Around  the  city  in  all  directions,  forming  its  suburbs,  are  the 
native  districts.  Many  of  the  poorer  natives  still  live  in  their  na- 
tive huts,  constructed  on  stilts  about  five  feet  high,  with  floors  of 
split  bamboo,  well  ventilated,  walls  and  roofs  of  dried  leaves,  and 
sliding  doors  and  windows  also  of  thatch.  A  fixed  bench  or  so 
along  the  wall  constitutes  all  the  furniture;  a  mat  made  of  straw, 
folded  away  during  the  day  and  spread  on  the  bamboo  floor  at  night, 
furnishes  bedding;  a  pottery  receptacle  for  charcoal  is  their  stove, 
and  the  neighboring  river  their  bath  house  and  laundry.  The  women 
bathe  with  a  sort  of  Mother  Hubbard,  fastened  around  the  body 
under  the  arms,  the  men  with  a  breech  cloth,  and  the  children 
with — a  playful  spirit. 

Passing  through  this  fringe  of  native  huts,  you  reach  the  very 
picturesque  wooden  hoitoes  of  the  Spanish  order  of  architecture, — 
overhanging  roofs,  overhanging  upper  stories,  with  great  sliding 
windows  opening  the  whole  side  of  the  house,  and  lower  stories  with 
strong  doors,  reserved  for  the  servants  or  used  as  store  rooms  or 
stables;  all  try  to  live  above  the  malarial  or  otherwise  dangerous 
vapors  that  hover  near  the  ground.  Up  the  river  are  found  the 
splendid  summer  palaces  of  the  governor-general,  the  palace  of 
Admiral  Montojo  and  other  public  and  private  residences,  having 
one  front  on  the  shaded  street  and  the  other  overlooking  the  pic- 
turesque Pasig,  down  whose  current  are  forever  floating  a  species 


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MANILA.  163 

of  green  plant  resembling  the  lily  in  shape.  At  the  mouth  of  the 
river  a  long  jetty  has  been  thrown  out  on  the  north  side  and  a 
breakwater  on  the  south.  North  of  the  stream  is  Binondo,  the 
business  district.  Along  the  water  front  are  great  warehouses, 
and  stretching  back  are  many  streets  lined  with  busy  places  of 
trade.  The  stores  and  shops  are  mostly  kept  by  the  Chinese  and 
natives,  except  on  the  Escalta,  the  chief  street,  where  hotels, 
jewehy  stores,  soap  and  perfume  shops,  tailoring  establishments. 
Blast  Indian  bazars,  saloons,  beer  halls  (with  native  string  bands) 
and  what  not,  jostle  each  other  in  a  profusion  and  magnificence 
but  little  dreamed  of  by  me.  Why,  the  comer  of  the  Escalta  and 
Calle  Nueva,  the  street  that  leads  to  the  bridge  of  Spain,  is  as  busy 
and  crowded  as  Broadway  at  Pulton  street.  The  street  is  fre- 
quently jammed  and  the  services  of  several  officers  are  constantly 
required  to  keep  the  crossing  passable.  Below  the  bridge  the  river 
is  packed  with  steamers  and  all  kinds  of  craft.  Canals  run  all 
over  the  city,  and  are  used  extensively  in  the  commerce  of  the 
place.  Street  cars,  propelled  by  the  small  native  horses,  traverse 
the  principal  streets.  Great  churches  lift  their  picturesque  fronts 
on  many  a  street  and  square,  and  on  the  Sabbath  day  they  are 
crowded  by  the  devout  natives  in  their  clean  and  airy  costumes. 
Bells,  mostly  jangling  and  out  of  tune,  ring  forth  at  all  hours  of 
the  day. 

But  the  most  interesting  portion  of  the  city.  Old  Manila,  I  have 
omitted  to  mention.  It  is  a  walled  city  of  the  middle  ages  in  spirit, 
though  more  modem  in  point  of  fact:  walls  twenty  feet  high  with 
crenelated  tops,  through  the  openings  of  which  frown  multitudinous 
bronze  cannons,  mostly  of  another  age.  Behind  the  walls,  a  succes- 
sion of  casemates,  the  roofs  of  which  furnish  a  broad  rampart  just 
below  the  top  of  the  walls;  in  front  of  the  walls,  moats  crossed  by 
draw  bridges,  and  capable  of  being  filled  with  water  on  a  moment's 
notice;  in  front  of  the  gates,  outer  works  of  defense;  in  the  north- 
'west  comer,  the  Citadel,  the  fort  of  San  Sebastian,  frowning  high 
over  the  entrance  to  the  river  with  the  vaulted  dungeons  below 
even  the  level  of  the  sea;  the  whole  constmcted  strictly  according 
to  the  man  who  corresponds  in  the  Art  Militaire  to  Hoyle  in — 
well,  in! 

Within  the  city,  barracks  and  barracks,  great  cathedrals  and 


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164  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

churches,  colleges  and  schools,  monasteries  and  convents,  palaces, 
courts  ecclesiastical,  arsenals,  etc.  In  this  interesting  portion 
of  the  city  are  now  confined  the  Spanish  army  captured  by  the 
Americans — good  enough  looking  fellows,  but  worn  down  by  years 
of  fighting  and  jaundiced  and  invalided  by  the  climate — ^now  living 
in  churches  or  anywhere  that  refuge  can  be  had — the  victors  hav- 
ing occupied  their  barracks. 

Of  the  rest  of  the  country  we  know  little  and  have  seen  lees. 
The  situation  has  been  such  here,  owing  to  the  very  strained  rda- 
tions  between  our  own  forces  and  those  of  Aguinaldo,  that  the 
troops  have  been  kept  quite  closely  at  home. 

Of  the  doings  of  the  Utah  artillery  there  is  probably  no  need 
to  say  much.  No  doubt  some  of  my  comrades  have  written  full 
accounts  of  our  part  in  the  capture  of  Manila  to  our  local  news- 
papers. In  brief  outline  our  record  is  as  follows:  The  call  for 
iaroops — Utah's  patriotic  response  in  offering  almost  twice  as  many 
as  were  required;  the  muster-in,  May  9th;  the  early  departure 
for  San  Francisco;  the  embarkation  for  Manila,  Battery  A  on  the 
Cohm  and  Battery  B,  half  on  the  Chma  and  half  on  the  Zealandial 
the  day  at  Honolulu;  the  visit  to  the  Ladrones;  the  meeting  of  the 
Boston,  at  the  north  end  of  Luzon,  with  news  of  the  battle  at 
Santiago,  and  of  the  approach  of  Gamara's  fleet;  the  arrival,  July 
16th,  at  Cavite;  the  disembarkation,  July  20th,  at  Camp  Dewey — 
the  only  dry  ground  in  the  midst  of  miles  of  flooded  rice  fields  and 
swamps,  at  a  distance  of  two  and  one-quarter  miles  from  the  Span- 
ish lines;  the  men  compelled  to  carry  their  baggage,  guns  and 
ammunition  ashore  through  surf  more  than  waist-deep;  the  recon- 
noitering  of  the  ground  in  front  of  us  along  the  insurgent  trenches, 
which  in  spots  had  been  pushed  up  close  to  the  enemy's  works; 
the  constant  ''ping"  of  the  Spanish  Mauser  bullet  and  the  occasional 
crash  and  explosion  of  a  shell  during  these  expeditions;  the  putting, 
July  29th,  of  two  of  Battery  A's  guns  in  two  insurgent  embrasures 
not  far  from  the  beach;  the  failure  of  the  revolutionists  to  hold 
our  right  that  and  the  succeeding  night,  and  the  splendid,  but 
missed,  opportunity  to  drive  our  weak  advanced  lines  into  the  sea; 
the  bringing  forward  of  two  of  Battery  B's  guns,  July  31st,  and  the 
placing  of  them  and  the  two  guns  of  Battery  A  in  new  positions 
about  two  hundred  yards  in  front  of  our  first  position;  the  vigorous 


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MANILA.  165 

night  attack  of  the  Spanish  with  cannon  and  small  arm,  lasting  for 
two  honrs  and  forty  minutes,  on  the  night  of  the  31st,  during  which 
our  four  guns  fired  nearly  two  hundred  rounds  mostly  of  shrapnel 
at  point  blank  range;  the  uncertainty  in  the  darkness  of  the  Span- 
ish movements  and  intentions;  the  terror  in  the  camp  for  fear  that 
the  stories  brought  back  by  the  first  few  stampeded  soldiers  were 
correct  and  that  the  troops  had  been  wiped  out;  the  rushing  for- 
ward of  reinforcements;  the  stretchers  coming  back  with  the  dead 
and  wounded;  the  renewal  of  the  attack  nearly  every  night  for  a 
week,  the  Utah  troops  being  the  only  troops  present  in  every 
engagement;  the  extension  of  our  lines  to  our  right  so  as  to  include 
in  our  front  a  strong  Spanish  block  house  known  as  No.  14;  the 
whole  country  flooded  with  rain,  which  fell  almost  incessantly,  our 
trenches  being  ditches  and  our  guns  standing  in  a  foot  of  water; 
the  order  for  the  combined  naval  and  army  attack,  August  13th; 
the  construction  of  emplacements  for  all  of  our  other  guns  and  the 
moving  of  both  batteries  forward  on  the  13th;  the  grand  and 
impressive  moving  out  of  Dewey's  ships;  the  first  gun  from  the 
Olympia,  followed  by  rapid  firing  from  other  ships  and  from  our 
own  guns;  the  splendid  marksmanship  of  our  gunners,  who,  at  one 
thousand  and  fifty  yards  on  the  left  knocked  blocks  from  the  solid 
wall  of  Fort  St.  Anthony  or  sand  bags  from  the  earth-works  near 
by,  at  every  shot,  and  who,  on  the  right,  destroyed  block  house  No. 
14  in  a  dozen  shots;  the  attack  of  the  infantry;  the  feeble  response 
of  the  enemy,  driven  out  by  the  artillery  fire;  the  raising  of  our  flag 
on  St.  Anthony  at  11:10  a.  m.;  the  vigorous  scrap  on  the  right' of 
the  line — the  complete  capture;  the  surrender  of  the  Spaniards, 
including  a  company  of  palace  guards,  with  medieval  uniforms  and 
battle  axes;  the  quartering  of  the  American  troops  in  Spanish 
barracks  and  houses;  the  luck  of  the  Utah  troops  in  getting  into  a 
commodious  barrack;  the  praises  of  all  of  the  work  of  the  Utah 
batteries;  the  general  concensus  of  opinion  that  of  all  the  troops 
engaged  none  had  done  better  nor  so  much  work  as  our  own  organ- 
izations; the  arrival  of  the  recruits;  the  occasional  call  to  arms  to 
quell  a  rumored  outbreak  by  the  insurredos;  the  hum-drum  of 
barrack  life;  the  desire  to  get  home;  the  uncertainty  of  the  future 
caused  by  the  rumors  that  five  thousand  more  soldiers  and  two 
battle  ships  were  on  their  way  here — such  is  the  story  of  our 


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166  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

service^  told  in  headlines,  as  a  newspaper  man  would  say.    The 
record  is  an  honorable  and  a  prominent  one. 

No  citizen  of  Utah  need  hesitate  to  investigate  the  part  of 
the  Utah  boys  in  the  campaign  against  Manila,  nor  will  he  have 
occasion  to  blush  when  he  learns  it  in  detail. 


DUTY. 


SELECTED. 

There's  a  pathway  through  life  with  a  stem-sounding  name, 
And  some  tread  it  bravely  to  honor  and  fame, 
And  some  tread  it  bravely  wherever  it  goes. 
Unmindful  of  thorns,  in  the  hope  of  a  rose. 

And  sometimes  this  path  through  the  wilderness  leads. 
Where  the  foot  of  the  wayfarer  winces  and  bleeds, 
And  sometimes  it  climbs  to  the  summits  of  snow. 
While  sunshine  lies  warm  in  the  valleys  below. 

But  this  thing  is  certain — who  follows  the  track 
That  Duty  has  marked  for  him,  ne'er  looking  back. 
Who  takes  to  it,  sticks  to  it,  sunshine  or  shade, 
Shall  never  regret  him  the  choice  he  has  made. 

For,  though  it  be  stony  and  though  it  be  steep. 
It  groweth  a  flower  whoso  findeth  may  keep. 
And  all  who  along  it  will  faithfully  wend. 
Shall  light  on  this  flower  ere  they  come  to  the  end. 

Its  name  is  True  Happiness;  blest  is  the  lot 
Of  him  who  fares  on  till  he  comes  to  the  spot 
Where,  blushing,  it  greets  him;  his  effort  is  crowned 
With  a  flower  that  shall  bloom  for  him  all  the  year  round. 


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THE  ICELAND  REPUBUC  AND  ITS  LEGAL 

SYSTEM* 


BY  JOHN  THORGEIRSON. 


It  is  a  well  known  fact  that  in  Iceland  was  a  regularly  estab- 
lished republican  form  of  government,  which  existed  from  the 
atter  part  of  the  ninth  century  to  1270  A.  D.  There  are  at 
present  several  vellum  manuscripts  extant,  which  contain,  at  least 
in  part,  the  laws  of  Iceland  as  a  republic.  The  most  important 
one  of  these  is  a  book  of  tanned  calf -skin  called  Konungsbok  (the 
King's  Book),  which  is  in  the  Royal  •  Library  of  Denmark.  It  was 
presented  to  King  Prederik  HI,  in  the  year  1656,  by  Brynjolf 
Sveinson,  who  was  then  bishop  of  Iceland.  The  book  is  thirteen 
and  one-half  inches  long,  nine  and  one-fourth  inches  broad,  and  has 
one  hundred  and  eighty-six  pages. 

According  to  the  investigation  of  the  most  reliable  antiqua- 
rians it  appears  to  have  been  written  about  the  middle  of  the 
thirteenth  century.  It  is  well  preserved,  and  the  leaves  are  yet 
white  and  glossy. 

Dr.  William  Finsen,  one  of  the  leading  Icelandic  archseologists 
and  barristers,  issued  some  time  ago  an  accurate  and  critical  edi- 
tion of  this  valuable  work.  It  is  in  two  volumes  and  is  divided 
into  fifteen  parts  or  divisions.  First  is  the  ecclesiastical  law,  which 
takes  up  eighteen  pages  of  the  vellum;  second,  rules  of  order, 
which  occupies  forty-two  pages;  third,  military  and  criminal  law, 
sixteen  pages ;  fourth,  on  weights  and  measures,  comparative 
value  of  gold,  silver,  etc.,  seven  pages;  fifth,  the  authority  and 


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168  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

duties  of  the  president,  two  pages;  sixth,  the  power  and  duties  of 
congress  (Althing),  thirteen  pages;  seventh,  laws  of  inheritance 
and  family  rights,  twelve  pages;  eighth,  law  regarding  the  pro- 
viding for  the  poor  and  indigent,  eleven  pages;  ninth,  law  regard- 
ing engagements,  marriages,  etc.,  twenty-eight  pages;  tenth, 
regarding  real  estate,  etc.,*  thirty-three  pages ;  eleventh,  on 
rents,  eleven  pages;  twelfth,  on  legal  proceedings,  etc.,  fourteen 
pages;  thirteenth,  on  the  civO  division  of  the  land,  four  pages; 
and  fifteenth,  on  miscellaneous  formulas  and  laws,  consisting  of 
fifteen  pages,  which  completes  the  vellum  King's  Book. 

It  was  in  the  year  874  A.  D.  that  Ingolf,  the  first  settler  in 
Iceland,  arrived,  and  during  the  sixty  years  following  the  emigration 
was  so  heavy  that  it  is  regarded  that  at  the  end  of  that  period 
Iceland  had  as  great  a  population  as  she  has  ever  had,  it  being 
estimated  that  about  that  time  the  inhabitants  numbered  no  less 
than  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand. 

Prior  to  927  the  civil  affairs  of  the  land  were  in  a  very  unset- 
tled condition,  yet  judiciary  districts  had  been  established  here 
and  there  by  those  who  resided  in  different  localities.  It  was  in 
the  year  924  that  a  man  by  the  name  of  Ulfljot  was.  selected  and 
sent  to  Norway,  by  the  assistance  of  the  best  legal  lights  in  that 
country,  to  draft  a  brief  code  of  laws  for  the  purpose  of  estab- 
lishing Iceland  on  a  firm  basis  as  an  independent  republic.  Hav- 
ing spent  three  years  at  this,  Ulfljot  came  back.  Then  a  man  by 
the  name  of  Grimm  was  sent  out  to  select  a  suitable  place  to 
hold  the  national  congress;  he  chose  the  world-famous  place, 
Logberg,  by  the  river  Oxara,  where  the  leading  men  of  the  land 
met  in  a  council  in  the  summer  of  927  A.  D.,  and  adopted  the  law 
that  Ulfljot  brought,  honoring  him  by  unanimously  electing  him 
the  first  president  of  the  Icelandic  Republic.  How  much  of  this 
first  law  is  preserved  is  unknown  with  the  exception  of  the  ofllcial 
oath  and  a  few  other  unimportant  matters  which  are  preserved  in 
the  Sagas.  The  majority  of  the  inhabitants  were  of  the  Asa  faith. 
The  administration  of  the  oath  was  as  follows:  The  man  who  was 
to  take  the  oath  was  required  to  take  two  witnesses  with  him  and 
go  up  to  the  altar  and  there  take  a  gold  ring  that  must  not  weigh 
less  than  two  ounces,  and  was  provided  and  placed  on  the  altar  for 
that  purpose.    It  had  first  to  be  dipped  into  the  warm  blood  of  an  ox. 


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THE  ICELAND  REPUBLIC.  169 

Putting  it  on  his  hand,  he  said,  '^I  call  so  and  so  as  the  first  witness, 
and  80  and  so  as  the  other  witness,  that  I  perform  an  oath  by  this 
ring,  a  lawful  oath,  so  help  me  Freyr,  Njordur  and  the  almighty  god, 
that  I  will  so  prosecute,  defend,  testify  or  render  judgment,  as  I 
know  to  be  the  most  right,  the  most  truthful  and  in  the  nearest 
conformity  to  the  law.  And  to  do  according  to  law  every  and  all 
legal  duties  that  will  be  required  of  me  to  do,  while  I  am  at  this 
court." 

In  connection  with  this  I  wish  to  explain  that  this  almighty 
god  spoken  of  in  the  oath  was  Odin,  and  the  other  two  were  also 
among  the  chiefeet  of  the  Norse — Icelandic  gods.  It  is  also  worth 
mentioning  that  in  those  heathen  times,  and  according  to  the 
heathen  law,  perjury,  murder,  and  taking  a  woman  by  force, 
w^e  such  gross  crimes,  that  those  committing  them  could  not  be 
ransomed.  Any  man  found  guilty  of  any  of  those  crimes  forfeited 
his  life,  and  his  property  was  confiscated  by  the  state;  a  porticm 
•f  the  property  was  however  used  to  pay  damages  to  the  wronged 
one,  and  the  heirs  of  the  guilty  party  lost  all  their  natural  rights. 

At  the  session  of  the  first  national  congress,  a  general  as 
well  as  local  form  of  government  was  adopted  for  the  whole  land 
bat  it  was  not  till  about  A.  D.  960  that  the  organization  was  com- 
pleted, when  the  whole  land  was  divided  into  thirty-nine  chieftain- 
ships. Three  chieftainships  formed  one  judicial  district.  Three 
judicial  districts  formed  one  judicial  quarter,  except  in  the  northern 
quarter,  where  there  were  four.  Each  quarter  was  entitled  to 
twelve  representatives  to  the  national  congress,  each  of  them 
selecting  two  counselors,  whose  duty  it  was  to  assist  the  repre- 
sentatives. These  counselors  had  the  right  to  discuss  and  debate  in 
congress,  but  could  not  vote.  The  place  where  the  assembly  met 
was  in  the  open  air.  In  the  plain  Thingvoll  three  benches  were 
put  up  in  a  hollow  square.  On  the  middle  bench  the  people's  repre- 
sentatives sat,  while  the  two  counselors  of  each  sat  one  on  the 
front  bench  in  the  front  of  his  master,  and  the  other  behind.  Each 
new  law  had  to  be  read  aloud  before  all  present  for  three  suc- 
cessive years  in  congress  (Althing),  and  if  during  that  time  no 
successful  objection  was  made  thereto,  it  became  a  statutory  law. 
Any  one  present  had  a  right  to  make  objection  to  the  new  law 
(nymali),  and  any  objection  or  anjrthing  of  that  kind  must  be  taken 


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170  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

notice  of  no  matter  though  the  objector  was  not  a  member  of 
congress.  The  president  of  the  Icelandic  Republic  presided  in  the 
AUhing  like  the  vice-president  of  the  United  States  does  in  the 
senate.  During  the  earlier  years  of  the  republic,  it  appears  that 
a  [two-thirds  majority  was  required  to  carry  a  measure,  but  in 
later  years  a  majority  was  sufficient,  no  matter  .how  smalL  The 
place  itself  where  the  Althing  (the  national  congress)  met  was 
called  Lawyard.  The  number  of  men  that  had  a  seat  there  were 
forty-eight  representatives,  ninety-six  counselors  and  the  president. 
But  after  A.  D.  1000,  when  Christianity  was  lawfully  established 
as  the  national  faith,  the  two  bishops  had  their  seat  also,  which 
made  the  number  altogether  one  hundred  and  forty-seven.  AUhing 
met  every  year  in  the  month  of  June,  and  was  about  two  weeks, 
or  hardly  that  long,  in  a  session.  Going  home,  the  representatives 
and  their  counselors  were  required  by  law  to  hold  meetings  in 
every  specified  [locality,  and  read  to  the  people  all  new  laws  and 
amendments  to  laws  that  were  passed  at  that  session  of  AUhing, 

To  more  fully  explain  how  the  legislative  system  was  worked 
I  shall  have  to  cite  the  passing  of  a  few  important  statutes.  It 
was  but  shortly  after  the  establishment  of  the  AUhing  that  it  was 
noticed  through  the  movements  of  the  sun  that  a  year  of  three 
hundred  and  sixty-four  days  was  too  short.  To  regulate  this  a 
man  by  the  name  of  Thorstein  Surt — it  is  not  said  whether  he  was 
a  member  of  congress  or  not — proposed  to  add  one  week  to  the 
summer  every  seventh  year,  which  was  unanimously  passed. 

The  most  remarkable  case  of  lawmaking  was  in  the  year  1000, 
when  Christianity  was  established  by  law  as  the  national  religion. 
It  was  during  the  session  of  the  AUhing  the  year  before  that 
Hjalti  Skeggason,  one  of  the  foremost  men  in  the  land,  was  found 
guilty  of  blasphemy  against  the  gods,  due  to  some  cause  not 
recorded.    He  said: 

'*To  fear  the  gods  I  folly  see — 
Preya  appears  a  wretch  to  me." 

Freya  was  the  goddess  of  marriage  and  one  which  was  highly 
adored;  and  for  making  such  a  remark  about  her  he  was  exiled. 
Hjalti  went  to  Norway  that  fall  and  went  to  King  Olaf  Triggvason, 
who  was  a  very  zealous  Christian.    Hjalti  was  baptized  the  next 


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THE  ICELAND  REPUBLIC.  171 

spring  into  the  Christian  church,  and  was  sent  by  King  Olaf  as  a 
missionary  to  Iceland. 

Among  the  early  settlers  in  Iceland  were  not  a  few  who  came 
from  the  British  Isles,  who  had  been  reared  in  the  Christian  faith. 
But  it  appears  that  the  majority  of  settlers  were  heathens,  or  rather 
of  the  Asa  faith.  All  those  in  authority  seem  to  have  belonged 
to  the  latter  class.  Hjalti  came  to  Thingvoll  while  Althing  was  in 
session,  and  got  permission  to  deliver  a  sermon  at  Logberg. 
Every  year  a  vast  number  of  men  and  women  were  present  during 
the  session  of  Althing^  and  this  time  was  no  exception.  Hjalti's 
sermon  put  a  new  life  into  those  who  had  been  reared  in  the 
Christian  faith,  which  caused  them  to  rebel  and  secede  from  the 
heathens,  and  elect  a  man  by  the  name  of  Hall  for  their  president. 
He  was  a  close  relative  to  Duke  Rollo,  the  founder  of  Normandy. 
All  the  men  were  armed,  but  no  fighting  was  done.  On  being  elected 
by  the  adherents  to  Christianity,  President  Hall  called  his  people 
together  and  required  from  their  hands  unlimited  authority  to  act 
in  their  behalf,  and  made  them,  by  a  most  sacred  oath,  obligate 
themselves  to  be  satisfied  with  whatever  he  saw  fit  to  do,  regard- 
ing this  most  important  question.  This  being  done,  he  went  to  the 
real  president,  whose  name  was  Thorgeir,  and  resigned  his  author- 
ity to  him.  This  being  done.  President  Thorgeir  went  to  his  booth 
and  forbid  any  one  to  disturb  him  for  a  day  and  a  night.  On  the 
morning  of  June  24th  he  called  the  people  together,  explaining  to 
them  the  great  national  difficulty  that  confronted  them,  saying, 
among  other  things,  "If  we  are  not  all  governed  by  the  same  law 
our  peace,  security  and  freedom  are  gone,  for  which  our  fathers 
and  mothers  left  their  native  lands,  and  came  here  to  establish." 
He  reminded  them  that  the  disunion  of  the  peoples  of  Norway, 
Denmark,  Sweden  and  England,  paved  the  way  for  absolute  mon- 
archy and  thraldom.  '*To  avoid  this,  here  in  this  land,"  he  said, 
*Ve  must  all  be  governed  by  the  same  law,  and  the  same  men.  I 
therefore,  for  the  security  of  our  freedom,  national  unity  and  inde- 
pendence, advise  that  we  adopt  Christianity  to  be  our  national 
faith,  cease  worshiping  idols  and  offering  sacrifices  to  them,  and 
we  each  and  every  one  of  us,  young  and  old,  men  and  women,  be 
baptized  into  the  Christian  faith." 

Having  before  he  began  his  speech  secured  the  promise  of 


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172  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  assemblage  to  abide  by  his  decision,  and  being  sustained  in 
his  opinion  by  the  majority  of  the  congressmen,  as  well  as  many 
of  the  leading  men  of  the  land,  Christianity  was  then  and  there 
adopted  by  law,  and  made  the  national  faith  of  the  Icelandic 
Republic.  So  much  at  the  present  in  regard  to  the  legislative 
Gfystem.  I  shall  now  proceed  to  give  a  brief  account  of  the  judi- 
cial one. 

As  before  stated,  about  960  A.  D.,  the  land  was  divided  into 
regular  judicial  districts;  the  chief  divisions  being  four  quarters, 
respectively  called  the  southern,  western,  northern,  and  eastern 
quarters.  Each  quarter  again  was  divided  into  three  judicial 
districts,  except  the  northern  one,  which,  due  to  geographical 
condition  and  the  wishes  of  its  inhabitants,  was  divided  into  four; 
each  of  those  consisting  of  three  chieftainships.  One  of  the  duties 
of  the  chieftains  was  by  and  with  the  consent  of  the  people  of  their 
respective  districts  to  select  twelve  jurors;  the  whole  number 
being  according  to  law  thirty-six.  The  verdict  of  a  majority  was 
a  legal  decision.  From  those  courts  appeals  could  be  made  to  the 
quarter  courts,  where  were  also  thirty-six  jurors  or  domsnrfud — 
doom-namers — as  they  were  called.  The  law  also  provided  that  a 
preliminary  hearing  could  be  had  in  every  locality;  and  to  secure 
which  the  party  aggrieved  had  a  right  to  call  together,  without 
any  previous  notice,  a  committee  of  five,  nine  or  twelve  men  in  his 
immediate  neighborhood;  a  decision  by  whom,  in  many  casee, 
according  to  the  law,  could  be  final. 

Besides  those  districts  and  quarter  courts,  it  was  also  pro- 
vided by  law  that  at  Thingvoll,  where  the  national  congress  met» 
four  courts,  also  called  quarter  courts,  were  established,  which 
were  both  courts  of  appeal,  and  where  such  .cases  should  be  tried 
when  the  parties  to  the  suit  resided  in  two  or  more  judicial  quar- 
ters. How  the  jurors  for  those  courts  were  selected,  and  how 
many  it  took  to  constitute  the  court  is  not  agreed  upon  by  those  who 
have  written  about  the  subject.  Dr.  Konrad  Mauree  says  thirty- 
six;  Dr.  William  Finsen  clauns  it  was  only  nine.  According  to  the 
meagre  account  given  in  Kings  Book  and  the  Sagas,  it  seems  that 
thirty-six  was  the  right  number,  nine  from  each  quarter;  and  that 
there  were  certain  places  and  probably  certain  days  appointed  for 


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THE  ICELAND  REPUBLIC.  173 

tiie  different  quarter  courts  to  be  held;  but  the  same  thirty-six  men 
served  as  jurors  in  all  places  and  in  all  cases. 

It  was  in  the  year  1005  that  through  the  subtilty  and  trickery 
of  the  lawyers,  several  important  cases  could  not  be  settled, 
which  came  near  causing  bloodshed  and  anarchy.  The  greatest 
barrister  and  legislator  in  the  republic  at  that  time  was  a  man 
named  Nial  Thorgeirson,  who  doubtless  was  one  of  the  people's 
representatives.  When  the  Althing  met  the  next  summer,  there 
was  a  good  deal  of  discontent  among  those  who  the  year  previous 
could  not  get  their  rights  because  of  the  alleged  defects  of  the 
judicial  system;  and  that  discontent  came  near  resulting  in  a 
general  uproar  and  lawlessness.  Several  of  the  more  cool-headed 
<»i68  went  to  Nial  to  confer  with  him,  and  seek  his  advice,  saying 
that  lawlessness  would  be  imavoidable  if  some  remedy  could  not 
be  provided.  A  great  many  did  not  lay  their  grievances  before 
the  courts^  saying  it  was  useless,  as  the  only  way  to  settle  one's 
difSculties  would  be  by  force  of  arms.  The  account  of  this  is 
recorded  in  the  97th  chapter  of  the  Saga  of  Nial  Thorgeirson,  where 
he  is  represented  as  saying  of  the  proposition  of  resorting  to 
arms:  ^'That  must  not  be  done,  and  it  is  unbecoming  not  to  have 
laws  in  the  land.  Yet  you  have  considerable  cause  to  be  discon- 
tented, and  the  responsibility  is  with  us  who  know  the  law,  and 
are  the  makers  thereof.  Hence  my  advice  is  that  we,  the  law- 
makers, come  together  and  see  what  can  be  done." 

They  then  went  to  the  law-yard.  Nial  addressed  himself  to 
Skapti  Thoroddson,  who  at  that  time  was  the  president,  and  the 
members  of  congress,  saying:  "I  wish  to  call  your  attention  to 
the  fact  that  our  judiciary  affairs  are  getting  to  be  in  a  dreadful 
shape;  if  we  shall  bring  our  cases  mto  the  quarter  courts,  and 
through  chicanery  a  decision  is  impossible,  to  me  it  seems  the 
best  plan  that  a  fifth  court  be  established,  where  those  cases  that 
can  not  be  brought  to  a  finish  in  the  quarter  courts,  can  be 
heard,  and  a  decision  rendered." 

Says  Skapti:  "How  are  you  going  to  get  officers  to  sit  in 
that  court,  seeing  that  already  three  dozen  jurymen  have  been 
selected  out  of  each  quarter  of  the  land  to  sit  in  the  quarter 
courtsr 

'1  see  how  that  can  be  done,"  says  Nial,  "select  the  best  men 


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174  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

out  of  each  quarter,  allowing  them  to  join  any  district  that  suits 
them." 

"That  suits  me,"  says  Skapti,  *l)ut  what  cases  are  to  be  tried 
at  that  court?" 

"Disturbances  and  disorder  at  the  law-yard  shall  be  tried  there. 
All  perjury  and  false  charges.  All  the  cases  that  cannot  be 
brought  to  an  end  in  the  quarter  courts,  and  all  bribes,  whether 
paid  or  received.  In  this  court  shall  be  all  the  strongest  oaths, 
and  two  men  as  vouchers  to  follow  every  oath  who  shall  on  their 
honor  guarantee  the  truthfulness  of  the  swearer.  Every  case 
shall  be  handled  here  as  in  the  quarter  courts,  with  the  exception 
that  there  shall  be  forty-eight  jurors  in  the  fifth  court.  Of  tiiose, 
the  plaintiff  shall  withdraw,  or  object  to,  six,and  the  defendant  the 
other  six.  If  the  defendant  does  not  withdraw  any,  then  the 
prosecutor  or  plaintiff  shall  withdraw  twelve;  but  if  he  does  not 
withdraw  any,  then  the  case  shall  be  lost;  as  the  number  of  the 
jurors  shall  not  be  more  than  thirty-six.  It  shall  belong  to  con- 
gress to  decide  what  is  a  law,  as  also  to  grant  special  privileges  or 
exceptions.  But  if  a  man  who  is  personally  interested  in  the  case 
there  under  consideration,  regards  his  right  infringed  upon  by 
this  granting  of  special  privileges  or  exceptions,  he  shall  have  the 
right  to  make  a  lawful  objection  before  the  congress,  and  then 
such  privilege  or  exception  shall  be  void." 

President  Skapti  Thoroddson  then  laid  this  proposition  before 
congress,  and  it  was  carried.  This  took  place  in  the  year  1006 
A.  D.  In  the  fifth  court,  as  well  as  in  others,  a  simple  majority 
no  matter  how  small,  ruled.  One  of  the  chief  causes  that  cases 
could  not  be  settled  in  the  quarter  courts,  was  a  tie  which  some 
lawyers  and  influential  men  caused  by  money  and  trickery. 

According  to  law  the  plaintiff  or  prosecutor  was  first,  the 
person  injured,  then  his  or  her  nearest  relatives;  then  the 
chieftain  (Godi)  of  the  district  where  the  person  injured  resided. 

In  the  earliest  part  of  the  republic,  women  were  lawful 
prosecutors  as  well  as  men;  but  on  one  occasion  in  an  important 
suit  where  women  were  prosecutors,  the  prosecution  was  so  weak, 
that  injustice  prevailed.  Next  year  it  was  made  a  law  that 
women  should  not  be  acknowledged  legal  prosecutors,  but  they 
could  select  a  man  to  represent  their  interest  at  law;  but  if  they 


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THE  ICELAND  REPUBLIC.  175 

did  not  avail  themselves  of  these  privileges,  it  was  the  duty  of 
the  chieftain  of  that  district  where  the  wronged  woman  resided, 
to  see  to  it  that  her  legal  interest  was  duly  represented.  The 
right  for  the  parties  to  a  suit,  to  settle  it  between  themselves  in 
a  friendly  manner,  was  reserved  by  law  except  in  case  of  murder, 
perjnry,  rape,  and  suchlike  crimes. 


NATURE. 


I  heard  a  voice,  as  'twere  of  one  cast  down 

By  bitter  agony, — and  thus  he  spake: — 

*1  do  impeach  thee.  Nature!  that  thou  hast 

In  causeless  malice  made  me  woe-begone. 

Thou  gavest  mind  to  torture  me; — the  hopes. 

By  thee  first  taught  to  bloom,  bloom'd  but  to  fade; 

The  feelings  that,  like  honey  in  the  flower, 

Imparted  to  my  heart  its  fragrance,  turn 

To  bitterness;— and,  haply  to  keep  pace 

With  this  vile  sinking  of  my  nobler  part, 

My  very  energies  of  limb  decay. 

And  sadder — feebler  than  my  fellow-men  — 

I  grope  my  way  through  life, — a  friendless  ghost. 

That  sits  on  graves,  or  stalks  among  the  tombs. 

Therefore,  my  voice  is  raised — I  stand  erect — 

And  ere  I  die,  I  do  impeach  thee.  Nature.^ 

He  spoke,  and  there  was  silence.    Then  I  heard 
The  merry  voices  of  ten  thousand  birds 
Who  sang  their  morning  psdans  to  the  sun; 
And  through  the  forest  glades  the  deer  awoke. 
And  shook  the  dew  drops  from  their  antler'd  brows; 
And  glorious  flowers  upon  the  mountain  side 
Drank  in  the  day-light;  and  in  silver  streams 
Gold-mantled  fish  went  darting  everywhere; 
The  mighty  ocean  murmur'd  as  a  child 
Its  mother  lulls  to  rest;  the  skies  look'd  down 
In  blue  serenity,  as  if  they  smildd; — 
And  to  the  dark  impeachment  of  that  man 
No  other  answer  mighty  Nature  made. 

Henry  G.  Bell. 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS- 

ni. 

HINDUISM. 

BY  SWAMI  VIVEKANANDA 


(Prom  the  daily  reports  qf  the  Parliament  qf  /ZeZi^fwww.) 


The  Hindus  have  received  their  religion  through  their  revela- 
tion, the  Yedas.  They  hold  that  the  Yedas  are  without  beginning 
and  without  end.  It  may  sound  ludicrous  to  speak  of  a  book  with- 
out beginning  or  end.  But  by  the  Yedas  no  books  are  meant.  They 
mean  the  accumulated  treasury  of  spiritual  law  discovered  by  differ- 
ent persons  in  different  times.  Just  as  the  law  of  gravitation 
existed  before  its  discovery,  and  would  exist  if  all  humanity  forgot 
it,  so  with  the  laws  that  govern  the  spiritual  world.  The  moral, 
ethical  and  spiritual  relations  between  soul  and  souls  and  between 
individual  spirits  and  the  Father  of  all  spirits  were  there  before 
their  discovery  and  would  remain  even  if  we  forgot  them. 

The  discoverers  of  these  laws  are  called  Rishis,  and  we  honor 
them  as  perfected  beings,  and  I  am  glad  to  know  that  some  of  the 
very  best  of  them  were  women. 

Here  it  may  be  said  that  the  laws  as  laws  may  be  without  end, 
but  they  must  have  had  a  beginning.  The  Yedas  teach  us  that 
creation  is  without  beginning  or  end.  Science  has  proved  to  us 
that  the  sum  total  of  the  cosmic  energy  is  the  same  throughout  alL 
Then  if  there  was  a  time  when  nothing  existed,  where  was  all  this 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  177 

manifested  energy?  Some  say  it  was  in  a  potential  fonn  in  God. 
But  then  God  is  sometimes  potential  sometimes  Idnetic,  which  would 
make  him  mutable,  and  everything  mutable  is  a  compound,  and 
everything  compound  must  undergo  that  change  which  is  called 
destruction.  Therefore  God  would  die.  Therefore  there  never 
was  a  time  when  there  was  no  creation.  If  I  may  be  allowed  to 
apply  a  simile,  creation  and  creator  are  two  lives,  without  beginning 
and  without  end,  running  parallel  to  each  other,  and  God  is  power, 
an  ever-active  providence,  under  whose  power  systems  after  sys- 
tems are  being  evolved  out  of  chaos — made  to  run  for  a  time  and 
again  destroyed.  This  is  what  the  Hindu  boy  repeats  every  day 
with  his  guru:  '^he  sun  and  the  moon,  the  Lord  created  after 
other  suns  and  moons."    And  this  agrees  with  science. 

Here  I  stand,  and  if  I  shut  my  eyes  and  try  to  conceive  my 
existence,  I,  I,  I — ^what  is  the  idea  before  me?  The  idea  of  a  body. 
Am  I,  then,  nothing  but  a  combination  of  matter  and  material  sub- 
stances? The  Vedas  declare  "No,"  I  am  a  spirit  living  in  a  body. 
I  am  not  the  body.  The  body  will  die,  but  I  will  not  die.  Here  am 
I  in  this  body,  and  when  it  will  fail,  still  I  will  go  on  living,  and 
also  I  had  a  past.  The  soul  was  not  created  from  nothing,  for  crea- 
tion means  a  combination,  and  that  means  a  certain  future  dissolu- 
tion. If,  then,  the  soul  was  created  it  must  die.  Therefore  it 
was  not  created.  Some  are  bom  happy,  enjoying  perfect  health, 
beautiful  body,  mental  vigor,  and  with  all  wants  supplied.  Others 
are  bom  miserable;  some  are  without  hands  or  feet,  some  idiots, 
and  only  drag  on  a  miserable  existence.  Why,  if  they  are  all 
created,  does  a  just  and  merciful  God  create  one  happy  and  the 
other  unhappy — ^why  is  he  so  partial?  Nor  would  it  mend  matters 
in  the  least  by  holding  that  those  who  are  miserable  in  this  life  will 
be  perfect  in  a  future.  Why  should  a  man  be  miserable  here  in 
the  reign  of  a  just  and  merciful  God?  In  the  second  place,  it  does 
not  give  us  any  cause,  but  simply  a  cmel  act  of  an  all-powerful 
being,  and  therefore  unscientific.  There  must  have  been  causes, 
then,  to  make  a  man  miserable  or  happy  before  his  birth,  and  those 
were  his  past  actions.  Are  not  all  the  tendencies  of  the  mind  and 
those  of  the  body  answered  for  by  inherited  aptitude  from  parents? 
Here  are  the  two  parallel  lines  of  existence — one  that  of  the  mind, 
the  other  that  of  matter.    If  matter  and  its  transformation  answer 


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178  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

tor  all  that  we  have,  there  is  no  necessity  of  supposing  the  exist- 
ence of  a  soul.  But  it  cannot  be  proved  that  thought  has  been 
evolved  out  of  matter,  and  if  a  phOosophical  monism  is  inevitable,  a 
spiritual  monism  is  certainly  logical  and  no  less  desirable,  but 
neither  of  these  is  necessary  here. 

We  cannot  deny  that  bodies  inherit  certain  tendencies  from 
heredity,  but  these  tendencies  only  mean  the  secular  configuration, 
through  which  a  peculiar  mind  alone  can  act  in  a  peculiar  way. 
The  cause  of  these  peculiar  tendencies  in  that  soul  have  been  caused 
by  his  past  actions,  and  a  soul  with  a  certain  tendency  would  go 
and  take  birth  in  a  body  which  is  the  fittest  instrument  of  the  dis- 
play of  that  tendency  by  the  laws  of  affinity.  And  this  is  in  per- 
fect accord  with  science,  for  science  wants  to  explain  ever3rthing  by 
habit,  and  habit  is  got  through  repetitions.  So  these  repetitions 
are  also  necessary  to  explain  the  natural  habits  of  a  new  bom  soul 
— and  they  were  not  got  in  this  present  life;  therefore  they  must 
have  come  down  from  past  lives. 

But  there  is  another  suggestion;  taking  all  these  for  granted, 
how  is  it  that  I  do  not  remember  anything  of  my  past  life?  This 
can  be  easily  explained.  I  am  now  speaking  English.  It  is  not  my 
mother  tongue,  in  fact  no  words  of  my  mother  tongue  are  present 
in  my  consciousness,  but  let  me  try  to  bring  them  up,  they  rush 
into  my  consciousness.  That  shows  that  consciousness  is  the  name 
only  of  the  surface  of  the  mental  ocean,  and  within  its  depths  are 
stored  up  all  our  experiences.  Try  and  struggle  and  they  will  come 
up  and  you  will  be  conscious. 

This  is  the  direct  and  demonstrated  evidence.  Verification  is 
the  perfect  proof  of  a  theory,  and  here  is  the  challenge  thrown  to 
the  world  by  the  Rishis.  We  have  discovered  precepts  by  which 
the  very  depths  of  the  ocean  of  memory  can  be  stirred  up — try  it 
and  you  will  get  a  complete  reminiscence  of  your  past  life. 

So  then  the  Hindu  believes  that  he  is  a  spirit.  Him  the  sword 
cannot  pierce;  him  the  fire  cannot  bum;  him  the  water  cannot 
melt;  him  the  air  cannot  dry.  And  that  every  soul  is  a  circle  whose 
surface  is  nowhere,  but  whose  center  is  located  in  a  body,  and  death 
means  the  change  of  this  center  from  body  to  body.  Nor  is  the 
soul  bound  by  the  condition  of  matter.  In  its  very  essence  it  is 
free,  unbounded,  holy,  pure  and  perfect.    \  But  somehow  it  has 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  179 

got  itself  bound  down  by  matter,  and  thinks  itself  as  matter. 
Why  should  the  free,  perfect  and  pure  being  be  under  the  thral- 
dom of  matter,  is  the  next  question.  How  can  the  perfect  be 
deluded  into  the  belief  that  he  is  imperfect,  is  the  question.  We 
have  been  told  that  the  Hindus  shirk  the  question  and  say  that  no 
such  question  can  be  there,  and  some  thinkers  want  to  answer  it  by 
the  posing  of  one  or  more  quasi  perfect  beings,  and  big  scientific 
names  to  fill  up  the  gap.  But  naming  is  not  explaining.  The  ques- 
tion remains  the  same.  How  the  perfect  becomes  the  quasi  per- 
fect; how  can  the  pure,  the  absolute,  change  even  a  microscopic 
particle  of  its  nature?  But  the  Hindu  is  more  sincere.  He  does 
not  want  to  take  shelter  under  sophistry.  He  is  brave  enough  to 
face  the  question  in  a  manly  fashion.  And  his  answer  is,  I  do  not 
know.  I  do  not  know  how  the  perfect  being,  the  soul,  came  to  think 
itself  as  imperfect,  as  joined  to  and  conditioned  by  matter.  But 
the  fact  is  a  fact  for  all  that.  It  is  a  fact  in  everybody's  con- 
sciousness that  he  thinks  himself  as  the  body.  We  do  not  attempt 
to  explain  why  I  am  in  this  body.  The  answer  that  it  is  the  will  of 
God  is  no  explanation.  It  is  nothing  more  than  what  they  say 
themselves:  "We  do  not  know." 

Well,  then,  the  human  soul  is  eternal  and  immortal,  perfect 
and  infinite,  and  death  means  only  a  change  of  center  from  one  body 
to  another.  The  present  is  determined  by  our  past  actions,  and 
the  future  will  be  by  the  present;  thus  it  will  go  on  evolving  up  or 
reverting  back  from  birth  to  birth  and  death  to  death. 

But  here  is  another  question;  is  man  a  tiny  boat  in  a  tempest, 
raised  one  moment  on  the  foaming  crest  of  a  billow  and  dashed 
down  into  a  yawning  chasm  the  next,  rolling  to  and  fro  at  the 
mercy  of  good  and  bad  actions — a  powerless,  helpless  wreck  in  an 
ever-raging,  ever-rushing,  uncompromising  current  of  cause  and 
effects — a  little  moth  placed  under  the  wheel  causation,  which  rolls 
on  crushing  everything  in  its  way,  and  waits  not  for  the  widow's 
tears  or  the  orphan's  cry?  The  heart  sinks  at  the  idea,  yet  this  is 
the  law  of  nature.  "Is  there  no  hope?"  "Is  there  no  escape?"  was 
the  cry  that  went  up  from  the  bottom  of  the  heart  of  despair. 
It  reached  the  throne  of  mercy,  and  words  of  hope  and  consolation 
came  down  and  inspired  a  Vedic  sage,  and  he  stood  up  before  the 
world  and  in  trumpet  voice  proclaimed  the'  glad  tidings  to  the 


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180  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

world:  "Hear  ye  children  of  immortal  bliss,  even  ye  that  reside  in 
higher  spheres.  I  have  found  the  Ancient  One,  who  is  beyond  all 
darkness,  all  delusion,  and  knowing  him  alone  you  shall  be  saved 
from  death  over  again.  Children  of  immortal  bliss,  what  a  sweet 
what  a  hopeful  name!"  Allow  me  to  call  you,  brethren,  by  that 
sweet  name,  heirs  of  immortal  bliss— yea,  the  Hindu  refuses  to  call 
you  sinners.  Ye  are  the  children  of  God,  the  sharers  of  immortal 
bliss,  holy  and  perfect  beings,  ye  are  divinities  on  earth.  Sinners? 
It  is  a  sin  to  call  a  man  so;  it  is  a  standing  libel  on  human  nature. 
Come  up!  oh,  live  and  shake  off  the  delusion  that  you  are  sheep; 
you  are  souls  immortal,  spirits  free  and  blest  and  eternal;  ye  are 
not  matter,  ye  are  not  bodies;  matter  is  your  servant,  not  you  the 
servant  of  matter. 

Thus  it  is  that  the  Yedas  proclaim  not  a  dreadful  combination 
of  unforgiving  laws,  not  an  endless  prison  of  cause  and  effect,  but 
that  at  the  head  of  all  these  laws,  in  and  through  every  particle  of 
matter  and  force,  stands  one  through  whose  conmiand  "the  wind 
blows,  the  fire  bums,  the  clouds  rain,  and  death  stalks  upon  the 
earth.    And  what  is  his  nature? 

He  is  everywhere  the  pure  and  formless  one.  The  Almighty 
and  All-merciful.  **Thou  art  our  father,  thou  art  our  mother;  thou 
art  our  beloved  friend;  thou  art  the  source  of  all  strength;  give  us 
strength.  Thou  art  he  that  bearest  the  burdens  of  the  universe: 
help  me  bear  the  little  burden  of  this  life."  Thus  sang  the  Rishis 
of  the  Veda;  and  how  to  worship  hhn—through  love.  "He  is  to 
be  worshiped  as  one  beloved,"  "dearer  than  everything  in  this  and 
the  next  life." 

This  is  the  doctrine  of  love  preached  in  the  Vedas,  and  let  us 
see  how  it  is  fully  developed  and  preached  by  Krishna,  whom  the 
Hindus  believe  to  have  been  God  incarnate  on  earth. 

He  taught  that  a  man  ought  to  live  in  this  world  like  a  lotus 
leaf,  which  grows  in  water  but  is  never  moistened  by  water — so  a 
man  ought  to  live  in  this  world — his  heart  to  God  and  his  hands  to 
work.  It  is  good  to  love  God  for  hope  of  reward  in  this  or  the 
next  world,  but  it  is  better  to  love  Him  for  love's  sake,  and  the 
prayer  goes:  "Lord,  I  do  not  want  wealth,  nor  children,  nor  learn- 
ing. If  it  be  thy  will  I  will  go  to  a  hundred  hells,  but  grant  me 
this,  that  I  may  love  thee  without  the  hope  of  reward — ^unselfishly 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  181 

love  for  love's  sake/'  One  of  the  disciples  of  Krishna,  the  then 
emperor  of  India,  was  driven  from  his  throne  by  his  enemies,  and 
had  to  take  shelter  in  the  forest  in  the  Himalayas  with  his  queen, 
and  there  one  day  the  qneen  was  asking  him  how  it  was  that  he, 
the  most  virtuous  of  men,  should  suffer  so  much  misery;  and  Yuohis- 
tera  answered:  ''Behold,  my  queen,  the  Himalayas,  how  beautiful 
they  are;  I  love  them.  They  do  not  give  me  anything,  but  my 
nature  is  to  love  the  grand,  the  beautiful,  and  therefore  I  love 
them.  Similarly,  I  love  the  Lord.  He  is  the  source  of  all  beauty, 
all  sublimity.  He  is  the  only  object  to  be  loved;  my  nature  is  to 
love  him,  and  therefore  I  love.  I  do  not  pray  for  anything;  I  do 
not  ask  for  anjrthing.  Let  him  place  me  wherever  he  likes.  I 
must  love  him  for  love's  sake.     I  cannot  trade  in  love." 

The  Vedas  teach  that  the  soul  is  divine,  only  held  under  bond- 
age of  matter,  and  perfection  will  be  reached  when  the  bond  shall 
burst,  and  the  word  they  use  is  therefore  Mukto — ^freedom,  free- 
dom from  the  bonds  of  imperfection,  freedom  from  death  and 
misery. 

And  this  bondage  can  only  fall  off  through  the  mercy  of  God, 
and  this  mercy  comes  on  the  pure,  so  purity  is  the  condition  of  his 
mercy.  How  that  mercy  acts:  he  reveals  himself  to  the  pure 
heart,  and  the  pure  and  stainless  man  sees  God,  yea  even  in  this 
life,  and  then,  and  then  only,  all  the  crookedness  of  the  heart  is 
made  straight.  Then  all  doubt  ceases.  He  is  no  more  the  freak 
of  a  terrible  law  of  causation.  This  is  the  very  center,  the  very 
vital  conception  of  Hinduism.  The  Hindu  does  not  want  to  live 
upon  words  and  theories — ^if  there  are  existences  beyond  ordinary 
sensual  existences,  he  wants  to  come  face  to  face  with  them.  If 
there  is  a  soul  in  him  which  is  not  matter,  if  there  is  an  all-merd- 
fol,  universal  soul,  he  will  go  to  him  direct.  He  must  see  him,  and 
that  alone  can  destroy  all  doubts.  So  the  best  proof  a  Hindu  sage 
gives  about  the  soul,  about  God,  is,  ''I  have  seen  the  soul;  I  have 
seen  God."  And  that  is  the  only  condition  of  perfection.  The 
Hindu  religion  does  not  consist  in  struggles  and  attempts  to  believe 
a  certain  doctrine  or  dogma,  but  in  realiring;  not  in  believing,  but 
in  being  and  becoming. 

So  the  whole  struggle  in  their  system  is  a  constant  struggle  to 
become  perfect,  to  become  divme,  to  reach  God  and  see  God;  and 


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182  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

this  reaching  God,  seeing  God,  being  perfect,  even  as  the  father  in 
heaven  is  perfect,  constitutes  the  religion  of  the  Hindus. 

And  what  becomes  of  man  when  he  becomes  perfect?  He 
lives  a  life  of  bliss  infinite.  He  enjoys  infinite  and  perfect  bliss, 
having  obtained  the  only  thing  in  which  man  ought  to  have  pleasure, 
God,  and  enjoys  the  bliss  with  God.  So  far  all  the  Hindus  are 
agreed.  This  is  the  common  religion  of  all  the  sects  of  India;  but 
then  the  question  comes,  perfection  is  absolute,  and  the  absolute 
cannot  be  two  or  three.  It  cannot  have  any  qualities.  It  cannot 
be  an  individual.  And  so  when  a  soul  becomes  perfect  and  abso- 
lute, it  must  become  one  with  Brahma,  and  he  would  only  realize 
the  Lord  as  the  perfection,  the  reality,  of  his  own  nature  and  exist- 
ence, the  existence  absolute,  knowledge  absolute,  and  life  absolute. 
We  have  often  and  often  read  about  this  being  called  the  losing  of 
individuality,  as  becoming  a  stock  or  a  stone.  "He  jests  at  scars 
that  never  felt  a  wound." 

I  tell  you  it  is  nothing  of  the  kind.  If  it  is  happiness  to  enjoy 
the  consciousness  of  this  small  body,  it  must  be  more  happiness  to 
enjoy  the  consciousness  of  two  bodies,  so  three,  four,  five;  and  the 
aim,  the  ultimate  of  happiness  would  be  reached  when  it  would 
become  a  universal  consciousness.  Therefore,  to  gain  this  infinite 
universal  individuality,  this  miserable  little  prison  individuality 
must  go.  Then  alone  can  death  cease  when  I  am  one  with  life; 
then  alone  can  misery  cease  when  I  am  one  with  happiness  itself; 
then  alone  can  all  errors  cease  when  I  am  one  with  knowledge  itself; 
and  it  is  the  necessary  scientific  conclusion;  science  has  proved  that 
physical  individuality  is  a  delusion,  that  really  my  body  is  one  little 
continuously  changing  body,  in  an  unbroken  ocean  of  matter,  and 
the  Adwaitan  is  the  necessary  conclusion  with  my  other  counter- 
part, mind. 

Science  is  nothing  but  the  finding  of  unity,  and  as  any  science 
can  reach  the  perfect  unity,  it  would  stop  from  further  progress, 
because  it  would  reach  the  goal,  thus  chemistry  cannot  progress 
farther,  when  it  would  discover  one  element  out  of  which  all  others 
could  be  made.  Physics  would  stop  when  it  would  be  able  to  ful- 
fill its  services  in  discovering  one  energy  of  which  all  the  others 
are  but  the  manifestations,  and  the  science  of  religion  became  per- 
fect when  it  discovered  Him  who  is  the  one  life  in  a  universe  of 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  183 

death;  Him  who  is  the  constant  basis  of  an  everchanging  world; 
One  who  is  the  only  soul  of  which  all  other  souls  are  but  delusive 
manifestations.  Thus  was  it,  through  multiplicity  and  duality,  the 
ultimate  unit  was  reached,  and  religion  can  go  no  farther,  and  this 
is  the  goal  of  all,  again  and  again,  science  after  science,  again  and 
again. 

And  all  science  is  bound  to  come  to  this  conclusion  in  the  long 
run.  Manifestation,  and  not  creation,  is  the  word  of  science  of 
to-day,  and  he  is  only  glad  that  what  he  had  cherished  in  his  bosom 
for  ages  is  going  to  be  taught  in  some  forcible  language,  and  with 
further  light  by  the  latest  conclusions  of  science. 

Descend  we  now  from  the  aspirations  of  philosophy  to  the 
religion  of  the  ignorant.  On  the  very  outset,  I  may  tell  you  that 
there  is  no  polytheism  in  India.  In  every  temple,  if  one  stands  by 
and  listens,  he  will  find  the  worshipers  applying  all  the  attributes 
of  God,  including  omnipresence,  to  these  images.  It  is  not  poly- 
theism, neither  would  the  name  heathenism  answer  our  question. 
"The  rose  called  by  any  other  name  would  smell  as  sweet.''  Names 
are  not  explanations. 

I  remember,  when  a  boy,  a  Christian  man  was  preaching  to  a 
crowd  in  India.  Among  other  sweet  things  he  was  telling  the  peo- 
ple that  if  he  gave  a  blow  to  their  idol  with  his  stick  what  could 
it  do?  One  of  his  hearers  sharply  answered,  "If  I  abuse  your  God 
what  can  he  do?"  "You  would  be  punished,"  said  the  preacher, 
"  when  you  die."  "So  my  idol  will  punish  you  when  you  die,"  said 
the  villager. 

The  tree  is  known  by  its  fruits;  and  when  I  have  seen  amongst 
them  that  are  called  idolatrous  men,  the  like  of  whom  in  morality 
and  spirituality  and  love,  I  have  never  seen  anywhere,  I  stop  and 
ask  myself.  Can  sin  beget  holiness? 

Superstition  is  the  enemy  of  man,  bigotry  worse.  Why  does 
a  Christian  go  to  church,  why  is  the  cross  holy,  why  is  the  face 
turned  toward  the  sky  in  prayer?  Why  are  there  so  many  images 
in  the  Catholic  church,  why  are  there  so  many  images  in  the  minds 
of  Protestants,  when  they  pray?  My  brethren,  we  can  no  more 
think  about  anything  without  a  material  image  than  it  is  profitable 
for  us  to  live  without  breathing.  And  by  the  law  of  association 
the  material  image  calls  the  mental  idol  up,  and  vice  versa.  Omnip- 


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184  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

otent  to  almost  the  whole  world  means  nothing.  Has  God 
superficial  area?  if  not,  when  we  repeat  the  word  we  think  of  the 
extended  earth;  that  is  all. 

As  we  find  that  somehow,  by  the  laws  of  our  CQUstitution, 
we  have  got  to  associate  our  ideas  of  infinity  with  the  ideal  of 
a  blue  sky,  or  a  sea — ^the  omnipresence  covering  the  idea  of 
holiness  with  an  idol  of  a  church  or  mosque,  or  a  cross — so  the 
Hindus  have  associated  the  ideas  of  holiness,  purity,  truth,  onmi- 
presence,  and  all  other  ideas  with  different  images  and  forms.  But 
with  this  difference:  upon  certain  actions  some  are  drawn  their 
whole  lives  to  their  idol  of  a  church  and  never  rise  higher,  because 
with  them  a  religion  means  an  intellectual  assent  to  certain  doc- 
trines and  doing  good  to  their  fellows.  The  whole  religion  of  the 
Hindus  is  centered  in  realization.  Man  is  to  become  divine, 
realizing  the  divine,  and,  therefore,  idol  or  temple  or  church  or 
books,  are  only  the  supports,  the  helps  of  his  spiritual  childhood, 
but  on  and  on  he  must  progress. 

He  must  not  stop  anywhere;  "external  worship,  material  wor- 
ship,'' says  the  Vedas  "is  the  lowest  stage;  struggling  to  rise 
higher,  mental  prayer  is  the  next  stage;  but  the  highest  stage  is 
when  the  Lord  has  been  realized."  Mark  the  same  earnest  man 
who  was  kneeling  before  the  idol  tell  you  hereafter  of  struggles, 
"Him  the  sun  cannot  express,  nor  the  moon  nor  the  stars,  the 
lightning  cannot  express  him,  nor  what  we  speak  of  fire;  through 
him  they  all  shine."  But  with  this  difference,  he  does  not  abuse 
the  images  or  call  it  sin.  He  recognizes  in  it  a  necessary  stage  of 
his  life.  "The  child  is  father  of  the  man."  Would  it  be  right  for 
the  old  man  to  say  that  childhood  is  a  sin  or  youth  a  sin?  Nor  is 
it  compulsory  in  Hinduism. 

But  if  a  man  can  realize  his  divine  nature  with  the  help  of  an 
image,  would  it  be  right  to  call  it  a  sin?  Nor  even  when  he  has 
passed  that  stage  that  he  should  call  it  an  error.  To  the  Hindu 
man  is  not  traveling  from  error  to  truth,  but  from  truth  to  truth, 
from  lower  to  higher  truth.  To  him  all  the  religions  from  the 
lowest  f  etichism  to  the  highest  absolutism  means  so  many  attempts 
of  the  human  soul  to  grasp  and  realize  the  Infinite,  determined  by 
the  conditions  of  its  birth,  and  associations,  and  each  of  these 
mark  a  stage  of  progress,  and  every  soul  is  a  child-eagle  soaring 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  185 

higher  and  higher;  gathering  more  and  more  strength  till  it  reaches 
the  glorious  son. 

Unity  in  variety  is  the  plan  of  nature,  and  the  Hindu  has 
recognized  it.  Every  other  religion  lays  down  a  certain  amount 
of  fixed  dogma,  and  trys  to  force  the  whole  society  through  it. 
They  lay  down  for  society  one  coat  which  must  fit  Jack  and  Job 
and  Henry,  all  alike.  If  it  does  not  fit  John  or  Henry  they  must 
go  without  a  coat  to  cover  the  body.  They  have  discovered  that 
the  absolute  can  only  be  realized  or  thought  of  or  stated  through 
the  relative,  and  the  image,  cross  or  crescent  are  simply  so  many 
centers — so  many  pegs  to  help  the  spiritual  idea  on.  It  is  not 
that  this  help  is  necessary  for  everyone,  but  for  many,  and  those 
that  do  not  need  it  have  no  right  to  say  that  it  is  wrong. 

One  thing  I  must  tell  you.  Idolatry  in  India  does  not  mean  a 
horror.  It  is  not  the  mother  of  harlots.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is 
the  attempt  of  undeveloped  minds  to  grasp  higher  spiritual  truths. 
The  Hindus  have  their  own  faults,  they  sometimes  have  their 
exceptions;  but  mark  this:  it  is  always  punishing  their  own  bodies 
and  never  to  cut  the  throats  of  their  neighbors.  If  the  Hindu 
fanatic  bums  himself  on  the  pyre,  he  never  lights  the  fire  of  inqui- 
sition; and  even  this  cannot  be  laid  at  the  door  of  religion  any 
more  than  the  burning  of  witches  can  be  laid  at  the  door  of 
Christianity. 

To  the  Hindu,  then,  the  whole  world  of  religions  is  only  a  travel- 
ing, a  coming  up,  of  different  men  and  women,  through  various 
conditions  and  circumstances,  to  the  same  goal.  Every  religion  is 
only  an  effort  at  evolving  a  God  out  of  the  material  man;  and  the 
same  God  is  the  inspirer  of  all  of  them.  Why,  then,  are  there  so 
many  contradictions?  They  are  only  apparent,  says  the  Hindu. 
The  contradictions  come  from  the  same  truth  adapting  itself  to 
the  different  circumstances  of  different  natures. 

It  is  the  same  light  coming  through  different  colors.  And 
these  little  variations  are  necessary  for  that  adaptation.  But  in 
the  heart  of  everything  the  same  truth  reigns;  the  Lord  has 
declared  to  the  Hindu  in  his  incarnation  as  Krishna,  "I  am  in 
every  religion  as  the  thread  through  a  string  of  pearls.  And  when- 
ever thou  seest  extraordinary  holiness  and  extraordinary  power 
raising  and  purifying  humanity,  know  'ye  that  I  am  there.''    And 


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186  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

what  was  the  result?  Through  the  whole  order  of  Sanscrit  phflos- 
ophy,  I  challenge  anybody  to  find  such  expression  as  that  the  Hindu 
only  will  be  saved  and  not  others.  Says  Vyas,  "We  find  perfect 
men  even  beyond  the  pale  of  our  caste  and  creed."  One  thing  more. 
How  can,  then,  the  Hindu  whose  whole  idea  centers  in  God  believe 
in  the  Buddhist  who  is  agnostic,  or  the  Jain  who  is  atheist? 

The  Buddhists  do  not  depeAd  upon  God;  but  the  whole  force 
of  their  religion  is  directed  to  the  great  central  truth  in  every 
religion,  to  evolve  a  God  out  of  man.  They  have  not  seen  the 
Father,  but  they  have  seen  the  Son.  And  he  that  hath  seen 
the  Son  hath  seen  the  Father.  This,  brethren,  is  a  short  sketch  of 
the  ideas  of  the  Hindus.  The  Hindu  might  have  failed  to  carry 
out  all  his  plans,  but  if  there  is  to  be  ever  a  universal  religion,  it 
must  be  one  which  would  hold  no  location  in  place  or  time,  which 
would  be  infinite  like  the  God  it  would  preach,  whose  sun  shines 
upon  the  followers  of  Krishna  or  Christ;  saint  or  sinner  alike  which 
would  not  be  the  Brahman  or  Buddhist,  Christian  or  Mohammedan, 
but  the  sum  total  of  all  these,  and  still  have  infinite  space  for 
development;  which  in  its  catholicity  would  embrace  in  its  infinite 
arms  and  formulate  a  place  for  every  human  being,  from  the  low- 
est groveling  man  who  is  scarcely  removed  in  intellectuality  from 
the  brute,  to  the  highest  mind,  towering  almost  above  humanity, 
and  who  makes  society  stand  i!n  awe  and  doubt  his  human  nature. 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE 

CHURCH 


BY  OUVER  COWDERY. 


[In  our  prospectus  for  Volume  II,  attention  was  called  to  the  fact 
that  nothing  could  be  more  important  to  the  young  men  of  the  Church 
than  to  be  familiar  with  the  original  sources  of  our  Church  history,  and 
that  of  those  original  sources  none,  perhaps,  were  of  more  importance 
than  a  series  of  eight  letters  written  by  Oliver  Cowdery  to  W.  W.  Phelps, 
in  1834,  and  published  by  the  latter  in  the  SainU^  Messenger  and  Advo- 
eaie,  at  Eirtland,  Ohio;  and  some  years  later  in  the  Times  and  Seasons, 

The  letters  were  written  in  response  to  some  questions  submitted  to 
Oliver  Cowdery  by  Elder  Phelps,  and  this  accounts  for  the  form  of  some 
parts  of  these  communications. 

We  precede  the  letters  of  Elder  Cowdery  by  one  from  the  pen  of 
the  Prophet  Joseph,  in  which  he  himself  states  the  time  and  place  of  his 
birth,  and  refutes  some  of  the  slanders  that  were  circulated  about  his 
early  life. 

In  concluding  this  note  we  wish  to  express  the  belief  that  our  young 
men,  if  they  will  peruse  these  letters  with  care,  will  find  them  of  intense 
interest,  and  from  them  receive  much  enlightenment  concerning  the 
coming  forth  of  the  work  of  the  Lord  in  the  last  days. — Editors.] 


A  LETTER  PROM  JOSEPH  SMITH  TO  OLIVER  CX)WDERY. 

Dear  Brother:— 

Having  learned  from  the  first  number  of  the  Messenger  and 
Advocate,  that  you  were  not  only  about  to  "give  a  history  of  the 


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188  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

rise  and  progress  of  the  Church  of  the  Latter-day  Saints  f  buty  that 
said  history  would  necessarily  embrace  my '  life  and  character,  I 
have  been  induced  to  give  you  the  time  and  place  of  my  birth;  as  I 
have  learned  that  many  of  the  opposers  of  those  principles  which 
I  have  held  forth  to  the  world,  profess  a  personal  acquaintance 
with  me,  though  when  in  my  presence,  represent  me  to  be  another 
person  in  age,  education,  and  statue,  from  what  I  am. 

I  was  bom  (according  to  the  record  of  the  same,  kept  by  my 
parents)  in  the  town  of  Sharon,  Windsor  County,  Vermont^  on  the 
23rd  of  December,  1805. 

At  the  age  of  ten  my  father's  family  removed  to  Palmyra, 
New  York,  where,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  which,  I  lived,  or,  made  it 
my  place  of  residence,  until  I  was  twenty-one;  the  latter  part  in 
the  town  of  Manchester. 

During  this  time,  as  is  common  to  most,  or  all  youths,  I  fell 
into  many  vices  and  follies;  but  as  my  accusers  are,  and  have  been 
forward  to  accuse  me  of  being  guilty  of  gross  and  outrageous  vio- 
lations of  the  peace  and  good  order  of  the  community,  I  take  the 
occasion  to  remark  that,  though  as  I  have  said  above,  ''as  is  com 
mon  to  most,  or  all  youths,  I  fell  into  many  vices  and  follies,**  I 
have  not,  neither  can  it  be  sustained,  in  truth,  been  guilty  of  wrong- 
ing or  injuring  any  man  or  society  of  men;  and  those  imperfections 
to  which  I  allude,  and  for  which  I  have  often  had  occasion  to 
lament,  were  a  light,  and  too  often,  vain  mind,  exhibiting  a  foolish 
and  trifling  conversation. 

This  being  all,  and  the  worst,  that  my  accusers  can  substanti- 
ate against  my  moral  character,  I  wish  to  add  that  it  is  not  without 
a  deep  feeling  of  regret  that  I  am  thus  called  upon  in  answer  to 
my  own  conscience,  to  fulfill  a  duty  I  owe  to  myself,  as  well  as  to 
the  cause  of  truth,  in  making  this  public  confession  of  my  former 
uncircumspect  walk,  and  trifling  conversation  and  more  particularly, 
as  I  often  acted  in  violation  of  those  holy  precepts  which  I  knew 
came  from  God.  But  as  the  ''Articles  and  Covenants,**  of  this 
Church  are  plain  upon  this  particular  point,  I  do  not  deem  it  import- 
ant to  proceed  further.  I  only  add,  that  I  do  not,  nor  never  have, 
pretended  to  be  any  other  than  a  man  "subject  to  passion,'*  and 
liable,  without  the  assisting  grace  of  the  Savior,  to  deviate 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.    189 

from  that  perfect  path  in  which  all  men  are  commanded  to 
walk.* 

By  giving  the  above  a  place  in  your  valuable  paper,  you  will 
confer  a  lasting  favor  upon  myself,  as  an  individual,  and,  as  I  humbly 
hoi)e,  subserve  the  cause  of  righteousness. 

I  am,  with  feelings  of  esteem,  your  fellow  laborer  in  the  Gospel 
of  our  Lord,  Joseph  Smith. 


0.  COWDERY'S  LETTERS  TO  W.  W.  PHELPS. 
Letter  L 


North,  Medina  Co.,  Ohio, 

Sabbath  evening,  September  7,  1834. 
Dear  Brother: — 

Before  leaving  home  I  promised,  if  I  tarried  long,  to  write; 
and  while  a  few  moments  are  now  allowed  me  for  reflection,  aside 
from  the  cares  and  common  conversation  of  my  friends  in  this 
place,  I  have  thought  that  were  I  to  communicate  them  to  you, 
might,  perhaps,  if  they  should  not  prove  especially  beneficial  to 
yourself,  by  confirming  you  in  the  faith  of  the  Gospel,  at  least 
be  interesting,  since  it  has  pleased  our  heavenly  Father  to  call  us 
both  to  rejoice  in  the  same  hope  of  eternal  life.  And  by  giving 
them  publicity,  some  thousands  who  have  embraced  the  same 
covenant  may  learn  something  more  particular  upon  the  rise  of 
this  Church,  in  this  last  time.  And  while  the  gray  evening  is  fast 
changing  into  a  settled  darkness,  my  heart  responds  with  the 


♦  Of  the  youthful  follies  which  the  prophet  here  confesses,  George 
Q.  Cannon,  in  his  "Life  of  Joseph  Smith,"  says:  "His  quick  conscience 
was  apt  to  exaggerate  every  youthful  foible,  and  he  regarded  many  of 
his  acts  of  thoughtlessness  as  offenses  at  which  the  heavens  must  frown. 
*  ♦  ♦  Despite  his  own  self-accusation  the  answer  to  his  prayer  proves 
that  his  probationary  period  had  been  passed  satisfactorily  to  the  heavens, 
and  that  he  was  still  unstained  by  any  dark  offense." 


^^ 


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190  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

happy  millions  who  are  in  the  presence  of  the  Lamb,  and  are  past 
the  power  of  temptation,  in  rendering  thanks,  though  feebly,  to 
the  same  Parent. 

Another  day  has  passed  into  that,  to  us,  boundless  ocean, 
eternity  !  where  nearly  six  thousand  years  have  gone  before;  and 
what  flits  across  the  mind  like  an  electric  shock  is,  that  it  will 
never  return!  Whether  it  has  been  well  improved  or  not;  whether 
the  principle  emanating  from  him  who  "hallowed**  it,  have  been 
observed;  or  whether,  like  the  common  mass  of  time,  it  has  been 
heedlessly  spent,  is  not  for  me  to  say — one  thing  I  can  say — it  can 
never  be  recalled;  it  has  rolled  in  to  assist  in  filling  up  the  grand 
space  decreed  in  the  mind  of  its  Author,  till  nature  shall  have 
ceased  her  work,  and  time  its  accustomed  revolutions — ^when  its 
Lord  shall  have  completed  the  gathering  of  his  elect,  and  with 
them  enjoy  that  Sabbath  which  shall  never  end. 

On  Friday,  the  5th,  in  company  with  our  brother  Joseph 
Smith,  Jr.,  I  left  Kirtland  for  this  place  (New  Portage,)  to  attend 
the  conference  previously  appointed.  To  be  permitted,  once  more, 
to  travel  with  this  brother,  occasions  reflections  of  no  ordinary 
kind.  Many  have  been  the  fatigues  and  privations  which  have 
fallen  to  my  lot  to  endure  for  the  Gospel's  sake  since  1828,  with 
this  brother.  Our  road  has  frequently  been  spread  with  the 
"fowler's  snare,-"  and  our  persons  sought  with  the  eagerness  of  the 
savage's  ferocity  for  innocent  blood,  by  men,  either  heated  to  des- 
peration by  the  insinuations  of  those  who  professed  to  be  "guides 
and  way-marks"  to  the  kingdom  of  glory,  or  the  individuals  them- 
selves. This,  I  confess,  is  a  dark  picture  to  spread  before  our 
patrons,  but  they  will  pardon  my  plainness  when  I  assure  them  of 
the  truth.  In  fact,  God  has  so  ordered,  that  the  reflections  which 
I  am  permitted  to  cast  upon  my  past  life,  relative  to  a  knowledge 
of  the  way  of  salvation,  are  rendered  "doubly  endearing."  Not 
only  have  I  been  graciously  preserved  from  wicked  and  unreason- 
able men  with  this,  our  brother,  but  I  have  seen  the  fruit  of  per- 
severance in  proclaiming  the  everlasting  Gospel,  immediately  after 
it  was  declared  to  the  world  in  these  last  days,  in  a  manner  not  to 
be  forgotten  while  heaven  gives  me  common  intellect.  And  what 
serves  to  render  the  reflection  past  expression  on  this  point  is, 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH,    191 

that  from  his  hand  I  received  baptism,  by  the  direction  of  the 
angel  of  God — the  first  received  into  this  Chnrch  in  this  day. 

Near  the  time  of  the  setting  of  the  sun.  Sabbath  evening, 
April  5th,  1829,  my  natural  eyes  for  the  first  time  beheld  this 
brother.  He  then  resided  in  Harmony,  Susquehanna  County,  Penn- 
sylvania. •  On  Monday  the  6th,  I  assisted  him  in  arranging  some 
business  of  a  temporal  nature  and  on  Tuesday,  the  7th,  commenced 
to  write  the  Book  of  Mormon.  These  were  days  never  to  be  for- 
gotten— to  sit  under  the  sound  of  a  voice  dictated  by  the  inspira- 
tion of  heaven,  awakened  the  utmost  gratitude  of  this  bosom. 
Day  after  day  I  continued,  uninterrupted,  to  write  from  his  mouth, 
as  he  translated  with  the  Urim  and  Thummim,  or,  as  the  Nephites 
would  have  said,  "Interpreters,"  the  history  or  record  called  the 
"Book  of  Mormon." 

To  notice  in  even  few  words,  the  interesting  account  given  by 
Mormon  and  his  faithful  son  Moroni,  of  a  people  once  beloved  and 
favored  of  heaven,  would  supercede  my  present  design:  I  shall 
therefore  defer  this  to  a  future  period,  and  as  I  said  in  the  intro- 
duction, pass  more  directly  to  some  few  incidents  immediately  con- 
nected with  the  rise  of  this  Church,  which  may  be  entertaining  to 
some  thousands  who  have  stepped  forward,  amid  the  frowns  of 
bigots  and  the  calumny  of  hypocrites,  and  embraced  the  Gospel  of 
Christ. 

No  men  in  their  sober  senses,  could  translate  and  write  the 
iirections  given  to  the  Nephites,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Savior,  of 
the  precise  manner  in  which  men  should  build  up  his  Church,  and 
especially  when  corruption  had  spread  an  uncertainty  over  all  forms 
and  systems  practiced  among  men,  without  desiring  a  privilege  of 
showing  the  willingness  of  the  heart  by  being  buried  in  the  liquid 
grave,  to  answer  a  "good  conscience  by  the  resurrection  of  Jesus 
Christ." 

After  writing  the  account  given  of  the  Savior's  ministry  to 
the  remnant  of  the  seed  of  Jacob  upon  this  continent,  it  was  easily 
to  be  seen,  as  the  prophet  said  would  be,  that  darkness  covered 
the  earth  and  gross  darkness  the  minds  of  the  people.  On  reflect- 
ing further  it  was  as  easily  to  be  seen,  that  amid  the  great  strife 
and  noise  concerning  religion,  none  had  authority  from  God  to 
administer  the  ordinances  of  the  Gospel.    For  the  question  might 


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192  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

be  asked,  have  men  authority  to  administer  in  the  name  of  Christy 
who  deny  revelations,  when  his  testimony  is  no  less  than  the  spirit 
of  prophecy?  and  his  religion  based,  buOt  and  sustained  by  imme- 
diate revelations  in  all  ages  of  the  world,  when  he  has  had  a  people 
on  earth?  If  these  facts  were  buried  and  carefully  concealed  by 
men  whose  craft  would  have  been  in  danger  if  once  permitted  to 
shine  in  the  faces  of  men,  they  were  no  longer  to  us;  and  we  only 
waited  for  the  commandment  to  be  given,  ''Arise  and  be  baptized." 

This  was  not  long  desired  before  it  was  realized.    The  Lord, 
who  is  rich  in  mercy,  and  ever  willing  to  answer  the  consistent 
prayer  of  the  humble,  after  we  had  called  upon  him  in  a  fervent 
manner,  aside  from  the  abodes  of  men,  condescended  to  manifest 
to  us  his  will.    On  a  sudden,  as  from  the  midst  of  eternity,  the 
voice  of  the  Redeemer  spake  peace  to  us,  while  the  veil  was  parted 
and  the  angel  of  God  came  down  clothed  with  glory,  and  delivered 
the  anxiously  looked  for  message,  and  the  keys  of  the  Gospel  of 
repentance.    What  joy  !  what  wonder!  what  amazement!    While 
the  world  was  racked  and  distracted — ^while  millions  were  groping 
as  the  blind  for  the  wall,  and  while  all  men  were  resting  upon 
uncertainty,  as  a  general  mass,  our  eyes  beheld — our  ears  heard. 
As  in  the  "blaze  of  dayf  yes,  more — above  the  glitter  of  the  May 
sunbeam,  which  then  shed  its  brilliancy  over  the  face  of  nature! 
Then  his  voice,  though  mild,  pierced  to  the  center,  and  his  words, 
"I  am  thy  fellow-servant,"  dispelled  every  fear.    We  listened,  we 
gazed,  we  admired!     Twas  the  voice  of  the  angel  from  glory— 
'twas  a  message  from  the  Most  High,  and  as  we  heard  we  rejoiced, 
while  his  love  enkindled  upon  our  souls,  and  we  were  rapt  in  the 
vision  of  the  Almighty!    Where  was  room  for  doubt?    Nowhere; 
uncertainty  had  fled,  doubt  had  sunk,  no  more  to  rise,  while  fiction 
and  deception  had  fled  forever. 

But,  dear  brother,  think  further,  think  for  a  moment,  what  joy 
filled  our  hearts  and  with  what  surprise  we  must  have  bowed,  (for 
who  would  not  have  bowed  the  knee  for  such  a  blessing?)  when  we 
received  under  his  hand  the  holy  priesthood,  as  he  said,  "upon  yon 
my  fellow  servants,  in  the  name  of  Messiah  I  confer  this  priest- 
hood and  this  authority,  which  shall  remain  upon  earth,  that  the 
sons  of  Levi  may  yet  oflfer  an  oflfering  unto  the  Lord  in  righteous- 
ness!" 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.    193 

I  shall  not  attempt  to  paint  to  you  the  feelings  of  this  heart, 
nor  the  majestic  beauty  and  glory  which  surrounded  us  on  this 
occasion;  but  you  will  believe  me  when  I  say,  that  earth,  nor  men, 
with  the  eloquence  of  time,  cannot  begin  to  clothe  language  in  as 
interesting  and  sublime  a  manner  as  this  holy  personage.  No;  nor 
has  this  earth  power  to  give  the  joy,  to  bestow  the  peace,  or  com- 
prehend the  wisdom  which  was  contained  in  each  sentence  as 
they  were  delivered  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit!  Man  may 
deceive  his  fellow  man;  deception  may  follow  deception,,  and  the 
children  of  the  wicked  one  may  have  power  to  seduce  the  foolish 
and  untaught,  till  naught  but  fiction  feeds  the  many,  and  the  fruit 
of  falsehood  carries  in  its  current  the  giddy  to  the  grave,  but  one 
touch  with  the  finger  of  his  love,  yes,  one  ray  of  glory  from  the 
upper  world,  or  one  word  from  the  mouth  of  the  Savior,  from  the 
bosom  of  eternity,  strikes  it  all  into  insignificance,  and  blots  it 
forever  from  the  mind!  The  assurance  that  we  were  in  the  presence 
of  an  angel;  the  certainty  that  we  heard  the  voice  of  Jesus,  and 
the  truth  unsullied  as  it  flowed  from  a  pure  personage,  dictated  by 
the  will  of  God,  is  to  me,  past  description,  and  I  shall  ever  look 
upon  this  expression  of  the  Savior's  goodness  with  wonder  and 
thanksgiving  while  I  am  permitted  to  tarry,  and  in  those  mansions 
where  perfection  dwells  and  sin  never  comes,  I  hope  to  adore  in 
that  DAY  which  shall  never  cease.* 

I  must  close  for  the  present:  my  candle  is  quite  extinguished, 
and  all  nature  seems  locked  in  silence,  shrouded  in  darkness,  and 
enjoying  that  repose  so  necessary  to  this  life.  But  the  period  is 
rolling  on  when  night  will  close,  and  those  who  are  found  worthy 
will  inherit  that  city  where  neither  the  light  of  the  sun  nor  the 
moon  will  be  necessary!  "  For  the  glory  of  God  will  lighten  it,  and 
the  Lamb  will  be  the  light  thereof." 


♦  I  will  hereafter  give  you  a  full  history  of  the  rise  of  this  Church 
up  to  the  time  stated  in  my  introduction;  which  will  necessarily  embrace 
the  life  and  character  of  this  brother.  I  shall  therefore  leave  the  history 
of  baptism,  etc.,  till  its  proper  place. 


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THE  JUSTIFICATION  OF  FAITH. 


BEING  A  REVIEW  OP  W.  H.  LAMASTER'S  ARTICLE  "WHAT 
AGNOSTICISM  IS." 

BY  B.  H.  ROBERTS. 


Mr.  W.  H.  Lamaster,  of  Indianapolis,  Indiana,  will  be  remem- 
bered by  oar  readers  as  the  author  of  an  excellent  article  which 
appeared  in  Vol.  I.,  of  the  Era  under  the  title  "How  do  we  Think;" 
and  also  by  his  article  in  the  December  number,  Vol.  H.,  "What 
Agnosticism  Is." 

The  gentleman  seems  to  have  been  favorably  impressed  by  the 
liberal  spirit  of  the  Era  in  publishing  in  Vol.  I.,  the  series  of  arti- 
cles "Religious  Faiths,"  by  writers  who  were  not  "Mormons,"  while 
the  Era  is  decidedly  a  Mormon  publication;  and  since  we  were  admit- 
ting to  our  pages  the  statements  of  religious  faiths  and  systems 
other  than  our  own,  and  that  by  writers  of  the  respective  faiths, 
he  asked  if  there  would  be  any  objection  to  our  publishing  an  article 
written  by  him  on  "What  Agnosticism  Is."  To  which  we  replied 
that  we  could  see  no  reason  why  we  should  not  publish  the  views  of 
an  agnostic  as  well  as  the  statements  of  the  various  religious 
faiths;  saying  at  the  time,  however,  that  we  might  "take  the  liberty 
to  make  some  remarks  by  way  of  comment,  tending  to  show  how 
we  who  have  been  reared  in  the  midst  of  such  evidences  of  the 
existence  of  God  and  the  verity  of  religion  can  never  be  influenced 
by  agnosticism."    Mr.  Lamaster  readily  consented  to  this  arrange- 


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THE  JUSTIFICAIION  OF  FAITH.  195 

menty  and  hence  the  publication  of  his  article  and  these  remarks 
with  reference  to  it. 

The  article  in  question  states  the  negative  creed — the  position 
of  the  agnostic — admirably.  It  is  temperate  in  spirit,  and  respect- 
fully salutes  its  antagonist,  Faith,  with  whom,  nevertheless,  it  an- 
nounces in  quiet  tones  its  intention  to  wage  a  warfare.  Agnosti- 
cism, too,  as  Mr.  Lamaster  states  it,  is  presented  in  the  bewitching 
garb  of  humility.  She  comes  modestly  forward  saying,  in  effect, 
"I  don't  know;  I  don't  believe  you  know;  or  that  anybody  can  know 
of  the  existence  of  God." 

It  is  because  of  these  good  qualities  of  the  article  that  we 
believe  it  the  more  dangerous.  The  usual  brutal  tirade  made  by  infi- 
dels against  religion  so  offends  the  natural  religious  sentiment  of  the 
human  mind  that  it  at  once  repulses  and  destroys  its  own  effective- 
ness because  of  its  ribaldry  and  unnecessary  blasphemy.  But  when 
Unbelief  comes  to  us  in  a  temperate  spunt,  respectfully  states  its 
case  and  modestly  sets  forth  its  doubts,  it  appeals  to  the  Chris- 
tian on  his  weakest  side,  and  is  likely  to  infuse  doubt  in  the  mind 
as  to  the  very  existence  of  God.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  we 
think  it  necessary  to  point  out  what  we  regard  as  the  unreasonable- 
ness of  the  agnostic's  position,  and  especially  how  there  is  abso- 
lutely no  justifiable  reason  for  doubt  as  to  the  existence  of  God 
so  far  as  Latter-day  Saints  are  concerned. 

That  we  may  have  immediately  before  us  the  very  heart  of 
Mr.  Lamaster's  article,  we  quote  his  definitions: 

1.  "An  agnostic,  as  contradistinguished  from  a  Greek  gnostic — one 
who  knowB — is  one  who  does  Tiot  know.* 

2.  "It  (agnosticism)  may  be  defined  as  a  'theory  of  the  unknowable 
which  assumes  its  most  definite  form  in  the  denial  of  the  possibility  of  any 
knowledge  of  God.'  And  so  the  agnostic  may  be  said  to  be  one  who 
does  not  claim,  or  profess  to  know  of  the  existence  of  a  supreme  being 
called  God. 

3.  "Christianity,  relying  upon  what  it  is  pleased  to  call  a  divine 
revelation,  says  there  is  an  infinite  God,  while  agnosticism,  having  no 
other  guide  but  reason,  says,  'I  do  not  know.'    Hence  upon  the  one  hand 


*  Italics  are  mine.    R, 


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196  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

we  find  the  Christian  professing  to  have  a  knowledge  of  the  first  and 
final  causes  of  the  nniverse,  and  particularly  of  this  world  and  of  the 
things  in  it;  while  upon  the  other  is  to  be  found  the  agnostic  confessing 
his  ignorance  of  all  such  things. 

4  'It  is  to  be  conceded  that  it  is  among  the  possibilities  of  the 
human  mind  not  only  to  conceive  but  also  to  believe;  and  yet  it  is  not  to 
be  denied  that  there  are  also  certain  boundary  lines  within  which  it  may 
both  conceive  and  believe,  and  beyond  them  it  cannot  go.  That  being 
true  might  we  not  enquire,  how  is  the  humfin  mind — ^it  being  finite — 
either  to  have  a  conception  or  a  belief  about  things  infinite?  The 
human  mind  we  know  to  be  limited  and  consequently,  as  Sir  William 
Hamilton  says,  it  'can  know  only  the  limited,  and  the  conditionally 
limited.'  Therefore  as  concerning  things  of  the  infinite  (admitting 
there  be  an  infinite)  the  human  mind  can  have  neither  a  conception  nor 
a  belief  of  any  kind  whatever. 

5.  "With  what  is  called  divine  revelation  agnosticism  has  nothing 
whatever  to  do  except  it  be  to  attack  after  the  most  scientific  methods  the 
weakness  of  its  very  foundation  stone.  It  must,  therefore,  as  it  does, 
dispute  every  claim  that  Christianity  makes  in  favor  of  the  doctrine  of 
the  divinity  of  the  Jewish  and  Christian  scriptures.  Neither  does  it  stop 
with  these  scriptures,  but  others,  whether  they  be  those  of  the  Vedas  or 
the  Zend-Avesta,  the  Koran  or  the  Book  of  Mormon,  it  weighs  and  meas- 
ures in  the  scales  of  science,  and  one  and  all  of  them  it  pronounces  to  be 
the  productions  of  finite  men  instead  of  an  infinite  God." 

In  these  paragraphs  we  have  before  us  the  definition  of  an 
agnostic;  of  agnosticism;  the  position  of  the  Christian  is  stated  so 
far  as  his  reliance  upon  divine  revelation  for  his  faith  in  the  exist- 
ence of  God  is  concerned;  the  ability  of  the  human  mind,  both  to 
conceive  and  believe,  within  certain  limits,  is  conceded.  But  owing 
to  the  finite  power  of  the  mind  of  man,  denial  is  made  <fhis  power 
to  have  a  conception  or  a  bdi^  qfany  kind  whatever  concerning  the 
ir^nite;  and,  finally,  the  statement  is  made  that  agnosticism  has 
nothing  to  do  with  what  is  called  divine  revelation  except  to  attack 
its  very  foundation  stone,  and  dispute,  as  it  does,  the  claim  of  all 
alleged  scriptures  to  divine  authenticity,  and  pronounces  them  the 
productions  of  finite  man. 

We  understand  the  only  argument  in  Mr.  Lamaster's  paper  to  be : 
That  as  the  mind  of  man  is  finite,  he  can  neither  conceive  nor 
believe  in  the  infinite;  and  therefore,  man  can  neither  conceive  or 


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THE  JUSTIFICATION  OF  FAITH.  197 

believe  in  God.  In  addition  to  this  statement,  substantially  f  onnd 
in  para^n^ph  four,  above  quoted,  it  is  urged  again  and  again 
throughout  the  paper  under  consideration,  as  witness  the  fol- 
lowing: 

"It  will  not  be  denied  that  human  beliefs  as  well  as  everything  else 
about  the  human  mind  are  relative.  And  if  that  be  true,  how  is  finite  man 
to  have  any  conception  qf,  much  less  any  real  foundation  whatever  for,  a 
Mi^in  the  existence  of  an  infinite  God? 

''Mr.  Herbert  Spencer  says  that  'the  infinite,  the  absolute,  to  be 
known  at  all  must  be  classed,'  and  adds,  for  it  even  'to  be  positively 
thought  of,  it  must  be  thought  of  as  such  or  such — 2A  of  this  or  that 
kind;*  and  then  he  inquires,  'Can  it  be  like  in  kind  to  anything  of  which 
we  have  sensible  experience?'  and  wisely  answers,  'Obviously  not.'  We 
must,  therefore,  admit  then  if  there  is  an  infinite  God  that  we  as  finite 
beings  can  know  nothing  whatever  of  his  existence. 

"As  man  is  a  finite  being  and  limited  in  knowledge  as  well  as  he  is 
in  everything  else,  there  will  ever  be  something  of  which  he  can  know 
nothing  whatever.  It  must  therefore  be  the  infinite  being,  if  any  at  all, 
who  is  able  to  understand  and  to  know  all  things.  The  finite  one  being  cir- 
eumscribed  and  limited,  his  knowledge  must  necessarily  be  also  circum- 
scribed and  limited,  and  therefore  he  is,  his  desires  and  ambitions  to  the 
contrary  notwithstanding  to  know  all  things,  an  agnostic." 

The  reasonable,  and,  as  we  think,  the  effectual  answer  to  all 
this  would  be:  The  Christian  concedes  that  the  human  mind  in  its 
present  state  is  limited  in  its  knowledge,  unable  by  its  own  powers 
to  conceive  or  comprehend  the  infinite.  Nor  does  any  theology 
that  we  know  anything  about,  Catholic,  Protestant,  or  ''Mormon" 
claim  for  man  the  ability  to  circumscribe  God,  that  is,  to  compre- 
hend him  entirely.  Though,  speaking  for  "Mormon"  theology,  we* 
would  not  like  to  say,  as  some  Catholics  do,  as  quoted  by  Mr.  Lam- 
aster,  that  "a  God  imderstood  would  be  no  God  at  all;"  for 
"Mormonism"  holds  out  the  hope  that  the  time  will  come  when  we 
shall  know  God,  we  mean  in  the  sense  of  comprehending  him;  and 
the  mere  fact  of  man  coming  to  such  knowledge  will  not  dethrone 
the  Almighty.  But  to  continue  our  comment  on  Mr.  Lamaster's 
argument.  We  concede  that  the  mind  of  man  as  to  its  knowledge 
in  this  state  of  existence  is  finite;  unable  clearly  to  comprehend 
the  infinite.     To  the  question  of  Zophar,  the  friend  of  Job — 


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198  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

''Canst  thou  by  searching  find  out  Gk>d?  Canst  thou  find  out  the 
Abnighty  unto  perfection?"  we  would  be  compelled,  perhaps,  to 
answer  in  the  negative.  With  Paul  we  would  be  obliged  to  exclaim 
— "How  unsearchable  are  his  judgments,  and  his  ways  past  find- 
ing out!" 

But  does  all  this  raake  it  impossible  for  God^  the  ivfinite,  to 
reveal  the  fact  of  his  existence? 

Is  it  impossible  for  God  to  reveal  to  man  the  fact  that  Deity  is 
irifinite? 

And  although  the  mind  of  man  is  finite,  does  it  follow  that  he 
cannot  believe  this  truth  which  God  reveals? 

Is  it  necessarily  a  law  of  logic  that  man  cannot  have  a  rational 
faith  in  the  existence,  power,  and  ivfiniteness  of  any  being  or  force 
unless  it  is  a  being  or  force  that  he  can  fully  comprehend? 

The  answer  to  these  questions  must  be  a  negative;  and  if  such 
would  be  a  reasonable  answer,  then  the  difficulties  suggested  in 
Mr.  Lamaster's  argument  are  removed.  The  matter  would  stand 
thus:  The  finite  mind  of  man  cannot  by  searching  find  out  God — 
"It  must  be,"  as  Mr.  Lamaster  says  "the  infinite  being,  if  any  at 
all,  who  is  able  to  understand  and  know  all  things."  But  that  infi- 
nite Being,  understanding  all  things,  among  them  his  own  infinite- 
ness,  he  certainly  can,  by  revelation,  make  known  his  existence  to 
man,  and  can  reveal  to  him  the  fact  that  God — ^that  is,  that  he 
himself,  is  infinite.  And  if  such  are  the  limits  of  man's  understand- 
ing that  the  quality  of  infiniteness  is  vague  and  somewhat  beyond 
the  power  of  his  mind  to  grasp,  he  can  at  least  believe  in  the  fact 
which  God,  the  Infinite,  reveals  to  him.  And  a  little  reflection 
upon  this  phase  of  the  subject  will  convince  one  that  not  only  is  it 
possible  to  believe  in  the  existence  of  facts  which  the  mind  does 
not  fully  comprehend,  but  it  is  quite  common  for  us  to  do  so.  The 
child  in  this  way  accepts  the  statements  of  the  parent  through 
quite  a  number  of  the  years  of  its  experience.  In  like  manner  the 
pupil  accepts  the  statements  of  his  teacher,  and  is  gradually  led 
along  the  pathway  of  knowledge.  And  why  in  like  manner  should 
not  men  and  women  who,  after  all,  are  but  "children  of  a  larger 
growth,'  accept  the  statements  of  God's  revelations  to  the  effect 


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THE  JUSTIFICATION  OF  FAITH,  199 

that  there*  is  "a  God  in  heaven  who  is  infinite  and  eternal,  from 
everlasting  to  everlasting,  the  same  unchangeable  God,  the  framer 
of  heaven  and  earth  and  all  things  that  are  in  them"  ? 

At  the  last  analysis,  then,  the  whole  matter  resolves  itself 
into  the  question — has  God  by  revelation  made  his  existence  known 
to  man?  Has  he  by  revelation  made  known  the  fact  that  he  is 
infinite?  The  traditions  of  humanity  answer  yes;  the  revelations 
of  God  in  the  Jewish  scriptures  answer  yes.  The  works  and  laws 
of  nature,  too,  bear  strong,  corroborative  testimony  to  the  aflSrma- 
tion  of  both  tradition  and  revelation. 

The  agnostic,  however,  will  set  all  this  aside  and  say  the  evi- 
dence for  the  alleged  fact  is  not  sufficient  to  warrant  a  positive 
conclusion,  and  he  refuses  to  accept  probability  as  a  sufficient  basis 
for  action  in  the  matter  of  obeying  the  gospel.  This  attitude  of 
the  agnostic  opens  a  large  field  for  investigation  and  for  discussion, 
but  one,  of  course,  altogether  beyond  anything  contemplated  in 
this  article.  All  we  promised  to  ourselves  in  this  paper  was  merely 
to  point  out  the  inconsistency  of  the  agnostic's  chief  argument 
based  upon  the  inability  of  the  finite  to  comprehend  the  infinite; 
and  to  show  if  we  could  that,  to  say  the  least,  it  is  a  remarkable 
conclusion  the  agnostic  arrives  at  when  he  says  from  his  premises 
that  '*}f  there  is  an  irtfiniU  God  .  .  .  we  as  finite  beings  can 
know  nothing  whatever  qf  his  existence!  " 

If  we  have  made  the  unreasonableness  of  this  conclusion  clear, 
we  have  well  nigh  reached  the  limit  of  the  task  proposed  to  our- 
selves. We  would  only  say  in  addition  that  to  the  testimony  of 
the  universal  traditions  of  mankind  for  the  existence  of  God;  to 
the  testimony  of  the  revelations  of  the  Jewish  scriptures  for  the 
same  great  truths;  to  the  corroborative  testimony  of  the  works  of 
nature — Mormons  add  the  testimony  of  the  Nephite  scriptures, 
the  Book  of  Mormon,  a  whole  volume  of  revelation,  from  which 
the  testimonies  of  the  prophets  and  seers  of  sleeping  nations  speak 
to  the  men  of  this  generation;  testifying  to  the  existence  of  God; 
declaring  that  he  is  infinite  and  eternal  and  the  creator  of  the 
heavens  and  the  eaith.  Nor  do  the  witnesses  which  the  Mormons 
have  end  even  here;  for  to  a  prophet  in  this  generation,  so  Mormons 
believe,  God  has  revealed  himself.  Joseph  Smith,  a  holy  Prophet, 
the  Lord's  mouth-piece  to  the  world  in  this  new  dispensation  of 


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200  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  gospel — stood  in  the  presence  of  God  and  conversed  with  him 
as  a  man  may  speak  with  his  friend;  and  he  came  from  the  excel- 
lence pf  God's  presence  with  a  message  to  the  world,  which  message 
is  the  fullness  of  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  including  divine 
authority  to  administer  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel. 

This  last  witness  for  God  we  have  within  our  reach.  If  we 
did  not  know  him  personally  many  of  our  fathers  and  friends  did; 
so  that  we  have  his  pretensions  to  having  received  a  divine  revela- 
tion from  God  within  our  reach  for  investigation,  for  analysis.  His 
life  is  one  with  which  we  may  be  well  acquainted,  and  we  may 
know  whether  or  not  it  was  consistent  with  the  claims  he  makes. 

When  it  is  remembered,  then,  that  in  addition  to  all  the  testi- 
mony that  Christianity  at  large  has  the  Latter-day  Saints  add  the 
testimony  of  many  of  the  prophets  who  lived  in  America  from  the 
most  ancient  times;  and  to  that  the  testimony  of  righteous  men 
who  live  in  their  own  day,  it  will  be  readily  observed  that  they 
have  double  the  evidence  for  the  existence  of  God  that  the  so- 
called  Christian  world  has,  and  hence,  as  we  believe,  a  more  pro- 
found faith  in  his  existence — and  hence  also  less  cause  for  agnos- 
ticism or  unbelief. 

Moreover,  Joseph  Smith  held  out  the  encouragement  to  all 
men  that  by  compliance  with  the  will  of  God,  they  too,  as  well  as 
himself,  might  learn  from  the  same  divine  source  the  knowledge  of 
Grod  for  themselves.  Hence* the  matter  of  having  faith  in  the 
existence  of  God,  and  somewhat  of  a  knowledge  of  his  character 
and  attributes,  is  placed  upon  a  better  foundation  than  mere  prob- 
ability by  the  servants  of  God;  for  not  only  did  Joseph  Smith  place 
this  matter  upon  a  basis  where  men  might  know  for  themselves  of 
the  fact  of  God's  existence,  but  other  servants  of  the  Lord,  and 
even  the  Lord  himself,  placed  it  upon  this  basis.  Jesus  said:  *'If 
ye  will  do  the  will  of  the  Father  ye  shall  know  of  the  doctrine, 
whether  I  speak  of  myself  or  of  him  that  sent  me."  And  to  know 
the  truth  of  the  "doctrine"  which  Jesus  taught,  would  be  to  know 
God,  for  his  doctrine  taught  the  existence  of  God,  the  Father,  and 
himself  as  the  Son  of  God. 

All  this,  however,  will  doubtless  be  set  aside  by  the  agnostic. 
He  will  still  say  that  the  evidence  for  the  facts  for  which 
theists  contend  is  still  insufScient;  and  the  testimony  of  Joseph 


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TEE  JUSTIFICATION  OF  FAITH.  201 

Smith  and  other  modem  prophets  will  be  set  aside  with  the  same 
ease  with  which  the  testimonies  of  the  Jewish  prophets  are  set  aside. 
But  we  refer  to  it,  nevertheless,  to  show  that  so  far  as  the  Latter- 
day  Saints  are  concerned,  they  stand  in  the  midst  of  snch  a  clond 
of  witnesses  that  there  is  no  place  for  unbelief  in  their  hearts; 
no  place  for  agnosticism,  so  far  as  the  existence  of  God  and  some 
knowledge  of  his  character  and  attributes  are  concerned.  And 
while  the  testimony  may  not  be  sufficient  to  lead  all  men  to  accept 
the  truth,  it  will  nevertheless  continue  to  appeal  to  very  many  of 
both  men  and  women  and  they  will  receive  it,  and  by  these  wit- 
nesses their  feet  will  be  kept  in  the  way  of  faith. 


THE  MORNING  STAR. 

SONNET. 


Da/s  fair  and  solitary  handmaid!    bright* 
Thou  lingerest  long  within  the  silent  sky; 
When  all  thy  sparkling  kin  have  left  thy  sight, 
And  wander'd  to  their  palaces  on  high; 
Thou  seem'st  like  herald  sent  upon  his  flight. 
To  bid  the  morning  lift  his  heavy  eye, 
And  give  one  farewell  to  departing  night. 
Life  wakes  within  the  world,  and  from  his  sleep, 
The  sun  salutes  the  waters;  on  the  shore 
The  little  sportive  billows  rise  and  leap, 
As  if  to  kiss  the  sea-birds  flying  o'er — 
Their  whitening  bosoms  sighing  'neath  the  steep. 
Nature  now  leaves  her  flowery  bed  in  mirth. 
And,  ha'nd  in  hand  with  Light,  walks  laughing  o'er  the  earth. 

Dr.  Moore. 


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EMPEROR  WDLLIAM^S  VISIT  TO  PALESTINE. 

BY  PROFESSOR  J.  M.  TANNER,  PRESIDENT  OP  AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE,  LOGAN. 


The  emperor  of  Germany  has  just  completed  a  visit  to  the 
Holy  Land,  and  though  the  purpose  of  that  visit  was  the  consecra- 
tion of  'The  Church  of  the  Redeemer,"  recently  built  by  his  royal 
highness,  the  world  is  busy  speculating  about  the  ulterior  and 
national  motives  which  he  really  had  in  view  The  German  press 
answers  these  speculations  by  saying  that  in  this  age  of  world-trot- 
ters the  German  emperor  certainly  may,  if  he  choose,  make  a  tour 
to  the  Holy  Land  without  any  political  considerations.  But  the 
German  emperor  is  unlike  any  other  ruling  monarch  today.  So  far 
as  he  approves  of  any  general  policy  inaugurated  by  his  ministers, 
or  urged  in  behalf  of  any  commercial  advantage  to  his  nation,  he 
endeavors  to  place  himself  at  the  head  of  that  movement  and  to 
throw  his  personality  into  every  public  question;  and  to  be,  what 
he  is  in  name,  the  responsible  ruler  of  his  empire.  His  movements 
are  not  without  a  plan;  his  speeches  are  not  witless,  they  voice  a 
strong  sentiment,  which  may  be  a  popular  sentiment,  or  the  senti- 
ment of  some  statesman  upon  whom  he  largely  relies. 

We  are  therefore  at  liberty  to  speculate  upon  the  aims  of  this 
royal  tour,  and  the  accuracy  of  our  speculations  must  depend 
largely  upon  the  relation  of  Germany  to  certain 'Other  countries  in 
general,  to  the  internal  demands  oi  the  nation,  and  to  the  relation- 
ship which  now  exists  and  has  long  existed  between  the  German 
empire  and  Turkey. 

The  purposes  ascribed  to  this  visit  are  two-fold.  First, 
religious;  second,  political, — ^if  a  distinction  can  be  made  between 


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EMPEROR  J^ILLIAM'S  VISIT  TO  PALESTINE.         203 

the  religious  and  political  purposes  in  a  nation  where  the  two  ele- 
ments are  so  strongly  combined. 

The  religious  aspect  of  this  question  is  a  two-fold  one.  In  the 
first  place,  it  encourages  the  religious  sentiment  of  Protestant 
Gtermany  by  the  consecration  of  a  Protestant  church  in  the  city  of 
David,  where  heretofore  the  interest  manifested  in  that  wonderfully 
historic  spot  has  been  by  the  Catholic  world.  In  the  second  place, 
Germany  has  a  large  Catholic  population.  Indeed  the  central  party 
of  the  Reichstag  is  the  representative  of  that  organization.  Years 
ago  in  the  early  creation  of  the  empire  there  was  a  very  strong 
antagonism,  during  what  is  called  the  Kultur-Eampf ,  against  the 
Catholics,  and  the  struggle  lasted  for  many  years,  and  the  central 
party  was  always  in  opposition  to  the  government,  which  at  this 
time  the  emperor  is  trying  to  overcome  by  those  means  of  concili- 
ation not  offensive  to  his  Protestant  subjects,  who  by  far  out-num- 
ber all  other  religious  denominations  of  the  empire. 

When  Germany  took  up  the  cause  of  two  murdered  Catholic 
missionaries  in  China  and  made  a  naval  demonstration  and  certain 
demands  upon  China,  the  emperor  announced  himself  as  the  politico- 
religious  head  of  his  government,  for  Catholics  as  well  as  Protes- 
tants; and  that  announcement  has  been  reinforced  by  his  recent 
visit  to  the  Holy  Land. 

France  has  undertaken  to  establish  in  oriental  countries  a  sort 
of  hegemony  over  all  Catholics,  and  to  look  upon  herself  as  the 
natural  protector  of  the  Catholic  world  in  western  as  well  as  in 
eastern  Asia,  whether  they  were  French,  Italians,  Austrians,  or 
Germans.  Italy,  having  overcome  the  papal  power  of  Rome  and 
seized  the  government  of  entire  Italy,  became  the  natural  opponent 
of  the  pope — a  political  opponent — and  by  Italy's  entrance  into  the 
triple  alliance  Germany  and  Austria  have  been  regarded  in  some 
measure  by  the  pope  as  accessories  to  Italy's  crime.  This  attitude 
of  the  triple  alliance  left  France  the  natural  ally  of  the  papal  power 
of  Rome,  and  through  this  preference  the  pope  has  naturally  defer- 
red much  to  France  and  relied  upon  her  for  the  protection  of  Cath- 
olic interests. 

The  Emperor  William,  by  his  newly  inaugurated  policy,  denies 
that  prerogative  on  the  part  of  France,  so  far  as  it  affects  German 
subjects,  and  this  is  a  source  of  much  criticism  and  irritation  on 


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204  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  part  of  the  French  press.  This  effort  on  the  part  of  the  emperor 
to  conciliate  his  Catholic  subjects  has  met  with  a  considerable 
response  on  their  part;  so  that  the  appeals,  instead  of  being  made 
to  the  pope  and  through  the  pope  to  France,  as  has  often  been  the 
case,  are  now  made  directly  to  Germany  and  its  emperor  as  the 
natural  guardian  of  their  interests  in  all  parts  of  the  world. 

The  surrender,  therefore,  of  this  powerful  influence  formerly 
exercised  by  France,  is  a  loss  of  considerable  prestige  in  the  Cath- 
olic world,  if  not  of  influence  over  Catholics  in  all  Catholic  nations 
of  Europe.  After  the  Church  of  the  Redeemer  at  Jerusalem  had 
been  consecrated — ^the  church  is  located  near  that  of  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre— the  emperor  succeeded  in  the  purchase  of  the  abode  of  the 
Holy  Virgin,  situated  on  Mount  Zion,  and  presented  it  to  the  pope 
of  Rome  for  the  use  of  the  Catholics.  This  action  will  undoubtedly 
prove  a  source  of  reconciliation  with  his  Catholic  subjects,  and  it  is 
a  virtual  announcement  that  the  emperor,  so  far  as  he  may  assume 
to  be  the  head  of  the  church  in  Germany,  acts  in  a  dual  capacity — 
protector  of  the  Protestant  as  well  as  of  the  Catholic  interests. 

Though  we  may  hardly  suppose  that  the  pope  encouraged  this 
royal  tour  and  manifestation  of  interest  in  Catholic  welfare,  yet 
nothing  has  been  said  by  him  to  show  that  he  throws  any  discredit 
upon  it,  and  as  a  result  France  naturally  feels  imeasy  over  the 
situation. 

So  far  as  the  religious  phase  of  the  emperor's  visit  has  any 
effect  upon  his  political  aims,  it  must  be  sought  for  in  the  support 
which  he  evidently  hopes  to  secure  from  the  central  party  of  the 
Reichstag,  a  party  composed  chiefly  of  Catholics. 

So  far  as  his  visit  has  a  purely  political  bearing  that  bearing^ 
is  to  be  found  in  the  relationship  which  exists  between  Germany 
and  Turkey.  Ever  since  the  Turko-Russian  war  Turkey  has  abanr 
donded  her  relationship  to  England  in  so  far  as  she  regarded  Eng- 
land as  her  natural  protector,  the  Turks  believing  that  her  interests 
had  been  grossly  betrayed  by  the  English  who  encouraged  this  war 
and  who  then  left  the  Turks  to  take  its  consequences.  Since  then,  Tur- 
key has  allied  her  interests  with  Russia,  with  Austria  and  with 
England  as  the  circumstances  of  the  several  occasions  demanded. 
Her  extreme  friendship  for  Russia  at  one  time  has  alarmed  the 
English,  and  the  Russians  have  been  frustrated  by  combinations 


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EMPEROR  WILLIAM'S  VISIT  TO  PALESTINE.         206 

made  between  the  Turks  and  England,  or  France  or  Germany,  as 
Turkey  f  onnd  it  to  her  interest  to  make  political  alliances.  Turkey 
has  no  policy;  she  is  too  weak  to  have  one.  Her  strength  lies  in 
the  support  which  she  gives  to  the  foreign  policy  of  one  or  more 
of  the  great  powers.  Sometimes  England,  sometimes  Russia,  has 
been  stronger  with  the  sublime  porte  at  Constantinople  than  any 
other  power;  but  in  the  midst  of  the  fluctuating  influence  which 
one  or  the  other  of  the  great  powers  has  exercised  in  a  prominent 
degree  over  the  Turks,  Germany  has  always  been  the  second  factor. 
In  the  first  place,  Bismarck  was  the  most  prominent  figure  of  diplo- 
matic Europe.  His  influence  and  his  consent  must  always  be 
secured  in  order  to  carry  out  any  international  purposes  which  the 
great  powers  may  have  had  in  view.  Taken  therefore  in  its  entirety 
the  G^n-man  influence  during  the  period  of  the  last  twenty  years 
has  been  farther-reaching  and  immeasurably  stronger  upon  the 
Turkish  policy  than  that  of  perhaps  all  the  other  countries  com- 
bined, and  it  is  perhaps  true  that  the  Turk  often  threw  himself 
into  the  arms  of  Russia  or  England  at  the  suggestion  of  Bismarck 
who  foresaw  certain  advantages  to  be  derived  by  the  sultan  from 
the  one  course  or  the  other.  Nowhere  was  this  German  relation 
to  Turkey  more  strikingly  exemplified  than  in  the  Greek  war,  where- 
in Germany,  feeling  that  the  Greeks  had  been  the  aggressors,  and 
provokingly  so,  felt  that  Turkey  must  have  a  free  hand  in  carrying 
on  that  war  against  Greece,  and,  up  to  a  certain  point,  to  be  allowed 
all  the  advantages  that  would  accrue  to  any  other  nation  from 
such  a  war. 

Germany's  policy  in  dealing  with  Turkey  is  wholly  unlike  that 
of  either  Russia  or  England.  Russia  has  sought  territorial  advan- 
tages, and  England's  policy  has  been  governed  mainly  by  a  determi- 
nation to  counteract  that  policy.  Their  positions  have  been  purely 
positive  and  negative.  On  the  other  hand,  Germany  has  felt  that 
the  sultan  was  not  so  sick  a  man  as  his  traducers  would  have  him 
appear,  aCnd  that  Turkey  had  an  assured  existence  covering  a  longer 
period  than  that  which  even  her  friends  had  believed  her  to  possess. 
Furthermore,  Germany  believed  that  to  reap  the  advantages  which 
must  sooner  or  later  come  from  the  immense  commerce  and  develop- 
ment of  the  Turkish  empire  the  best  policy  was  that  of  a  friendly 
Attitude  toward  the  sultan,  for  two  very  suflScient  reasons.    In  the 


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206  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

first  place,  Gennany  desired  all  the  advantages  of  a  favored  nation 
in  such  great  Turkish  ports  as  Constantinople,  Smyrna  and  Beyroat; 
in  the  second  place,  Germany  clearly  foresaw  the  opening  of  a 
vast  region  in  Asia  Minor,  and  that  Asia  Minor  constituted  one  of 
the  commercial  conquests  of  the  modem  world  just  as  Africa  to 
the  south  and  Asia  to  the  east,  especially  China,  now  present.  Con- 
cessions to  build  railroads  were  desirable,  and  these  were  secured^ 
and  a  railroad  is  now  in  process  of  construction  from  Constanti- 
nople and  may,  within  the  next  five  years  reach  Biredjik,  at  the 
headwaters  of  ths  Euphrates  river.  This  would  open  a  region  of 
enormous  wealth  in  agriculture  as  well  as  in  minerals,  and  conces- 
sions granted  by  the  sultan  might  be  an  inducement  to  German  set- 
tlers to  build  up  that  wonderful  region;  and  German  conmiercial 
interests  have  been  the  controling  factor  in  her  dealings  with  Tar- 
key,  irrespective  of  what  the  world  may  think  about  the  moral 
responsibility  of  the  sultan  for  the  massacres  in  Armenia,  or  for 
the  misfortunes  of  the  Cretes.  Commercial  interests  are,  as  they 
always  have  been,  paramount.  They  have  carried  with  them  more 
Christian  and  moralizing  forces,  it  is  true,  at  one  time  than  another. 
But  commerce  has  been  the  underlying  motive  in  German  as  well  as 
in  English  foreign  policy.  "Carry  to  them  our  commerce  and  our 
religion,  if  we  can;  but  carry  to  them  our  commerce  anyhow."  All 
theories  of  government,  all  national  policies,  have  been  more  or 
less  elastic  in  the  presence  of  this  over-ruling  and  controling  thought 
of  commercial  activity. 

The  visit,  therefore,  of  the  emperor  to  the  sultan  at  Constan- 
tinople was  no  less  significant  than  his  visit  to  the  Holy  Land.  The 
former  was  pre-eminently  political;  the  latter  political  and  religious 
combined,  or  a  political  mission  which  had  to  do  chiefly  with  the 
internal  interests  of  the  fatherland.  It  is  noted  that  during  this 
visit  the  emperor  refrained  from  going  to  Egypt.  The  English 
control  of  Egypt  is  offensive  to  France,  and  the  emperor's  visit 
there  would  undoubtedly  have  been  taken  as  an  offense,  from  the 
fact  that  the  French  would  have  construed  it  as  an  endorsement  of 
the  English  policy  in  Egypt. 

There  are  today  three  great  centers  of  commercial  activity 
that  give  wonderful  promise  for  the  future — three  countries  in 
which  commercial  competition,  accompanied  by  political  activity. 


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EMPEROR  WILLIAM'S  VISIT  TO  PALESTINE.         207 

are  now  largely  absorbing  the  attention  of  the  commercial  world. 
These  are,  Africa,  China  and  the  Turkish  empire.  Africa  has  been 
in  the  lead  for  some  time.  China's  change  of  policy  and  promise 
of  commercial  development  is  more  recent.  The  emperor's  visit 
to  Palestine,  and  especially  to  Constantinople,  have  reinforced  the 
repeated  declaration  of  the  commercial  importance  of  Asia  Minor 
to  adjacent  Europe.  Concessions,  preferences  and  commercial 
advantages  in  Turkey  have  been  secured  largely  upon  the  favor  of 
the  sultan.  Seeing  this,  the  emperor  has  cultivated  his  friendship, 
and  that  in  disregard  of  that  public  sentiment  which  has  under- 
taken to  associate  the  ruler  of  a  Christian  empire  with  a  '^bloody 
assassin." 

Germany's  race  is  a  commercial  one.  She  is  England's  great- 
est competitor  today.  Her  hopes  are  unbounded.  They  lie  in  the 
direction  of  Turkey  and  China  more  than  towards  Africa,  and  the 
recent  visit  of  the  German  emper6r  has  but  emphasized  Germany's 
commercial  intentions  in  a  direction  to  which,  of  late,  the  world 
has  not  given  much  attention.  U  Turkey  could  rid  herself  of  som^ 
of  her  enormous  debt — enormous  for  a  country  so  poor — ^there  is 
no  reason  why  there  might  not  be  some  promise  of  national  recovery 
on  her  part.  If  the  Zion  movement  started  at  Basle  creates  an 
enthusiasm  sufficiently  strong  and  extended  among  the  Jews  for 
the  rehabilitation  and  recovery  of  the  Holy  Land,  its  sale  may 
afford  the  sultan  of  Turkey  one  of  the  best  opportunities  of  con- 
tinued existence,  and  so  long  as  there  is  promise  of  continued  life 
and  power  in  the  Turkish  empire  Germany's  advantages  lie  in  a 
friendly  attitude  towards  its  ruler,  who  after  all  but  responds  to 
a  national  sentiment  by  his  visit  to  the  Holy  Land  and  to  Abdul 
Hamid. 


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LIVES   OF  THE  APOSTLES- 

I. 

SIMON  PETER. 

BY    PROFESSOR  WILLARD    DONE,  PRESIDENT    OP    THE    LATTER-DAT 
SAINTS'  COLLEGE,  SALT  LAKE  CITY. 


Simon,  or  Simeon,  as  the  name  is  sometimes  written,  was  born 
in  Bethsaida,  a  little  fishing  village  on  the  north  shore  of  the  Sea 
of  Galilee,  some  years  before  the  birth  of  Christ.  He  was  the  son 
of  a  man  named  Jonah,  or  Jonas,  who  was  in  rather  humble  cir- 
cumstances. Hence  Simon  was  forced  early  in  life  to  adopt  a 
calling  and  labor  for  his  own  support.  He  chose  the  craft  of  a 
fisherman,  forming  a  partnership  with  his  brother  Andrew,  and  sub- 
sequently coming  into  close  friendship  with  the  two  sons  of  Zebedee, 
James  and  John.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  all  four  of  these 
afterwards  became  Apostles  of  the  Lord  Jesus. 

Peter  first  comes  into  prominence  in  the  New  Testament  nar- 
rative, in  connection  with  the  preaching  and  baptizing  of  John  the 
Baptist.  That  he  was  a  disciple  of  Jolm,  is  at  least  implied  in  the 
account  which  John  the  evangelist  gives  of  the  beautiful  incident  of 
the  baptism  of  Jesus,  and  the  Baptist's  subsequent  testimony  to  our 
Lord's  divinity.  It  is  also  generally  understood  that  he  was  one  of 
those  who  left  John  and  followed  Christ,  and  were  so  impressed 
with  the  strength  and  sweetness  of  Messiah's  character.  (John  1: 
29-42).  It  was  on  this  occasion,  their  first  meeting,  that  Jesus 
bestowed  upon  Simon  the  surname  Peter  (or  Cephas)  a  stone,  by 
which  he  is  more  familiarly  known  to  us  than  by  his  own  name. 
That  Jesus,  through  his  power  of  discerning  spirits,  recognized  at 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  209 

once  the  strength  and  firmness  of  Simon's  character  is  evident. 
That  the  name  was  wisely  bestowed,  is  proved  by  numerous  events 
in  his  subsequent  history. 

It  does  not  appear  that  Peter  and  his  associates  were  finally 
called  as  Apostles  of  Christ  on  this  occasion.  This  final  call 
occurred,  we  do  not  know  how  long  afterward,  while  the  four  men 
were  engaged  with  their  boats  and  nets  on  the  Sea  of  Galilee.  The 
incident  as  related  in  Luke  5: 1-11,  is  as  follows:  The  people  were 
crowding  Jesus  so  closely  that  he  took  a  seat  in  Peter's  boat  and 
had  him  push  out  a  short  distance  from  the  shore.  After  Jesus 
had  finished  teaching  the  people,  he  told  Peter  to  push  out  farther, 
and  lower  the  net.  Peter  answered  that  they  had  toiled  all  night, 
but  had  taken  nothing.  Nevertheless,  he  and  Andrew  launched 
into  the  deep  and  lowered  their  nets.  So  many  fishes  were  caught 
that  the  net  began  to  break.  James  and  John  came  to  their  assist- 
ance, and  both  boats  were  filled  with  fish,  imtil  they  were  about  to 
sink.  Then  Peter,  apparently  seeing  the  intent  of  the  miracle,  fell 
down  before  the  Master,  exclaiming,  '^Depart  from  me;  for  I  am  a 
sinful  man,  0  Lord!"  Jesus  answered  him,  'Tear  not;  from  hence- 
forth thou  shalt  catch  men."  When  they  had  brought  their  ships 
to  land,  the  four  left  everything  and  followed  Christ. 

About  this  time,  Jesus  took  up  his  residence  in  Capernaum, 
probably  at  Peter's  house,  as  Peter,  no  doubt,  was  then  living  in 
that  village.  It  was  here  that  the  well-known  incident  of  healing 
Peter's  wife's  mother  from  an  attack  of  fever,  occurred.  From  this 
time  Peter  and  his  associates  followed  Jesus  throughout  Galilee, 
Judea,  and  Samaria,  assisting  him  in  his  ministrations,  and  listen- 
ing to  his  teachings.  When  the  Apostles  were  chosen  and  ordained, 
Peter's  name  stood  at  the  head  of  the  quorum  list;  and  this  dis- 
tinction is  granted  him  in  all  the  lists  of  Christ's  intimate  follow- 
ers. The  primacy  of  Peter  was  doubtless  recognized  from  the  first. 
During  the  first  two  years  of  Messiah's  ministry,  the  individuality 
of  all  the  Apostles  of  Christ  seems  to  have  been  swallowed  up  in 
his  own.  We  would  naturally  look  for  Peter  to  be  among  the  first 
who  asserted  themselves,  and  we  are  not  disappointed.  It  was  after 
the  feeding  of  the  five  thousand,  which  occurred  in  the  wilder 
ness  on  the  north  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee.  The  people  were  impor- 
tuning Jesus  to  be  their  king.      In  order  to  escape  them,  he 


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210  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

dismissed  his  Apostles,  commanding  them  to  cross  to  the  western 
shore,  while  he  retired  alone  into  the  mountain  to  pray.  Toward 
daylight,  he  approached  their  boat,  walking  upon  the  water.  When 
Peter  knew  that  it  was  the  Lord,  he  attempted  to  walk  out  and 
meet  him,  but  failed  at  last,  through  lack  of  faith.  Soon  after 
reaching  the  shore,  they  went  to  Capernaum,  where  a  large  number 
of  Christ's  disciples  deserted  him,  on  account  of  his  reproofs. 
Turning  to  the  twelve,  Jesus  asked  if  they,  too,  would  leave  him. 
Then  this  mingled  faith  and  impulsiveness  of  Peter  manifested 
itself,  in  his  noble  answer,  'Ijord,  to  whom  shall  we  go?  thou 
hast  the  words  of  eternal  life.  And  we  believe  and  are  sure  that 
thou  art  that  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  living  God."  (John  6:  68,  69). 
This  confession  and  the  subsequent  one,  '^ou  art  the  Christ,  the 
Son  of  the  living  God,"  (Matt.  16:  16),  have  been  referred  to 
throughout  the  Christian  era,  as  the  type  of  a  true  faith  in  Christ. 

It  was  soon  after  this  second  declaration,  that  Peter's  zeal  for 
his  Master  overstepped  itself,  and  earned  for  him  the  strongest 
rebuke  Jesus  ever  gave  directly  to  one  of  his  followers.  Jesus  had 
predicted  to  his  Apostles  the  fate  which  awaited  him  at  Jerusalem, 
and  Peter  had  said,  ''Be  it  far  from  thee.  Lord:  this  shall  not  be 
unto  thee;"  when  Jesus  turned  and  said,  ''Get  thee  behind  me, 
Satan;  thou  art  an  offense  unto  me:  for  thou  savoreet  not  the 
things  that  be  of  God,  but  those  that  be  of  men." 

Six  days  afterward,  occurred  the  glorious  incident  of  the 
transfiguration,  which  Peter,  James,  and  John  were  alone  per- 
mitted to  witness.  A  little  later  Jesus  and  his  immediate  followers 
went  down  into  Judea,  where  the  closing  incidents  in  his  eventful 
life  occurred.  In  connection  with  the  life  of  Peter,  we  are  most 
interested  in  the  events  of  the  night  preceding  the  cr  ucifizion, 
because  they  give  us  an  insight  into  some  of  the  peculiarities  of 
Peter's  character.  When  the  paschal  supper  had  been  prepared, 
the  twelve,  with  their  Lord,  sat  down  to  the  repast.  Then  occurred 
the  remarkable  series  of  conversations,  prophecies,  prayers,  and 
exhortations,  which  cause  the  ante-mortem  discourses  of  Socrates 
to  sink  into  insignificance.  Among  these  was  the  prediction  oi  the 
Apostles'  desertion  of  Jesus,  against  which  Peter  protested  so 
v^emently:  "Though  all  men  shall  be  offended  because  of  thee, 
yet  will  I  never  be  offended."   Messiah's  answer  was  sadly  propbelae: 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  211 

"Verily  I  say  unto  thee,  this  night,  before  the  cock  crow,  thou 
shalt  deny  me  thrice."  Again  Peter,  James  and  John  were  honored 
with  our  Lord's  close  confidence,  in  being  chosen  to  watch,  lest  he 
should  be  disturbed  during  his  prayer  and  suffering  in  the  garden 
of  Gethsemane.  That  they  should  fall  asleep  at  this  critical 
juncture,  is  scarcely  to  be  wondered  at,  as  it  was  long  past  mid- 
night; nor  do  we  wonder  that  Peter,  stung  no  doubt  by  the  gentle 
rebuke,  "What!  could  ye  not  watch  with  me  one  hour?"  and 
roused  by  the  further  remark,  "Sleep  on  now;  *  *  behold, 
he  is  at  hand  that  doth  betray  me;"  should  have  impulsively  drawn 
his  sword  and  attempted  his  Lord's  defense.  Restrained  from  this» 
he  followed  Jesus  at  a  distance,  was  admitted  into  the  hall  of  the 
high  priest's  house,  and  there  fulfilled  the  Master's  sorrowful 
prophecy,  by  his  three-fold  denial.  This  was  a  crisis  in  Peter's 
life.  The  fimmess  inherent  in  his  own  nature  was  no  longer 
depended  upon  implicitly,  but  was  reinforced  by  the  strength 
arising  from  the  possession  of  the  Spirit  of  God.  Henceforth  we 
shall  expect  to  find  him  foremost  in  apostolic  works — one  of  the 
first  to  run  to  the  sepulchre  after  the  resurrection,  (John  20: 
2-10);  the  first  to  leave  his  boat  and  net,  and  greet  the  risen  Lord, 
(John  21:  4-11);  the  one  to  whom  were  given  the  keys  of  the  king- 
dom, and  the  injunction  to  feed  the  Master's  sheep,  (John  21 :. 
15-17);  and  the  one  to  assert  apostolic  authority,  direct  the  filling; 
up  of  the  quorum  of  the  twelve,  and  deliver  the  first  gospel  sermout 
(Acts  1,  2).  A  sober,  dignified  firmness  took  the  place  of  his. 
former  hasty  zeal;  and  with  prudence,  sagacity,  and  patient  endur- 
ance, he  proceeded  to  the  work  of  the  ministry.  Bonds  hadi 
henceforth  no  terrors  for  him.  From  denying  his  Lord  before  a. 
mere  servant  girl,  he  arose  to  a  dignified  acknowledgment  of  him 
before  an  angry  Sanhedrim,  and  a  declaration  of  his  determination 
to  continue  preaching  in  Christ's  name  in  spite  of  their  prohibition. 
The  events  of  Peter's  life  during  the  apostolic  age  are  full 
of  interest  to  us.  Soon  after  the  ascension  of  Christ,  Peter  called 
the  disciples  together,  to  the  number  of  120,  in  an  upper  room  and 
after  explaining  to  them  the  nature  of  Judas'  fall,  and  the  neces-^ 
sity  of  choosing  another  to  fill  his  place,  he  directed  the  balloting 
by  which  Matthias  was  chosen  to  the  apostleship.  Ten  days  after 
the  ascension,  on  the  day  of  Pentecost,  the  Jews  having  assembled 


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212  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

together  from  all  parts  of  the  civilized  world,  there  occnrred  the 
mighty  endowment  "with  power  from  on  high,"  the  bestowal  of 
the  Holy  Ghost.  Attracted  by  the  great  manifestations  accom- 
panying this  event,  the  multitude  came  running  together,  and 
manifested  astonishment  at  the  fact  that  the  inspired  ones  spoke 
in  tongues  which  all  the  assembled  nations  understood.  Roused  by 
the  insinuation  that  this  was  a  manifestation  of  drunkenness,  Peter 
bore  a  powerful  testimony  to  the  presence  of  the  Spirt  of  God,  and 
"pricked  the  Jews  to  the  heart"  by  his  straightforward  recital  of 
the  death  and  divinity  of  Jesus.  Then  in  response  to  their  earnest 
question,  "Men  and  brethren,  what  shall  we  do?"  he  preached  the 
gospel  of  repentance,  baptism,  and  the  laying  on  of  hands,  the 
result  being  the  conversion  of  three  thousand  souls. 

The  next  event  was  the  healing,  by  Peter  and  John,  of  the 
lame  man  at  the  "beautiful  gate"  of  the  temple.  It  was  his  appear- 
ance in  the  temple  as  the  first  herald  of  the  Apostles'  healing 
power,  and  the  testimony  of  Peter  that  this  power  came  from 
Christ,  whom  through  ignorance  the  Jews  had  slain,  that  brought 
upon  the  Apostles  the  active  opposition  of  the  priests.  Following 
close  upon  the  miraculous  death  of  Ananias  and  Sapphira,  and  the 
fame  spread  abroad  through  other  notable  miracles,  the  Apostles 
were  seized  by  the  high  priest  and  his  associates,  and  cast  into  the 
common  prison.  Delivered  thence  by  the  angel  of  the  Lord,  they 
went  to  the  temple  and  taught  the  people.  Brought  before  the 
Sanhedrim,  they,  through  Peter,  their  spokesman,  boldly  refused  to 
cease  proclaiming  Christ;  but  they  were  saved  from  bitter  perse- 
cution by  the  wise  counsel  of  Gamaliel.    (Acts  7:  34-42). 

Mention  should  be  made  of  the  visit  of  Peter  and  John  to 
Samaria,  to  confer  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  those  who  had  been  bap- 
tized by  Philip.  The  incident  is  interesting,  not  only  because  it 
proves  that  the  authority  of  the  Melchizedek  Priesthood  is  required 
to  bestow  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  that  this  is  done  by  the  laying  on  of 
hands,  but  because  of  Peter's  meeting  with  Simon  Magus.  This 
sorcerer,  attracted  by  the  manifestations  accompanying  the  minis- 
trations of  the  Apostles,  offered  money  to  Peter,  in  order  to  buy 
the  wonderful  power.  Peter's  rebuke  established  forever  the 
principle  that  the  gifts  of  the  gospel  are  free,  and  that  any  attempt 
to  turn  them  into  a  means  of  merchandise  is  most  reprehensible. 


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I 


LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  213 

Tradition  has  it  that  Peter  met  and  vanquished  Simon  Magus  many 
years  later,  in  Rome,  but  authentic  history  gives  no  warrant  to  this 
idea. 

When  Sauly  afterwards  called  Paul,  was  converted,  he  reported 
to  Peter  immediately  on  going  from  Damascus  to  Jerusalem, 
(Galatians  1: 18),  thus  acknowledging  Peter's  primacy.  It  was  not 
long  afterward  that  Peter  made  his  memorable  visit  to  Joppa, 
where  occurred  the  raising  of  Tabitha  from  the  dead,  the  vision 
demonstrating  the  worthiness  of  the  Grentiles  to  be  accounted 
worthy  of  the  gospel,  and  the  visit  immediately  afterward,  of  the 
messengers  of  Cornelius.  The  incident  of  the  conversion  of  Ck)me- 
lius  is  so  important  as  to  deserve  more  than  a  passing  notice.  It 
was  the  opening  of  the  door  through  which  the  gospel  was  carried 
to  the  Gentiles. 

Being  a  Jew,  Peter  had  all  the  prejudices  of  his  race  against 
the  Gentiles.  He  considered  them  as  not  entitled  to  the  blessings 
of  the  gospel  of  Christ.  The  words  of  Jesus  when  he  sent  the 
Apostles  out  to  preach  during  his  life-time,  ''Go  not  into  the  way 
of  the  Gentiles,"  (Matt.  10:  5),  seem  to  have  impressed  Peter  more 
strongly  than  the  command  given  after  Christ's  resurrection — "Go 
ye  into  all  the  world,  and  preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature," 
(Mark  16:  15).  Therefore,  it  required  a  very  strong  manifestation 
to  convince  him  of  the  worthiness  of  the  Gentiles  to  receive  the 
gospel.  As  he  was  praying  on  a  house-top  in  Joppa,  he  became 
hungry,  and  in  his  trance  or  vision  he  saw  a  sheet  which  came 
down  from  heaven,  filled  with  all  kinds  of  animals,  clean  and 
unclean.  A  voice  came  to  him  saying,  "Rise,  Peter;  kill  and  eat." 
In  reply  to  his  remonstrance  against  eating  animals  prohibited  by 
the  law  of  Moses,  he  was  told  not  to  call  that  common  or  unclean 
which  the  Lord  had  cleansed.  This  was  twice  repeated,  and  imme- 
diately afterward  the  messengers  of  Cornelius  came  to  him.  Accom- 
panying them  to  Csesarea,  Peter  fully  understood  the  significance 
of  the  vision,  when  he  heard  the  testimony  of  Cornelius,  and  saw 
the  Holy  Ghost  poured  out  upon  the  Gentiles,  as  a  sign  of  their 
worthiness  to  receive  the  gospel.  "  Of  a  truth,"  said  he,  "  I  per- 
ceive that  God  is  no  respecter  of  persons;  but  in  every  nation  he 
that  feareth  him,  and  worketh  righteousness,  is  accepted  with 
him."    And  again,  "Can  any  man  forbid  water,  that  these  should 


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214  IMPBO  VEMENT  ERA. 

not  be  baptized,  which  have  received  the  Holy  Ghost  as  well  as  we?" 
When  Peter  returned  to  Jerusalem,  he  had  to  face  the  charge, 
'"Thou  wentest  in  to  men  uncircumcised  and  didst  eat  with  them.'' 
He  answered  it  by  relating  the  incident,  with  such  earnestness 
that  his  accusers  exclaimed,  "Then  hath  God  also  to  the  Gentiles 
granted  repentance  unto  life." 

Peter  continued  to  advocate  the  equal  rights  of  Jews  and 
Gentiles  who  accepted  the  gospel,  when,  in  a  council  at  Jerusalem, 
he  advised  that  all  Gentile  converts  should  be  exempt  from  circum- 
cision, the  decision  of  the  council  being  to  that  effect.  (Acts  15: 
6-11).  This  was  perfectly  consistent  with  his  action  in  the  case 
of  Cornelius,  at  Caesarea.  Only  once  did  he  seem  even  for  a 
moment,  to  depart  from  this  consistent  course;  and  we  have  only 
an  ex  parte  statement  of  this  event.  It  was  when,  in  Antioch,  he 
withdrew  from  the  Gentiles,  with  whom  he  had  been  living  on 
terms  of  closest  intimacy.  He  withdrew  from  them,  it  is  supposed, 
through  fear  of  the  censure  of  the  Jewish  party,  who  seemed  still 
to  be  filled  with  the  old  prejudice  against  their  Gentile  brethren. 
This  apparent  weakness  aroused  the  indignation  of  Paul,  who  was 
full  of  zeal  and  energy  in  the  cause  of  the  Gentiles,  and  he  "with- 
stood Peter  to  the  face."  Paul's  opposition  to  Peter  on  this  occa- 
sion arose  from  a  natural  fear  that  Peter's  lack  of  consistency 
would  do  injury  to  the  cause  of  the  gospel,  especially  among  the 
Grentiles.  The  passage  on  which  our  Imowledge  of  this  incident  is 
based,  occurs  in  Paul's  letter  to  the  Galatians,  (2: 11-14). 

This  is  the  last  event  in  the  life  of  Peter  positively  known  tons 
from  the  New  Testament.  Many  traditions  exist  regarding  his  later 
life,  and  a  few  of  these  will  be  briefly  stated,  with  the  caution  that 
they  must  not  be  accepted  as  authoritative,  though  we  have  some 
reasons  for  supposing  them  true.  One  of  these  traditions  is  to  the 
effect  that  he  visited  Babylon  and  lived  there  for  some  time,  and 
that  his  first  epistle  was  written  from  that  city  to  the  Church  at 
large.  The  evidence  for  this  is  contained  merely  in  the  closing 
words  of  this  epistle.  We  have  no  other  evidence  that  he  ever  was 
in  Babylon.  Another  tradition,  of  rather  more  doubtful  authority, 
states  that  he  visited  the  regions  of  Asia  Minor,  and  even  some  of 
the  northern  coasts  of  the  Black  Sea,  preaching  to  the  Jews  in 
those  places. 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  215 

But  our  chief  interest  lies  in  the  tradition  that  toward  the 
close  of  his  life  Peter  visited  Rome,  became  bishop  of  the  Church 
in  that  city  and  suffered  martyrdom  there  in  the  persecutions 
raised  by  Nero,  about  67  A.  D.  Regarding  his  visit  to,  and  brief 
residence  in,  the  city  of  Rome,  we  have  no  great  doubt;  it  is  gen- 
erally admitted  that  he  spent  the  last  few  years  of  his  life  there. 
It  is  just  as  freely  admitted  that  in  all  probability  he  suffered 
martyrdom  there  during  the  Neronian  persecutions.  But  it  is  cer- 
tain that  he  never  was  bishop  of  Rome. 

The  prophetic  recital  of  his  death  as  given  by  Jesus,  is  recorded 
in  John  21: 18:  "  But  when  thou  shalt  be  old,  thou  shalt  stretch 
forth  thy  hands,  and  another  shall  gird  thee  [on  the  cross],  and 
carry  thee  whither  thou  wouldest  not."  The  tradition  of  his  death 
is  most  beautiful.  Nero  was  committing  the  most  shameful 
atrocities  against  the  saints  in  Rome;  and  his  fiendish  ingenuity 
was  almost  exhausted  in  devising  for  them  the  most  terrible  forms 
of  death.  They  were  crucified,  torn  by  wild  beasts,  "covered  with 
pitch  and  burned,  and  put  to  death  in  various  other  ways.  Peter's 
life  was  most  precious  to  the  Christians  at  Rome,  and  they  per- 
suaded him  to  flee  for  safety.  As  he  passed  the  walls  of  the  city, 
he  met  the  Lord,  toiling  toward  Rome,  with  his  cross  on  his  back. 
**Quo  vadis,  Dominef'^  (Whither  goest  thou,  Lord?)  he  asked.  "I 
go  to  Rome,  there  to  be  crucified  again,"  said  Jesus.  Peter  fully 
understood  the  significance  of  the  remark;  and  instantly  he  turned 
around,  retraced  his  steps  to  the  city,  and  suffered  death  on  the  cross. 
An  embellishment  is  added  to  the  story  in  the  statement  that  he 
was  crucified  head  downward,  at  his  own  request,  since  he  consid- 
ered himself  unworthy  to  die  as  Jesus  died.  We  scarcely  feel  like 
accepting  or  rejecting  this  statement.  Whatever  the  manner  of 
his  death,  however,  we  must  suppose  that  he  met  it  with  the 
devoted  heroism  and  righteous  zeal  which  characterized  the  whole 
life  of  the  "  chief  of  the  Apostles."  At  this  supreme  moment  we 
would  look  for  anything  rather  than  uncertainty  or  wavering. 

The  reader  has  no  doubt  gathered  from  these  events  in  Peter's 
life,  a  good  estimate  of  his  character.  Therefore,  by  way  of  con- 
clusion, merely  a  brief  statement  only  of  the  main  elements  of  his 
character  will  be  inserted  here,  from  the  writings  of  Dr.  Hamilton: 


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216  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

'It  would  be  hard  to  tell  whether  most  of  his  fervor  flowed  throngh 
the  outlet  of  adoration  or  activity.  His  full  heart  put  force  and  prompti- 
tude into  every  movement.  Is  his  Master  encompassed  by  fierce  ruffians? — 
Peter's  ardor  flashes  in  his  ready  sword,  and  converts  the  Galilean  boat- 
man into  the  soldier  instantaneous.  Is  there  a  rumor  of  a  resurrection 
from  Joseph's  tomb? — ^John's  nimbler  foot  distances  his  older  friend;  but 
Peter's  eajj^emess  outruns  the  serene  love  of  John,  and  past  the  gazing 
disciple  he  rushes  breathless  into  the  vacant  sepulchre.  Is  the  risen 
Savior  on  the  strand? — ^his  comrades  secure  the  net,  and  turn  the  vessel's 
head  for  shore;  but  Peter  plunges  over  the  vessel's  side,  and  struggling 
through  the  waves,  in  his  dripping  coat  falls  down  at  his  Master's  feet. 
Does  Jesus  say,  'Bring  of  the  fish  ye  have  caught?  ' — ere  any  one  could 
anticipate  the  word,  Peter's  brawny  arm  is  lugging  the  weltering  net 
with  its  glittering  spoil  ashore,  and  every  eager  movement  unwittingly 
is  answering  beforehand  the  question  of  his  Lord,  'Simon,  lovest  thou 
me?'  And  that  fervor  is  the  best,  which,  like  Peter's,  and  as  occasion 
requires,  can  ascend  in  ecstatic  ascriptions  of  adoration  and  praise,  or 
follow  Christ  to  prison  and  to  death;  which  can  concentrate  itself  on 
feats  of  heroic  devotion,  or  distribute  itself  in  the  affectionate  assiduities 
of  a  miscellaneous  industry." 


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GOSPEL  STUDffiS- 

I. 

AN  INWARD  KINGDOM  OP  GOD  NECESSARY  TO  SALVATION. 

BY  PROFESSOR  N.  L.  NELSON. 


-There  is  in  the  Sunday  School  of  the  Brigham  Young 
Academy^  a  missionary  class,  composed  of  about  one  hundred 
earnest  young  men,  over  whom  it  is  my  privilege  and  honor  to  pre- 
side. Each  year  a  large  number  of  these  students  are  called  on 
missions,  and  I  invite  them  to  write  me  for  help  whenever  in  their 
ministry  they  get  into  theological  difficulties.  Accordingly  a 
bright  young  Elder  now  laboring  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  presents  me 
a  passage  of  scripture  which  he  has  found  difficult  to  explain 
satisfactorily.  I  have  been  trying  for  a  month  or  two  to  find  time 
for  reply;  but  the  more  I  study  it,  the  more  I  see  that  it  is  too 
big  a  theme  for  a  letter;  and  as  it  will  no  doubt  be  found  of  general 
interest  to  preachers  and  teachers  of  the  gospel,  I  beg  space  in 
the  Era  for  my  answer. 

The  passage  is  found  in  Luke,  seventeenth  chapter,  twentieth 
and  twenty-first  verses,  and  reads  as  follows: 

''And  when  he  was  demanded  of  the  Pharisees,  when  the 
kingdom  of  God  should  come,  he  answered  them  and  said.  The 
kingdom  of  God  cometh  not  with  observation:  neither  shall  they 
say,  Lo  here!  or,  lo  there!  for,  behold,  the  kingdom  of  God  is 
within  you.'' 

The  difficulty  presented  by  the  passage  is  this:  our  Elders 
preach  an  outward  kingdom  (or  Church)  of  God;  a  kingdom  per- 
fect in  organization  as  the  wisdom  of  heaven  can  make  it;  with 
Apostles,  Prophets,  Pastors,  Teachers,  Deacons,  helps,  govern- 
ments, and  so  forth,  making  what  is  called  by  Paul  the  body 


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218  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

of  Christ;  and  by  many  passages  of  scripture  they  maintain  that 
salvation  is  not  to  be  found  outside  this  organization. 

Now,  Christ's  words  to  the  Pharisees,  as  quoted  above,  seem 
to  contradict  this  attitude.  Not  only  does  he  deny  that  the 
kingdom  "cometh  with  observation/'  and  that  the  kingdom  is 
something  of  which  one  could  say,  'IjO  here  it  is,"  or  "Lo  there  it 
is,"  but  he  expressly  affirms  the  contrary;  viz.,  that  the  "kingdom 
of  God  is  within  you." 

It  may  be  observed  as  a  preliminary  that  to  those  who 
might  wish  merely  to  stop  the  mouths  of  cavilers,  it  would  per- 
haps be  sufficient  to  point  out  that  the  marginal  reading  of  the 
word  "observation"  is  "outward  show,"  and  of  the  words  "within 
you,"  is  "among  you,*"  whence  the  passage  would  signify:  "You 
need  not  expect  the  kingdom  of  God  to  come,  for  it  is  ahready 
among  you;"  which  would  therefore  present  no  conffict  with 
passages  maintaining  the  need  of  an  outward  kingdom.  Such  a 
reply  might  often  be  the  better  way  of  meeting  the  objection, 
especially  when  the  objectors  are  shallow,  bigoted,  and  word- 
bound.  Evasions  of  this  kind  are  justifiable  when  the  object  is  to 
avoid  "casting  pearls  before  swine." 

But  for  purposes  of  real  spiritual  enlightenment,  the  ot^er 
meaning  shoidd  be  maintained;  viz.,  that  "the  kingdom  of  God 
Cometh  not  with  observation —  *  *  *  it  is  within  you."  I  take 
this  ground  for  two  reasons:  1.  Because  it  is  the  meanmg 
which  forms  the  warp  and  woof  of  modem  spiritual  thought;  and 
consequently  if  we  expect  to  make  any  headway  in  correcting  and 
elevating  thought,  we  must  recognize  in  it  what  is  consistent  and 
worthy  of  attention;  and  2.  Because  the  passage  expresses 
a  most  profound  truth;  a  truth  which  it  is  quite  as  essential  to 
keep  in  view  in  these  "last  days"  as  it  was  during  the  "meridian 
of  time." 

Before  taking  up  the  real  meaning  of  these  words,  let  us 
consider  why  it  was  necessary  for  Christ  to  emphasize  to  the 
Jews  the  absolute  necessity  of  an  inward  or  spiritual  kingdom. 

There  are  two  ways  of  influencing  mankind;  an  external  and 
an  internal.  The  first  proceeds  on  the  assumption  that  '^gfat 
makes  right,"  and  moves  men  to  do  or  to  be,  through  fear.  All 
the  unrighteous  and  unstable  kingdoms  of  the  earth  have  be^ 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES,  219 

founded  on  this  principle;  and  it  has  ever  been,  and  ever  will  be, 
the  cause  of  their  unstableness  and  the  occasion  of  their  disinte- 
gration. In  the  realm  of  faith  we  may  count  the  Catholic  and 
Mohammedan  religions  as  having  attained  their  growth  on  this 
principle;  and  therefore,  knowing  the  nature  of  the  seed,  we  may 
as  confidently  predict  the  death  of  the  plant.  The  tendency  to 
act  on  the  principle  that  ''might  makes  right"  is  always  present  in 
the  degree  that  the  Spirit  of  God  is  absent;  and  this  is  true  of 
individuals  as  well  as  of  nations  and  peoples. 

The  idea  had  reached  its  greatest  force  and  widest  applica- 
tion in  the  world  to  which  Christ  was  bom.  Even  God's  chosen 
people  had  not  escaped  its  influence.  The  Jews  could  see  only  one 
way  to  set  up  the  kingdom  of  God.  It  must  come,  when  it  did 
come,  ''with  observation;"  presenting  a  showy  front,  and  accom- 
puiied  with  all  the  regalia  of  pomp  and  power;  a  kingdom  that 
should  trample  all  other  kingdoms  in  the  dust,  and  elevate  these 
holy,  "whited  sepulchres"  to  thrones  and  dominions  over  the  rest 
of  mankind. 

Howsoever  regarded  within  the  little  circle  of  man's  horizon, 
victories  gained  by  external  forces  are  from  their  veiy  inception 
always  miserable  defeats,  from  God's  point  of  view;  for  nothing 
counts  as  an  advance  with  God  save  that  which  brings  us  nearer 
to  his  perfection.  Eternal  life  cannot  be  forced  into  man  from 
without;  it  must  spring  up  from  within.  Each  man's  heart  is  the 
center  of  the  universe.  It  is  the  only  place  where  salvation  can 
begin  for  him.  Internal  forces  are  such  as  stir  up  the  soil  and 
plant  the  seed  of  truth  in  this  center. 

Internal  influences  proceed  by  reversing  the  Roman  maxim, 
just  as  they  reverse  the  Roman  method.  "Right  makes  might," 
and  nothing  else  than  right  can  do  it;  at  least,  the  might  which 
counts  for  eternity.  This  was  the  truth  which  our  Savior  pointed 
out  so  sharply  to  the  Pharisees.  It  is  a  truth  which  needs  to  be 
I>ointed  out  with  equal  force  and  brevity  to  any  organization  in  our 
day,  whether  it  be  political  party,  social  guild,  church  or  state, 
ivhich  depends  upon  mere  external  machinery  for  the  betterment 
of  mankind. 

Whatever  lasting  reforms  come  to  this  earth,  come  primarily 
through  that  blind  door,  the  human  heart,  and  represent  the  silent 


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220  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

impress  upon  humanity  of  the  infinite  spirit  of  order  and  harmony. 
The  noisy  demonstrations  which  immediately  precede  or  accom- 
pany such  reforms,  are  merely  the  crest-play  of  the  tidal  wave; 
let  ns  never  mistake  them  either  for  its  cause  or  the  true  index  of 
its  momentum. 

God  rules  not  as  man  rules.  A  nation  or  a  people  wakes  up 
after  a  night's  sleep,  and  discovers  that  it  has  made  a  change  of 
front.  Let  us  not  be  among  those  who  ascribe  such  a  miracle  to 
the  head-lines  of  newspapers  or  the  mouthings  of  orators.  Let  us 
rather  recognize  that  God's  dominion  is  that  mysterious  '^kingdom 
within  you;"  that  mysterious  center  whence  light  breaks  which  does 
not  come  from  the  sun. 

As  to  the  real  meaning  of  the  expression  ''the  kingdom  of  God 
within  you,"  it  must  be  plain  at  a  glance  that  the  words  are  used 
figuratively.  Technically,  we  have  here  the  figure  of  rhetoric 
called  metonymy,  and  specifically,  it  is  the  kind  in  which  the  effect 
is  named  instead  of  the  cause.  The  kingdom  of  God  is  plainly  an 
organization  having  a  king,  officers,  subjects,  etc.;  and  as  such, 
could  not  literally  be  within  anyone;  but  being  an  organization,  it 
may  be  regarded  as  the  visible  effect  of  dome  unseen  spiritual 
force.  This  force,  whatever  it  be,  is  of  a  nature  to  dwell  in  the 
soul.  It  is  the  principle  of  the  kingdom,  not  the  kingdom,  which 
Christ  declares  is  within  us.  A  little  reflection  will  show  that  no 
man  can  be  in  the  kingdom  of  God  unless  the  principle  of  this 
kingdom  be  first  in  him.  The  kingdom  is  not  therefore  a  matter 
of  outward  show;  it  steals  into  men's  hearts  unseen,  unheard,  bat 
not  unfelt. 

The  passage  fully  paraphrased  might  read  as  follows:  'The 
kingdom  of  God  cometh  not  by  external  conquest.  It  is  not  like 
an  army  of  which  you  might  say,  'Lo  here,'  or  'Lo  there;*  on  the 
contrary,  the  principle  of  cohesion  which  makes  the  kingdom  of 
God  possible,  must  be  bom  (i.  e.  engendered)  in  each  subject. 
There  can  be  no  kingdom  of  God  withtm^  you,  until  there  is  a 
kingdom  of  God  within  you." 

What  then — precisely — does  it  mean  to  have  the  kingdom  of 
God  within  one?  In  other  words,  what  is  the  divine  principle  of 
cohesion  above  referred  to?  No  writer  has  been  able  to  tell 
exactly  what  it  is.'    The  change  involved  in  the  human  soul  is  so 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES.  221 

ethereal  or  transcendental  that  it  defies  the  finest  human  vocabu- 
lary. Christ  felt  the  impossibility  of  conveying  the  idea  in  words, 
when  he  said:  'The  wind  bloweth  where  it  listeth,  and  thou 
hearest  the  sound  thereof,  but  whence  it  cometh,  and  whither  it 
goeth,  no  man  knoweth.    So  is  everyone  that  is  bom  of  the  spirit" 

And  if  Christ  must  resort  to  comparison  to  explain  the  mean- 
ing of  the  'Tdngdom  within  you,"  can  we  expect  better  from  his 
disciples?  "Being  bom  again"  and  "being  bora  of  the  spirit," 
were  favorite  ways  of  naming  this  change.  Paul  speaks  of  it  as 
"putting  off  the  old  and  putting  on  the  new,"  as  "having  Christ 
formed  within  you,"  and  as  "passing  from  death  unto  life;"  all  of 
which  are  graphic  similes.  We  in  our  day,  grown  less  poetical, 
speak  of  the  change  simply  as  "a  testimony  of  the  gospel." 

The  most  comprehensive  word  to  convey  the  meaning  is  per- 
haps faith,  using  the  word  in  the  sense  of  kindling  the  heavenly 
hope  within  us.  Far  or  near  as  these  symbols  may  be  from  the 
thing  symbolized,  no  one  who  has  felt  the  "change  of  heart,"  as 
our  sectarian  friends  put  it,  can  ever  be  mistaken  about  it;  and 
those  who  have  not  felt  it,  cannot  be  made  to  realize  adequately 
what  it  is,  even  were  all  the  metaphors  in  the  language  called  into 
requisition. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  it  is  plain  that  there  can  be  no  kingdom  of 
God  "without,"  until  there  is  first  a  kingdom  of  God  "within."  The 
question  between  us  and  our  sectarian  friends  is:  "Granted  that 
the  kingdom  be  formed  within,  what  will  happen?  Will  the  man 
or  woman  in  whom  this  change  takes  place,  seek  to  form  or  unite 
with  a  kingdom  of  God  that  is  without,  or  will  he  remain  a  silent 
unit,  self -centered  and  self-sufficient?"  That  is,  to  use  the  phrase- 
ology of  our  friends,  will  he  count  it  enough  to  "give  his  heart  to 
Jesus  and  rest  idly  secure  in  the  arms  of  the  blessed  Redeemer?" 
Or  will  he  immediately  seek  to  unite  with  others  who  have  exper- 
ienced the  same  change,  and  endeavor  to  establish  an  outward 
Idngdom? 

This  question  brings  me  fairly  to  the  theme  of  my  next  arti- 
cle which  will  seek  to  demonstrate  the  proposition:  "An  outward 
Idngdom  of  God  necessary  to  salvation." 


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THE  PAST  YEAR. 


It  was  but  yesterday  the  snow 

Of  thy  dead  sire  was  on  the  hill; 

It  was  but  yesterday  the  flow 

Of  thy  spring  showers  increased  the  rill, 

And  made  a  thousand  blossoms  swell 

To  welcome  summer's  festival; 

It  was  but  yesterday  I  saw 

Thy  harvests  wave  their  golden  treasures, 

And  man,  to  Nature's  genial  law 

Responsive,  taste  the  season's  pleasures; 

And  now  all  these  are  of  the  past. 

For  this  lone  hour  must  be  thy  last! 

Thou  must  depart!  where,  none  may  know  — 

The  sun  for  thee  hath  ever  set; 

The  star  of  mom,  the  silver  bow 

No  more  shall  gem  thy  coronet 

And  give  thee  glory;  but  the  sky 

Shall  shine  on  thy  posterity. 

Bright  as  it  ever  shone  on  thee; 

While  as  a  torrent  they  are  pouring 

On  where  forgetfulness  will  be 

In  ambush  couched  for  their  devouring. 

Where  now  it  waits  thy  latest  sand 

From  destiny's  unpitying  hand. 

In  darkness — in  eternal  space. 

Sightless  as  a  sin-quenched  star. 

Thou  shalt  pursue  thy  wandering  race, 

Receding  into  regions  far; 

On  thee  the  eyes  of  mortal  men 

Shall  never,  never  light  again. 

Memory  alone  may  steal  a  glance, 

Like  some  wild  glimpse  in  sleep  we're  taking. 


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TEE  PAST  YEAR.  223 

Of  a  long  perished  countenance 
We  have  forgotten  when  awaking — 
Sad,  evaneecent,  color'd  weak, 
As  beauty  on  a  dying  cheek. 

Whence  flow  the  streams  of  ages?   Where 
Pass  the  perished  things  its  surface  bears — 
The  breathing  life,  the  joy  and  care, 
The  good  and  evil  of  earth's  years? 
And  were  they  made  with  thee  to  die — 
Created — who  can  tell  us  why? — 
As  dewy  flowers  that  bloom  today, 
Hallowing  the  summer  air  with  sweetness, 
Extinguished  ere  tomorrow's  ray, 
Leave  but  memorials  of  death's  fleetness? 
Man  alone  hopes  in  distant  skies 
To  bloom  mid  some  bright  paradise. 

I  once  had  many  pleasant  gleams 
Of  thy  prospective  hours,  and  things 
That  tum'd  out  but  delusive  dreams, 
Fading  beneath  thy  restless  wings; 
And  many  unreckoned  gift  of  thine, 
I  never  thought  could  have  been  mine; 
And  many  joys,  and  many  pains. 
At  this  thy  dying  hour  departed. 
And  hopes  I  dare  not  count  as  gains. 
And  fears  which  made  me  coward-hearted. 
That  soon  must  be  as  they  were  not — 
I,  thou,  and  they,  alike  forgot! 

Farewell!    that  cold  regretful  word 

To  one  whom  we  have  called  a  friend — 

Yet  still  "farewell!"    I  must  record 

The  sign  that  marks  our  friendship's  end, 

Thou'rt  on  thy  couch  of  wither'd  leaves, 

The  surly  blast  thy  breath  receives; 

In  the  stripped  woods,  I  hear  thy  dirge. 

Thy  passing-bell  the  hinds  are  tolling. 

Thy  death-song  sounds  in  ocean's  surge, 

Oblivion's  clouds  are  round  thee  rolling — 

Thou'lt  buried  be  where  buried  lie 

Years  of  the  dead  Eternity!  Anon. 


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GIFTS  OF  THE  GOSPEL* 

BY  JOHN  H.  DAVIS. 


"Follow  after  charity,  and  desire  spiritual  gifts,  but  rather  that  ye 
may  prophesy."—/  Ccr.  14: 1. 

Prom  my  youth  up  I  have  desired  that  the  Lord  would  bless 
me  with  the  gift  of  the  spirit*  of  prophecy.  We  should  cultivate 
the  gifts  of  the  gospel  as  they  are  given  to  us,  and  we  should 
acknowledge  the  hand  of  the  Lord  in  such  at  all  times  and  under 
all  conditions  in  life. 

If  I  am  permitted  I  shall  be  pleased  to  record  here  one  of  my 
own  experiences  in  relation  to  this  grand  gift. 

In  the  year  1869  (spring  time),  in  company  with  my  father 
and  brother,  while  on  our  way  from  Willard,  Box  Elder  County,  to 
Malad,  Idaho,  to  look  up  a  place  of  settlement  where  we  could 
obtain  a  farm,  we  were  camping  over  night  on  that  plat  of  prairie 
just  north  of  Hampton  Bridge.  During  those  days  no  one  would 
ever  think  of  taking  up  such  country  for  cultivation,  as  it  was  in 
a  most  dried  and  hardened  condition,  yet,  during  early  spring,  more 
or  less  grass  would  grow,  and  during  such  growth  the  country 
round  about  appeared  most  beautiful.  In  the  early  morning,  while 
my  brother,  Thomas  A.  Davis  (now  of  Oneida  (bounty,  Idaho),  was 
preparing  our  breakfast,  in  company  with  my  father  I  went  in 
search  of  the  cattle.  Soon  we  found  them,  and  as  we  were  in  no 
hurry  to  return  to  camp  for  a  few  minutes,  we  remained  standing 
together  on  a  little  raise  of  ground ;  and  while  thus  enjoying  the  lovely 
cool  breeze  that  came  down  from  Cache  Valley  through  Bear  River 
Canyon — ^while  thus  viewing  the  surrounding  country — all  at  once  to 


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GIFTS  OF  THE  GOSPEL.  22!q 

me  there  came  a  change  over  the  scene.  I  saw  that  vast  country  all 
dotted  with  hamlets.  Farms  were  squared  off,  as  if  by  surveyed  lines. 
I  saw  it  all  in  an  instant,  and  I  knew  what  it  meant.  I  turned  to 
my  father  and  said:  '1  am  going  to  prophesy,  and  I  want  you  to  be 
-a  witness  to  what  I  now  tell  you.  This  vast  region  of  country  will 
yet  be  taken  up  by  our  people;  homes  will  be  made,  here  and 
there,  all  over  this  land,  and  you  will  live  to  see  that  day.  It  will 
come  to  pass  just  as  I  tell  you,  for  I  have  seen  it." 

"Well,  this  is  a  remarkable  prophecy,"  said  my  father,  "and 
we  will  remember  it." 

I  was  then  in  my  fifteenth  year,  and,  to  the  natural  man,  at 
that  early  day,  in  such  a  dry  country,  such  a  statement  appeared 
very  much  out  of  place.  My  father  passed  away  last  AprU,  in  his 
93rd  year.  My  prediction  has  come  to  pass,  wonderful  as  it  was. 
My  father  lived  to  see  it  fulfilled  to  the  very  letter.* 

lAndseyf  J^erson  County,  Pa. 
Septmber  9,  1898. 


♦Note: — ^Anyone  acquainted  with  the  scene  of  this  prophecy — ^the 
Bear  River  Flats — and  who  can  call  to  mind  how  desolate  it  was  even 
a  very  few  years  ago,  and  will  compare  it  then  with  what  it  is  today — an 
extensive  plain,  dotted  with  growing  villages,  connected  together  by 
extensive  wheat  farms  and  meadows  of  alfalfa — will  be  able  to  recognize 
how  remarkable  this  prophecy  of  a  lad  fifteen  years  of  age  was  away 
back  in  1869,  when  nothing  could  have  been  more  unlikely  than  the  ful- 
fillment of  such  a  prediction. — Editors^ 


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WINTER  THOUGHTS. 

WBITTEN  FOR  THE  ERA. 


The  winds  blow  chill  through  groves  of  sighing  pine^ 
The  clouds  go  driving  swiftly  overhead; 
The  wild  bird's  note  is  hushed;  the  swaying  vine. 
Its  vintage  gathered,  now  hangs  limp  and  dead. 
The  grass  is  brown  and  sear;  the  deep  ravine 
Which  erstwhile  boomed  an  angry,  boiling  flood 
Scarce  boasts  the  tiniest  thread  of  trickling  stream. 
And  nature  shows  her  drear  and  saddened  mood. 

The  year  has  had  its  bud,  its  wealth  of  bloom, 
Its  gracious  fruitage,  and  its  swift  decay — 
What  matter  I  years  and  cycles  onward  roll. 
Today  melts  silently  in  yesterday. 
Today  has  done  its  work.    Tomorrow  comes, 
Her  hand  holds  golden  Opportunity — 
And  underneath  the  snow  the  roots  will  dream 
Of  bud,  and  bloom,  and  fruitage  yet  to  be. 

And  so  with  life.    Bright  promises  of  spring 
Take  themselves  wings — alas  I  and  fly  away. 
Though  hope  and  love  may  follow  close  behind, 
Stem  duty  by  our  side  points  out  the  way. 
Oh,  Angel  of  the  gifts,  from  memory  take 
The  rankling  bitterness  of  vain  regret — 
Of  unavailing  tears — the  biting  frosts 
Of  desolation  help  us  to  forget; 

And  spread  the  mantle,  pure  and  white  as  snow 

Of  Charity  to  cover  life's  mistakes. 

And  let  the  root  of  Truth  and  Faith  still  grow 

And  promises  of  bloom  and  fruitage  make. 

So  underneath  the  load  of  grief  and  care 

The  years  have  brought,  we  seek  the  Source  of  Truth; 

And  know  that  God  holds  for  us  in  his  hand 

That  best  of  all  the  gifts,  perennial  youth. 

Sarah  E.  Peabson. 


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EDITOR^S  TABLE* 


UPE-INPLUBNCING  MAXIMS. 


Our  readers  perbape  will  remember  that  we  promised  in  our 
Prospectus  to  publish  a  symposium  xmder  the  title  ''Life-Influenc- 
inii^  Maxims.'^  It  is  expected,  of  course,  that  these  will  be  con- 
tributed by  the  i^cers  and  members  of  the  associations,  or  any 
otiiers  of  our  readers  who  may  feel  disposed  to  contribute  to  the 
Bympoeivan. 

In  Volume  I  we  published  a  "Symposium  of  Best'  Thoughts.'^ 
The  length  of  the  contributions  under  that  title  was  limited  to  one 
hundred  words.  We  are  desirous  that  this  second  symposium 
should  partake  very  much  of  the  same  nature,  and  we  hope  there 
will  be  a  general  response  to  this  invitation.  We  appeal  to  the 
officers  of  the  associations  and  ask  them  to  encourage  the  young 
men  to  write  the  Bra,  telling  us  what  text  of  scripture,  what  poem, 
or  what  maxim  of  philosophy  it  is  that  had  a  deciding  influence  upon 
tiieir  life,  morally  or  spiritually. 

It  may  not  be  possible  always  to  confine  the  responses  to  this 
invitation  to  one  hundred  words,  because  a  poem,  or  passage  of 
scripture,  oft  maxim  of  philosophy  may  itself  exceed  the  one  hundred 
words,  but  as  far  as  may  be  we  desire  to  see  the  contributions  kept 
within  the  limit  named  above. 

We  take  occasion  to  remind  our  readers,  as  stated  in  our 
prospectus,  that  some  one  has  said  that  "the  world  is  governed  by 
ptettes;''  and  so,  too,  are  many  lives:  that  is,  at  some  particular 
crisis  of  a  young  man's  life,  a  text  of  scripture,  a  passage  from  the 


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228  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

poets,  a  maxim  from  the  philosophers,  or  a  word  from  a  friend, 
strikes  upon  his  ear  and  becomes  well-nigh  the  voice  of  God  withm 
his  sonl,  and  marks,  perhaps,  the  turning  point  in  his  life. 

It  is  the  collection  of  such  maxims  that  have  influenced  the 
lives  of  our  young  men  which  we  desire  to  collect;  and  in  order  that 
we  may  illustrate  more  perfectly  what  we  mean  we  call  attention 
to  the  passage  of  scripture  that  had  such  a  marked  influence  upon 
the  life  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith.  It  will  be  remembered  what 
mental  struggles  he  endured  in  his  early  youth  while  contemplating 
the  divided  state  of  Christendom,  and  the  confusion  of  human 
creeds  which  then  as  now  very  generally  abounded.  In  the  midst 
of  his  mental  distress  and  spiritual  anxiety  he  came  upon  the  pas- 
sage recorded  in  the  Epistle  of  James,  the  first  chapter  and  fifth 
verse,  which  reads:  ''If  any  of  you  lack  wisdom,  let  him  ask  of 
God,  that  giveth  to  all  men  liberally  and  upbraideth  not;  and  it 
shall  be  given  him."  "  Never,"  said  he,  in  speaking  of  this  early 
experience  in  later  years — "Never  did  any  passage  of  scripture 
come  with  more  power  to  the  heart  of  any  man  than  this  did  to 
mine.  It  seemed  to  enter  with  great  force  into  every  feeling  of 
my  heart  I  reflected  on  it  again  and  again,  knowing  that  if  any 
person  needed  wisdom  from  God  I  did;  for  how  to  act  I  did  not 
know,  and  unless  I  could  get  more  wisdom  from  God  than  I  than 
had,  would  never  know;  for  the  teachers  of  religion  of  the  differ- 
ent sects  understood  the  same  passage  so  differently  as  to  destroy 
all  confidence  in  settling  the  question  by  an  appeal  to  the  Bible. 
At  length  I  came  to  the  conclusion  that  I  must  either  remain  in 
darkness  and  confusion,  or  else  I  must  do  as  James  directs,  that  is, 
ask  of  God." 

We  now  all  know  the  result.  He  enquired  of  the  Liord  and 
received  such  an  answer  as  resulted  in  the  establishment  of  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  on  the  earth;  began,  in  fact^  that  marvel- 
ous religious  revolution  which  will  not  be  completed  until  the  King- 
dom of  God  shall  come  and  his  will  be  done  on  earth  as  it  is  in 
heaven. 

This  is  what  we  mean  by  life-influencing  passages  from  the 
scriptures,  poets,  or  phQosophers — something  that  changed  the 
course  of  events  in  the  person's  life;  that  brought  him  from  dark- 
ness into  the  light;  that  gave  a  soul  to  God;  and  we  most  earnestly 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  229 

ask  that  our  young  men  will  aid  in  making  sach  a  valuable  col- 
lection. 


ACTS  OF  SPECIAL  PROVIDENCE  IN  MISSIONARY 
EXPERIENCE. 


We  promised  in  our  prospectus  a  collection  of  incidents 
wherein  the  special  providence  of  God  had  been  manifested  in  the 
experiences  of  our  Elders  engaged  in  the  ministry.  We  desire  to 
call  the  attention  of  our  readers  as  well  as  the  officers  of  the  asso- 
ciations to  the  fact  that  we  are  dependent  upon  the  Elders  who 
have  had  experience  in  missionary  labors  for  this  collection.  We 
therefore  extend  an  invitation  to  all  such  Elders  to  write  us  one 
or  more,  or  half  a  dozen  for  that  matter,  of  such  experiences;  that 
is,  incidents  which  have  come  within  their  own  observation  wherein 
the  special  providence  of  God  has  been  manifested  in  their  own 
preservation,  or  which  contributed  to  the  special  success  of  their 
missions.  We  know  that  the  experiences  of  our  Elders  are  replete 
with  circumstances  of  this  character,  and  it  will  make  the  pages 
of  the  Era  faith-promoting  if  such  accounts  are  published.  We 
desire  that  these  experiences  shall  be  those  of  recent  years,  in 
order  that  we  may  keep  before  the  minds  of  our  youth  the  fact 
that  the  power  of  God  is  as  active  today  as  in  former  years; 
and  that  now,  as  then,  God  confirms  the  authority  and  ministry 
of  his  servants  by  signs  following  them  that  believe. 

We  trust  our  brethren  will  not  fail  to  forward  us  their  con- 
tributions for  this  collection  of  incidents.  This  kind  of  narrative 
is  the  simplest  form  of  composition,  and  we  hope  that  our  Elders 
will  very  generally  respond  to  the  invitation  to  contribute  their 
experiences  to  this  series  of  articles.  Especial  pains  should  be 
taken  to  be  explicit  as  to  the  time  and  place  of  the  incident,  and 
the  names  of  other  parties  involved  in  the  circumstance  should 
be  carefully  given.  Do  not  scrimp  the  story,  tell  it  in  full,  but 
expect  us  to  exercise  the  privilege  of  editing  the  matter  freely. 


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230  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

especially  in  the  way  of  condensing  by  the  elimination  of  phrases 
or  statements  not  necessary  to  the  development  of  the  main  inci- 
dent of  the  circumstance  related. 

We  ask  the  officers  of  associations  everywhere  to  interest 
themselves  in  this  matter,  and  call  the  attention  of  returned  mis- 
sionaries in  their  respective  localities  to  this  opportunity  of  making 
known  the  goodness  and  power  of  God  within  their  experience, 
and  thus  assist  in  promoting  faith  in  the  minds  of  our  youth. 

We  particularly  invite  the  brethren  now  upon  missions  in  all 
parts  of  the  world  to  contribute  to  this  series  of  articles. 


MODEIRN  VALUE  OP  THE  BIBLE. 


By  a  great  many  people  the  Bible  is  supposed  to  be  a 
book  of  very  little  interest  to  the  people  of  modem  days  except 
as  being  in  the  minds  of  Christians  something  of  a  guide  in  mat- 
ters of  faith  and  morals.  To  think  of  looking  through  its  pages 
with  a  view  to  ascertaining  anything  of  value  on  such  subjects  as 
sanitation  or  hygiene  would  doubtless  be  considered  altogether 
out  of  order.  Nevertheless  it  will  be  found  that  divine  wisdom, 
operating  through  inspired  men,  provided  regulations  which,  if  but 
adhered  to,  would  have  saved  our  race  from  very  much  of  evil,  and 
are  worthy  of  consideration  even  in  these  modem  days. 

A  friend  of  the  Era's,  one  who  has  contributed  to  our  pages, 
and  who  is  one  of  those  delightful  people  sufficiently  old-fashioned 
to  have  a  profound  respect  amounting  to  veneration  for  the  Bible, 
sent  us,  a  few  days  ago,  the  following  excerpt  which  he  clipped 
from  the  Youths  Companion,  Accompanying  it  was  a  note  in 
which  our  friend  said,  ''the  enclosed  slip  seems  to  be  worthy  of  a 
place  in  the  Era."    And  as  we  are  of  the  same  opinion,  here  it  is: 

The  Asiatic  Quarterly  Review  lately  contained  a  collection  of  facts 
to  prove  its  contention  that  the  sanitary  laws  of  Moses  were  not  only 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  231 

on  a  line  with  the  modern  rules  of  hygiene,  bnt  in  some  cases  in  advance 
of  them. 

The  Jew,  thousands  of  years  before  Christ,  settling  in  a  semi-  . 
tropical  country,  was  forbidden  to  eat  pork  or  shell-fish,  and  milk  was 
designated  as  a  source  of  contagion.    In  the  Talmud  a  method  of  slaugh- 
tering animals  was  prescribed  which  is  acknowledged  today  in  our  markets 
as  the  most  sanitary. 

Five  thousand  years  before  Doctor  Koch  gave  to  the  world  the 
results  of  his  researches  in  bacteriology,  the  Mosiac  law  pointed  out  the 
danger  to  man  from  tuberculosis  in  cattle,  but  did  not  forbid  infected 
poultry  as  food.  It  was  only  a  few  years  ago  that  German  specialists 
discovered  that  fowl  tuberculosis  was  harmless  to  man. 

The  Mosaic  law  also  enforced  the  isolation  of  patients  with  contag- 
ious diseases,  and  the  burial  of  the  dead  outside  of  all  cities.  These 
hints  the  slow  Gentile  world  did  not  fully  accept  until  a  century  or 
two  ago. 

The  wise  law-giver  prescribed  not  only  fasting  at  certain  periods 
of  the  year,  but  the  removal  of  whole  families  in  summer  out  to  camps, 
where  for  a  time  they  could  live  close  to  nature  and  to  God,  and  rejoice 
in  both  with  innocent  merrymaking.  Many  of  the  laws  of  Moses,  like 
this  one,  the  Asiatic  Quarterly  urges,  were  prescriptions  intended  for  the 
health  of  both  soul  and  body. 

Now  that  some  of  our  young  people  profess  to  regard  the  Old  Testa- 
ment as  a  book  whose  mission  is  fulfilled,  a  careful  study  of  it  might 
cause  them  to  change  their  opinion.  Apart  from  its  moral  teachings, 
its  physical  rules,  if  obeyed,  would  lessen  the  prevalence  of  some  of  the 
diseases  among  us,  especially  those  which  result  from  exhausted  nervous 
systems. 


The  beet  teacher  of  duties  that  are  dim  to  us  is  the  practice  of  those 
we  see  and  have  at  hand. 

The  chief  ^secret  of  success  is!inothing!more  than  doing  what  you  can 
do  well,  without  thought  oi  fame.  If  fame  comes  at  all,  it  will  come 
because  it  is  deserved,  not  because  it  is  sought  after. 

Nothing  is  gained  by  depreciating  the  difficulties  of  any  undertaking. 
To  look  them  in  the  face  courageously,  and  to  estimate  them  fairly,  will 
^^erally  enable  us  to  overcome  them;  while,  if  they  are  hidden  or 
ignored,  they  will,  all  unconsciously  to  ourselves,  bar  the  way  to  success. 


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OUR  WORK. 


GET  MORE  MANUALS. 


Some  of  our  M.  I.  A.  missionaries  report  that  in  conducting  the 
conrse  of  study  provided  for  in  the  M.  I.  A.  manual  for  18d8  there  is  a 
wonderful  dearth  of  manuals.  Many  of  the  members  of  the  associations 
have  failed  to  supply  themselves  with  this  necessary  text  book  for  our 
work  this  year;  for  instance,  it  is  said  that  in  some  cases  in  an  enrolled 
membership  of  sixty  or  seventy  members,  and  an  attendance  of  thirty 
or  forty  or  fifty,  there  will  perhaps  be  only  a  dozen,  or  even  less  than  a 
dozen,  members  who  have  manuals !  That  is  a  deplorable,  not  to  say 
ridiculous,  condition.  Men  cannot  work  without  tools,  and  members  of 
the  associations  cannot  perform  the  work  outlined  by  the  General  Board 
for  the  associations  this  year  without  the  manual.  And  when  it  is 
remembered  that  the  price  of  that  text  book  is  but  twenty-five  cents,  it 
is  rather  a  reproach  to  our  young  men  when  they  fail  to  supply  them- 
selves with  it.  The  officers  of  the  associations  should  take  up  this  mat- 
ter and  urge  our  young  men  not  only  to  purchase  the  manual  but  to 
study  it.  The  price  is  within  the  reach  of  all  and  there  is  no  reason  why 
every  member  of  the  associations  should  not  furnish  himself  with  this 
necessary  text  book. 

To  facilitate  the  matter  of  getting  the  manuals  into  the  hands  of 
the  members,  we  remind  the  presidents  and  other  officers  of  the  fact  that 
we  are  willing  to  send  them  any  number  of  manuals  that  they  think 
their  association  will  purchase,  but  said  officers  must  become  responsible 
for  the  payment  of  the  same.  A  large  edition  was  published  and  we 
shall  be  able  to  supply  orders  promptly  from  the  Era  office. 


THE  USE  OP  MISSIONARY  ERAS. 


A  number  of  requests  have  come  to  the  Era  office  from  our  mis- 
sionary Elders  abroad,  asking  that  copies  of  the  Era  published  prior  to 


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OUR  WORK.  233 

their  being  called  to  their  fields  of  labor,  be  sent  them;  and  at  the  same 
time  they  express  as  the  reason  for  this  request  that  they  desire  to  make 
up  the  complete  number  in  the  volume  in  order  to  have  it  bound.  This 
clearly  indicates  that  some  of  our  missionary  brethren  do  not  under- 
stand the  purpose  for  which  the  Era  is  sent  to  them  free. 

First  of  all  the  purpose  in  sending  it  to  them  is  that  they  may  be 
able  to  keep  in  touch  with  the  spirit  of  the  work  of  Mutual  Improvement 
going  on  at  home;  and  second  that  they  may  have  a  magazine  which 
represents  the  trend  of  thought  among  the  young  people  of  the  Church, 
to  circulate  among  the  people  where  they  are  traveling,  that  it  may  aid 
the  missionary  in  his  work  of  dispelling  prejudice,  and  be  the  means  of 
both  advocating  and  defending  the  gospel.  It  was  not  thought  that  the 
Elders  receiving  these  numbers  should  put  them  away  carefully  for  bind- 
ing, but  that  they  would  usa  them  freely  in  loaning  them  in  the  neigh- 
borhood where  they  travel.  The  Elders,  on  their  return  home,  will  find 
abundance  of  opportunity  to  secure  the  complete  volumes  of  the  Era,  as 
in  publishing  our  magazine  we  have  made  ample  provisions  for  supplying 
complete  volumes  and  even  separate  numbers.  So  we  ask  our  brethren 
to  take  no  thought  about  saving  their  magazines  for  binding,  but  use 
them  as  missionaries  for  the  spread  of  the  gospel.  Freely  ye  have 
received,  as  freely  give;  and  use  our  magazine  as  a  herald  of  the  Faith 
as  far  as  it  is  possible  to  do  so. 


MEMBERSfflP  PERMANENT. 


We  have  several  times  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  it  was  the 
decision  of  the  last  annual  conference  that  membership  in  the  associa- 
tion should  be  considered  permanent; — by  which  we  mean  that  once  a 
member  of  the  association,  always  a  member  of  the  association,  unless 
a  member  should  commit  some  act  by  which  it  would  be  necessary  for 
the  association  to  withdraw  its  fellowship  from  him.  Yet  notwithstand- 
ing this  action  of  the  General  Conference,  a  record  of  which  will  be 
found  in  the  August  number  of  the  Era,  we  receive  word  occasionally 
to  the  effect  that  some  associations  refuse  to  adopt  in  their  practice  this 
regulation.  Of  course  we  come  to  the  conclusion  that  it  must  be  because 
such  associations  have  not  yet  learned  of  the  action  of  the  General  Con- 
ference; for  certainly  no  president  or  other  officer  would  be  guilty  of  a 
direct  refusal  to  comply  with  a  decision  arrived  at  by  the  action  of  the 


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234  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

annnal  conference  of  the  associations.  In  order  therefore  that  all  maj 
be  informed  we  once  more  allude  to  this  matter,  and  publish  herewith  the 
record  of  the  action  taken  by  the  conference: 

**  On  motion  of  Elder  Fred  Beesley  it  was  decided  that  the  names 
of  all  parties  enrolled  should  be  continued  on  the  roll,  until  removed  by 
proper  action  of  the  associations  for  cause. 

''Apdstle  F.  M.  Lyman  said  the  rolls  should  be  kept  as  they  are  and 
never  diminished,  unless  some  good  reason  could  be  shown,  and  then  the 
matter  should  be  disposed  of  in  a  regular  way  and  by  the  action  of  the 
association,  and  a  record  of  the  action  kept.  Our  business  is  to  look 
after  those  who  are  enrolled." 

This  action  received  the  unanimous  support  of  the  officers  of  the 
associations  in  conference.  It  must  therefore  be  the  settled  policy  of 
the  associations,  and  we  ask  them  to  conform  to  it.  Let  the  enrollment 
of  membership  be  kept  permanently;  and  if  any  who  have  become  mem- 
bers of  the  associations  become  indifferent  to  the  work,  the  fact  that 
their  names  are  enrolled  and  that  they  are  accounted  members  of  the 
association  gives  the  officers  the  right  to  call  upon  them  and  labor  with 
them  to  awaken  an  interest  in  them  for  the  work  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment. It  may  be  true  that  we  shall  not  always  be  able  to  get  all  the 
enrolled  membership  into  active  co-operation  with  us,  but  we  shall  get 
more  of  our  young  men  into  active  work  by  retaining  their  names  on 
the  rolls  and  working  with  them  from  time  to  time,  as  above  described, 
than  if  we  failed  to  regard  the  membership  as  permanent. 

One  of  the  disadvantages  under  which  Improvement  Associations 
have  had  to  operate  has  been  the  notion  that  has  obtained  in  some  quar- 
ters, that  the  society  is  dissolved  with  the  adjournment  in  the  early 
spring,  and  that  it  has  no  existence  until  reorganized  in  the  fall  or  early 
winter.  We  desire  that  this  impression  should  be  obliterated.  Our 
associations  are  permanent  institutions,  and  the  discontinuance  of  meet- 
ings in  the  spring  is  but  an  adjournment  of  the  association  which  still 
continues  its  existence.  If  this  latter  idea  prevails  it  will  increase  the 
prestige  of  our  organization  and  do  away  with  very  much  of  the  diffi- 
culty connected  with  our  work.  It  is  asked,  however,  if  the  entire 
enrollment  of  membership  shall  be  called  at  every  meeting;  and  it  is 
urged  as  an  objection  that  so  many  are  away  from  their  homes  or  absent 
through  indifference  that  the  roll  call  of  the  entire  membership  becomes 
burdensome,  especially  when  so  many  are  not  present  to  answer.  So 
far  as  that  is  concerned,  the  associations  can  make  their  own  arrange- 
ments. A  temporary  roll  for  use  in  the  meetings  could  be  drawn  up  by 
the  secretary  if  thought  desirable;  and  that  temporary  roll  be  increased, 
of  course,  as  members  come  in;  but  in  addition  to  that,  the  regular  enroll- 


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OUR   WORK.  235 

ment  of  members  should  be  carefully  preserved,  and  the  officers  should 
see  to  it  that  no  young  man  is  lost  sight  of.  If  some  become  indifferent 
to  the  work  a  labor  should  be  taken  up  with  them  and  the  very  best 
effort  made  to  draw  them  into  active  membership  and  association  work. 
In  the  case  of  not  succeeding  the  first  time  then  another  effort  and  still 
another  one  should  be  made  until  success  is  obtained. 

We  call  our  missionaries'  attention  to  this  matter  and  ask  them 
wherever  they  find  associations  who  are  not  carrying  out  the  expressed 
wish  of  the  last  General  Conference  in  this  particular,  that  they  take  up 
a  labor  with  the  association  officers  and  insist  that  the  policy  of  consid- 
ering membership  in  the  society  as  permanent  be  adopted. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTR 

BY  THOMAS  HULL^  SECRETARY  OF  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF  Y.  IL  IL  I.  A. 


November  21st,  1898:  Governor  Wells  appoints  Richard  W.  Young 
to  be  major  of  the  First  Battalion  of  light  artillery  volunteers,  and  pro- 
motes E.  A.  Wedgwood  to  be  captain  of  Battery  A,  John  F.  Critchlow  to  be 
first  lieutenant  of  Battery  B,  and  George  A.  Seaman  to  be  second  lieu- 
tenant of  Battery  B.  Major  Young's  commission  will  bear  date  of  July 
12th  by  authority  of  the  war  department.  ♦  ♦  ♦  xhe  American 
peace  commission  presents  an  ultimatum  to  the  Spanish  commission,  offer- 
ing $20,000,000  for  the  Philippines.    Spain  is  given  one  week  to  answer. 

23rd:  By  an  explosion  of  a  powder  mill  at  Lamotte,  Missouri,  six 
men  are  killed  and  several  wounded.  *  *  *  A  fire  which  started  in 
the  east  end  of  the  building  totally  destroyed  the  Baldwin  Hotel  and 
theatre  at  San  Francisco.  *  *  *  General  Blanco  resigns  as  captain- 
general  of  Cuba  and  his  resignation  is  accepted  by  the  Spanish  govern- 
ment. 

24th:  At  the  Thanksgiving  banquet  in  London,  England,  all  the 
speeches  were  expressive  of  British  friendship  for  the  United  States  and 
referred  to  an  Anglo-American  alliance. 

26th:  Ex-Queen  Liliuokalani  visits  Salt  Lake  City.  ♦  ♦  ♦  The  new 
battleship  ''Wisconsin"  was  successfully  launched  at  the  Union  Iron  Works^ 
San  Francisco,  this  morning. 

27th:  Charles  W.  Couldock,  the  venerable  actor,  once  so  well  known 
in  Utah,  dies  in  New  York  City.  *  ♦  *  A  severe  storm  rages  on  the 
eastern  coast  and  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey  and  New  Eng- 
land are  snowbound.  Many  lives  are  lost.  The  steamer  Portland  from 
Boston  is  wrecked  off  High  Head,  Massachusetts,  and  over  one  hundred 
lives  are  lost.  *  *  *  Spain  decides  to  accept  the  American  offer  of 
$20,000,000  for  the  Philippines. 

30th:  The  sixth  annual  convention  of  the  Municipal  League  op^is 
in  Indianapolis,  Indiana. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH.  237 

December  let:  Mrs.  Sarah  M.  Kimball,  for  many  years  prominently 
<^onnected  with  the  Relief  Societies  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of 
Latter-day  Saints,  dies  at  her  home  in  Salt  Lake  City.  ♦  ♦  ♦  The 
^^rand  jury  at  Carlinville,  Illinois,  reports  an  indictment  against  Governor 
John  R.  Tanner,  of  Illinois,  for  "palpable  evasion  of  duty  and  malfeasance 
in  office,"  in  connection  with  the  coal  miners'  strike  at  Virden,  Illinois. 

4th:  A  great  block  of  buildings  is  destroyed  by  fire  in  New  York. 
The  loss  is  over  $1,000,000.  ♦  ♦  ♦  A  violent  storm  sweeps  over  the 
Middle  and  Central-Eastern  States  and  great  damage  results. 

5th:  The  closing  session  of  the  fifty-fifth  Congress  opens  and  the 
President's  message  is  presented.  The  message  in  opening  refers  to  the 
prosperity  of  the  country,  the  immense  volume  of  business,  the  increased 
treasury  receipts,  the  advanced  credit  of  the  nation  and  the  maintenance 
of  its  currency  at  what  is  termed  "the  world's  highest  standard."  The 
President  then  proceeds  to  the  discussion  of  the  following  subjects: 

The  Spanish  War — ^Reviewing,  at  great  length,  the  events  leading  up 
to  it  and  the  course  of  the  struggle,  praising  the  army  and  navy  and  the 
work  of  the  Red  Cross  Society,  and  recounting  the  various  steps  in  the 
peace  negotiations. 

Agreement  as  to  CaMe  Messages — Expressing  his  sense  of  the  fitness  of 
an  international  agreement  whereby  the  interchange  of  messages  may  be 
regulated  on  a  fair  basis  of  uniformity. 

International  Expositums — Expressing  approval  of  the  proposition 
for  a  standing  appropriation  for  the  acceptance  of  invitations  to  the 
United  States  to  participate  in  such  expositions. 

The  Nicaraguan  Canal — Calling  attention  to  the  urgency  of  definite 
action  by  Congress  at  this  session  and  the  indispensability  of  the  con- 
struction of  this  maritime  highway. 

Events  in  China — ^Reviewing  the  course  of  recent  events  there,  urg- 
ing the  consideration  by  Congress  of  the  recommendation  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury,  made  to  the  House  of  Representatives  on  the  14th  of 
last  June,  for  an  appropriation  for  a  commission  to  study  the  commercial 
and  industrial  conditions  of  the  Chinese  Empire  and  report  as  to  the 
opportunities  for,  and  obstacles  to,  the  enlargement  of  markets  in  China 
for  the  products  of  the  United  States;  and  informing  Congress  that 
ample  precautions  had  been  taken  for  the  protection  of  the  rights  of 
American  citizens  in  China. 

The  Parisian  Exposition — Expressing  the  belief  that  the  report  of 
the  American  Director-General  will  call  for  an  increase  of  the  appropria- 
tion to  at  least  $1,000,000  and  urging  that  it  is  our  province  to  lead  in 


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288  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  inarch  of  human  progress  and  not  rest  content  with  any  secondary 
place. 

Our  Rdatvmi  with  Great  Britain — Referring  to  the  tact  and  leal 
with  which  the  task  of  protecting  Americans  and  their  interests  in  Span- 
ish jurisdiction  was  performed  by  diplomatic  and  consular  representa- 
tives of  Great  Britain. 

Territery  qf  Hawaii — ^Reporting  the  action  taken  in  regard  thereto 
after  the  passage  of  the  resolution  of  Ck)ngress  providing  for  the  annex- 
ation. 

Russian  Rdations — ^Reporting  that  the  Russian  mission  in  this 
country  and  the  American  mission  in  Russia  had  been  raised  to  the  rmk 
of  Embassies;  referring  to  the  invitation  of  the  Czar  to  this  nation  to 
send  representatives  to  an  international  conference  to  consider  a  general 
reduction  of  the  vast  military  establishments  of  the  nations  in  time  of 
peace,  and  stating  that  the  Czar  had  been  informed  of  the  sympathy  of 
this  government  with  the  principle  involved  in  his  proposal. 

Private  Property  at  Sea — Suggesting  that  the  Executive  be  author- 
ized to  correspond  with  the  governments  of  principal  maritime  powers, 
with  a  view  of  incorporating  into  the  permanent  law  of  civilized  nations 
the  principle  of  the  exemption  of  all  private  property  -at  sea,  not  con- 
traband of  war,  from  capture  or  destruction  by  belligerent  powers. 

The  Treasury  Bureau — Reviewing  the  condition  of  the  finances  of 
the  United  States,  urging  the  importance  of  legislation  for  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  present  monetary  standard  and  recommending  the  forma- 
tion of  a  gold  trust  fund  from  which  greenbacks  should  be  redeemed 
upon  presentation,  but  when  once  redeemed,  should  not  thereafter  be 
paid  out  except  for  gold. 

The  Army  and  Navy — Recommending  that  authority  be  given  the 
President  to  increase  the  army  to  100,000  men;  and  approving  the 
recommendations  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  that  the  navy  be  increased 
by  the  construction  of  fifteen  new  vessels  of  various  classes.  The  mes- 
sage also  recommended  that  the  grades  of  Admiral  and  Vice-Admiral  be 
temporarily  revived. 

The  President  recommends  an  appropriation  and  appointment  of  a 
joint  congressional  committee  for  the  celebration  of  the  centennial 
anniversary  of  the  founding  of  Washington  for  the  permanent  capital 
of  the  United  States,  and  concludes  his  message  as  follows: 

'The  alien  contract  law  is  shown  by  experience  to  need  some  amend- 
ment; a  measure  providing  better  protection  for  seamen  is  proposed;  the 
rightful  application  of  the  eight-hour  law  for  the  benefit  of  labor  and 
of  the  principles  of  arbitration,  are  suggested  for  consideration,  and  I 
commend  these  subjects  to  the  careful  consideration  of  the  Congress. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH.  239 

Under  the  same  date  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  Gage,  submits 
his  estimates  of  expenditures  for  the  fiscal  year,  ending  June  30th,  1899, 
which  call  for  $593,048,378. 

8th:    Central  Utah  is  visited  by  a  severe  east  wind. 

10th:  The  ^eaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  and  Spain  is 
signed  at  8:45  p.  m.  *  *  *  Ck)lonel  Willard  Young  raises  the  Ameri- 
can flag  over  the  city  hall  of  Marianao,  Cuba. 

11th:  General  Calizto  Garcia,  the  Cuban  patriot,  dies  of  pneumonia, 
at  Washington,  D.  C. 

13th:  President  McKinley  and  party  leave  Washington  to  attend 
the  peace  jubilee  at  Atlanta,  Georgia.  *  *  *  The  funeral  of  General 
Garcia  occurs  at  Washington,  D.  C.  *  *  *  Four  war  ships  are 
ordered  to  Havana. 

14th:  President  McKinley  arrives  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  and  is  given 
an  enthusiastic  welcome. 

15th:  President  Lorenzo  Snow  issues  an  announcement  stating  the 
decision  of  the  authorities  of  the  Church  to  issue  $500,000  worth  of  bonds, 
and  suggesting  that  residents  of  Utah  should  purchase  them.  *  *  * 
The  house  of  representatives  passes  the  pension  bill  in  twenty  minutes, 
surpassing  all  previous  records  in  the  short  time  and  lack  of  debate. 
*  *  *  Senator  Calvin  S.  Brice,  former  United  States  Senator  from 
Ohio,  dies  of  pneumonia,  in  New  York  City. 

16th:  Five  regiments  of  regular  infantry  are  ordered  to  prepare 
for  service  in  the  Philippines. 

17th:  Major-General  Wesley  Merritt,  the  late  commander  of  the 
United  States  military  forces  in  the  Philippines,  arrives  in  New  York, 
from  Paris. 


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^ 


SEE  THE  MIGHTY  ANGEL  FLYING. 

[Qtiartctte.]* 

Arranged  by  Evan  Stephens. 

K      K         


-M-Hfirr^ 


-#-T- 


^ 


-4- 


i 


m= 


1.  See!      the    mighty   an  -  gel    fly 

2.  Hear,      0    hear,  the  pro  -  cla  -  ma 

ii — t— i — b I- 


ing,      See,      he 
tion!  Cease   from 

— I 


^ 


r¥=t 


icz: 


I 


Li 


speeds  his  way    to  earth, 
van  -  i   -  ty    and  strife, 


To    proclaim    the  blessed 
Hasten     to     receive    the 


torH=^=^^ 


rn    * '    ■ . 


i       U= 


^4-^^-j-H^^ 


1^ 


gos       -        pel;    And      restore       the         an  -  cient 
gos       -        pel,    And      o|-  bey      the       words       of 


E^ 


^^ 


faith.     And  restore, 
life.      And  o-bey. 


and  restore  the  an  -  cient  faith, 
and    o-bey    the  words  of      life. 


*The  words  of  the  aong  are  from  the  I«atter-<lay  Saints'  Hsnnn  Book,  page  114,  and 
were  written  by  R.  B.  Thompson.  The  music  and  arrangement  is  by  Evan  Stephens, 
jind  was  composed  and  presented  by  Brother  Stephens  to  his  friend  Elder  George  D. 
Pyper  when  the  latter  started  on  his  mission  through  the  Kastem  cities  of  the  United 
states,  in  1896. 


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IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 


Vol.  n,  FEBRUARY,  1899.  No.  4. 


THE  MORMON  CHURCH 

BY    ELDER    FRANKLIN    D.  RICHARDS,   PRESIDENT    OF    THE  TWELVE 
APOSTLES,  AND  CHURCH  HISTORIAN. 


EDITORIAL    NOTE. 

It  most  always  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  Era  is  a  missionary  as 
well  as  a  home  magazine.  This  year  as  last  it  is  being  sent  free  to  all  oar 
missionaries  in  all  the  world.  This  means  that  sixteen  hundred  copies 
of  the  Era  are  sent  to  the  varions  nations  of  the  earth,  there  to  repre- 
sent the  doctrines  of  the  Church.  It  is  therefore  important  that,  as  far 
as  may  be,  said  doctrine  should  be  officially  stated,  that  those  who  read 
may  be  assured  that  the  presentation  of  the  faith  is  reliable.  It  is  this 
consideration,  as  well  as  the  merits  of  the  paper  itself,  which  will  make 
the  following  article  on  'The  Mormon  Church,"  by  Elder  Franklin  D. 
Richards,  particularly  valuable  to  our  missionaries,  abroad,  and  all  those 
who  are  investigating  the  doctrines  of  the  Church.  Elder  Richards  is 
the  President  of  the  Quorum  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  as  well  as  Church 
Historian,  and  therefore  competent  to  speak  with  authority  indeed  upon 
the  history  and  doctrine  of  the  Church. 

The  circumstances  under  which  this  article  was  prepared  are, 
briefly,  these:    The  World's  Parliament  of  Religions,  held  in  Chicago 


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242  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

during  the  World's  Columbian  Exposition,  1893,  gave  rise  to  what  is 
known  as  "The  University  Association,"  devoted  to  UnivOTsity  and 
World's  Congress  Extension.  The  institution  designed  a  first  year's 
course  of  study  in  Universal  History;  a  second  year's  course  in  Universal 
Literature;  a  third  year's  course  in  Comparative  Religion,  which  includes 
in  the  text-book  of  the  course,  a  monthly  magazine  called  ProgrtMi, 
an  account  of  each  particular  faith  by  a  competent  and  eminent  repre- 
sentative. "Only  those  with  a  long  experience,  firm  belief  and  ardent 
love  for  a  system  can  adequately  state  its  nature  and  merits,"  says  the 
gentleman  in  charge  of  this  institution,  a  sentiment  with  which  all  will 
agree.  Accordingly  Professor  Edmund  Buckley,  Ph.  D.,  Decent  of  Com- 
parative Religion,  of  the  University  of  Chicago,  opened  the  followin|[ 
correspondence  with  Elder  Richards,  by  whose  courtesy  we  are  permitted 
to  publish  it:] 

Chicago,  U.  S.  A.,  April  19, 1897. 
Mr.  F.  D.  Richards, 

HuUniarCs  Qgiee,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah, 
My  Dear  Sir: — I  take  pleasure  in  requesting  your  co-operation  in 
the  plan  outlined  in  enclosed  announcement.*  In  the  execution  of  this 
plan  we  must  of  course  give  an  account  of  every  Christian  Church  or 
Society  in  America,  and  we  feel  sure  that  you  will  prefer  that  such 
account  of  your  own  church  should  be  written  by  one  of  your  own  num- 
ber, who  can  avoid  misconceptions  and  write  with  conviction.  If  so,  we 
shall  be  glad  to  hear  from  you,  or,  should  you  be  unable  to  undertake 
the  task,  to  receive  from  you  a  nomination  of  some  other  suitable  persoiL 
I  send  you  a  number  of  our  current  series  in  Universal  Literature,  with 
which  that  in  Universal  Religion  will  be  uniform.  We  shall  take  pleas- 
ure in  mailing  you  the  series  in  religion,  as  it  appears  month  by  month, 
if  you  can  favor  us  as  above.  Please  note  that  we  want  only  the  Ameri- 
can period  of  your  Church  History.  Its  earlier  history  in  other  countries, 
if  it  have  any,  will  be  cared  for  in  a  general  account  of  Church  History 
by  another  hand;  but  you  will  do  well  to  begin  with  a  brief  statement 
of  such  earlier  history  in  order  to  make  your  account  complete  in  itself. 
We  can  allow  for  this  account  only  about  nine  hundred  words  of  your  own 
composition,  with  as  many  more  of  quotations  in  support  of  the  state- 
ments made  in  your  text.  These  quotations  will  naturally  be  taken  from 
the  creeds  or  the  representative  writers  of  your  society.    Any  too  lon^ 


*The  sabstance  of  which  is  stated  in  the  foregoing  editorial  note. 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  2AZ 

for  inclnBion  within  these  limits  may  be  relegated  to  an  appendix.    We 
suggest  the  following  sub-topics. 

(1)  Historic  sketch  embodying  the  principles  of  your  church. 

(2)  How  far  have  these  principles  been  found  realizable? 

(3)  How  far  can  they  hope  to  be  further  realized  in  the  future? 

(4)  On  what  conditions  would  you  unite  federally  with  other 
churches? 

We  should  not  require  this  article  until  January,  1898,  but  need  a 
response  within  a  few  days,  since  we  are  about  to  publish  a  prospectus  of 
our  entire  course. 
Believe  me, 

Very  cordially  yours, 

[Signed]       E.  Buckley. 

Salt  Lake  City,  May  4, 1897. 
Edmund  BwM^,  Ph.  D. 

Editor  Docent  in  Comparative  Religion, 
University  of  Chicago^ 

My  Dear  Sir: — I  have  the  pleasure  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your 
distinguished  favor  of  the  19th  ultimo. 

I  appreciate  the  sentiment  that  each  religious  society,  church  or 
denomination  should  be  represented  by  one  of  its  own  number,  who  can 
write  correctly,  avoid  misrepresentation  and  give  his  honest  convictions 
of  the  matters  stated.  The  world-wide  calumnies  and  conflicting  state- 
ments that  have  been  written  of  our  people  and  published  in  the  ency- 
clopsadias,  magazines  and  other  publications  throughout  the  land, 
awaken  in  one  an  appreciation  of  an  opportunity  to  represent  ourselves 
instead  of  being  misrepresented  by  others. 

I  shall  endeavor  to  furnish  you  an  article  as  contemplated  in  your 
letter  above  referred  to  by  the  time  named — ^January,  1898 — meantime 
shall  be  pleased  to  receive  any  further  suggestions  that  may  appear  of 
benefit  to  the  purpose  designed. 

Sincerely  and  cordially  yours, 

[Signed]    F.  D.  Richards. 


Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  February  9, 1898. 
Rev.  Edmund  Buckley,  Ph.  D. 

Editor  Docent  in  Comparative  Religion, 

University  of  Chicago, 
My  Dear  Sir: — In  compliance  with  your  request  of  April  19th, 
1897, 1  have  the  pleasure  to  forward  you  an  historical  statement  of  the 


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244  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  including  its  principles  of 
faith,  doctrines,  ordinances,  etc.,  and  have  endeavored  to  bring  it 
within  the  limits  indicated  accompanying  the  request. 

I  sincerely  hope  and  urgently  request  that  you  will  grant  me  a  fall 
insertion  of  this  clear,  concise  and  comprehensive  statement  of  our 
religion  in  your  highly  instructive  and  interesting  publication. 

Please  inform  me  at  your  early  convenience  if  I  may  be  so  favored, 
and  oblige, 

Yours  very  respectfully, 

[Signed]    F.  D.  Richards. 

Accept  my  grateful  acknowledgement  for  the  numbers  of  Compara- 
tive Religion.    I  intend  to  subscribe  for  the  other  literary  numbers. 

F.  D.  Richards. 


Chicago,  February  14th,  1898. 
Elder  F.  D,  Richards, 

Box  1678,  SaU  Lake  OUy,  Utah, 

My  Dear  Sir: — We  have  received  your  article  on  the  History  of 
Mormonism,  and  are  greatly  obliged  for  the  prompt  and  careful  atten- 
tion which  you  have  given  it.  We  have  not  yet  received  all  of  the 
manuscripts  which  go  in  the  number  containing  your  article,  therefore, 
we  are  unable  to  tell  just  how  much  space  we  will  have  at  our  disposal 
for  each  article,  but  we  shall  try  to  publish  your  article  in  full,  as 
requested.  By  the  way,  could  you  not  send  us  some  good  illustratioDS 
or  photographs  of  the  Temple  and  Tabernacle,  also  of  Brigham  Young, 
and  the  present  President  of  the  Mormon  Church,  which  we  can  publish 
in  connection  with  the  article?  Good  printecl  illustrations  which  we  can 
reproduce  would  be  preferable,  but  photographs  would  also  answer  our 
purpose.  The  cuts  could  be  returned  to  you  if  desired. 
Yours  truly. 

The  University  Association, 

Edmund  Buckley. 


The  photographs  asked  for  were  supplied  by  Elder  Richards,  and 
with  the  article  appeared  in  the  November  number  of  Progress,  and  is 
here  reproduced. 

THE  MORMON  CHURCH. 

The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  commonly 
called  the  "Mormon"  Church,  was  organized  April  6th,  1830,  at 
Fayette,  Seneca  County,  New  York,  Joseph  Smith,  Jr.,  being  accepted 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  245 

as  the  first  Elder  and  Oliver  CWdery  as  the  second  Elder  of  the 
Church.  The  members  composing  the  body  of  the  Chnrch  were 
believers  in  God  the  Father,  in  Jesos  Christ  His  Son,  and  in  the 
Holy  Ghost.  They  had  repented  of  their  sins  and  had  been  baptized 
by  immersion  in  water  for  the  remission  of  sins  and  were  confirmed 
members  of  the  Church  by  the  laying  on  of  the  hands  of  the  Elders, 
who  sealed  upon  them  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  with  the  privi- 
lege of  receiving  and  enjoying  all  the  gifts  and  powers  which  came 
from  the  possession  of  that  Spirit  in  olden  times.  This  was  done 
by  revelation  and  commandment  of  the  Most  High  God,  who,  with 
Jesus  Christ,  His  Son,  had  appeared  to  Joseph  Smith  in  heavenly 
vision.  An  angel  of  God  had  also  appeared  to  the  youthful  prophet 
and  disclosed  to  him  the  spot  where  records  of  the  original  inhab- 
itants of  the  American  continent  were  hidden,  which,  after  repeated 
visits  and  instructions  from  the  angel,  were  delivered  into  his  hands. 
They  consisted  of  a  number  of  metallic  plates  having  the  appearance 
of  gold,  on  which  were  inscribed  on  both  sides  hieroglyphics  nar- 
rating the  history,  travels,  rise  and  fall  of  a  colony  brought  upon 
this  continent  at  the  scattering  of  people  from  the  tower  of  Babel, 
and  of  a  later  migration  of  Israelites  from  Jerusalem,  when  Zede- 
kiah  was  king  of  Judah.  The  religion  of  those  people  was  described 
and  particulars  were  given  of  the  establishment  of  the  Church  of 
Christ  among  them,  by  his  appearance  in  person  after  his  resur- 
rection and  ascension.  With  the  plates  was  the  Urim  and  Thum- 
mim,  by  means  of  which  and  the  gift  and  power  of  God,  Joseph 
Smith  translated  a  portion  of  the  record  which  had  been  abridged 
and  compiled  by  a  prophet  among  those  ancient  people  named  Mor- 
mon. The  book  thus  translated  is  therefore  called  tl^e  Book  of 
Mormon,  and  it  has  been  published  in  several  languages. 

Previous  to  the  organization  of  the  Church,  Joseph  Smith  and 
Oliver  Cowdery  had  been  visited  by  John  the  Baptist,  who  conferred 
upon  them  the  Aaronic  Priesthood,  with  the  authority  to  baptize 
for  the  remission  of  sins;  and  also  at  a  later  date  by  Peter,  James 
and  John,  who  ordained  them  apostles  of  Jesus  Christ,  with  author- 
ity to  confer  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  baptized,  repentant  believers,  by 
the  laying  on  of  hands;  also  to  organize  and  establish  the  Church 
of  Christ  in  all  its  fullness  preparatory  to  the  second  advent  of 
the  Savior.    Guided  by  the  spirit  of  revelation,  the  prophet,  seer 


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246  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

and  revelator,  Joseph  Smith,  proceeded  to  fulfill  his  mission.  The 
Gospel  was  preached,  the  Holy  Ghost  was  poured  out  upon  con- 
verts and  was  manifested  in  healings,  miracles,  tongues,  interpre- 
tations, prophecy,  visions,  and  all  the  gifts  enjoyed  in  the  primitive 
Christian  Church.  Men  were  called  by  revelation  to  fill  the  various 
offices  of  the  Church,  including  Apostles,  Seventies,  Elders,  Priests, 
Teachers  and  Deacons,  Bishops,  Evangelists,  etc.,  and  missionaries 
were  sent  out  into  the  world  to  preach  the  Gospel  without  "purse 
or  scrip."  People  who  received  their  testimony  that  the  Gospel 
and  Church  of  Christ  had  been  restored  to  earth,  obtained  a  wit- 
ness from  God,  personally,  of  the  truth  of  these  things,  and  as  the 
elect  of  God,  gathered  from  all  parts  of  the  earth  to  the  bosom  of 
the  Church  in  America. 

Persecution  raged  against  the  Church  from  the  beginning. 
All  kinds  of  misrepresentation. were  resorted  to  by  its  enemies.  The 
Saints  were  driven  from  their  possessions  in  Missouri  and  after- 
wards in  Illinois;  many  of  them  were  slaughtered  by  mobs,  their 
property  was  confiscated,  and  in  1844,  on  June  27th,  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith  and  his  brother  Hyrum  were  shot  to  death  by  mobo- 
crats  with  blackened  faces,  at  Carthage,  Illinois.  Subsequently 
the  body  of  the  Saints  were  driven  from  the  city  of  Nauvoo,  which 
they  had  built  on  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi,  and  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Brigham  Young,  who  was  the  President  of  the  Twelve  Apos- 
tles, the  persecuted  Saints  made  their  way  to  Winter  Quarters,  on 
the  banks  of  the  Missouri  river,  near  where  Council  Bluffs  now  stands. 
It  was  there  that  the  Mormon  Battallion  of  five  hundred  able-bodied 
men  were  enlisted,  at  the  call  of  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
to  aid  their  country  in  the  war  with  Mexico.  They  were  the 
strength  of  the  body  of  the  Church,  but,  were  parted  with  in  the 
true  spirit  of  patriotism.  They  made  an  unparalleled  march  across 
the  deserts  to  their  destination,  leaving  their  families  to  struggle 
for  existence  in  that  then  unsettled  region.  In  1847  the  famous 
journey  from  the  Missouri  river  across  the  plains  and  mountains 
was  accomplished  by  Brigham  Young  and  the  Pioneers,  ntmibering 
one  hundred  and  forty-three  men,  three  women  and  two  children. 
They  reached  the  spot  where  Salt  Lake  City  now  stands,  July  24th 
of  that  year.    The  great  Temple,  costing  more  than  three  miUion 


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dollars,  rears  its  towers  on  the  spot  where  Brigham  Young  declared 
at  that  time,  "Here  we  will  build  the  Temple  of  our  God." 

The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Sainst  has  now  its 
branches  in  all  the  civilized  nations  and  upon  many  islands  of  the 
sea.  It  has  sixteen  hundred  Elders  in  the  mission  field,  laboring 
without  pay.  Its  membership  numbers  about  300,000.  It  has 
four  magnificent  Temples,  in  which  are  administered  ordinances  for 
the  living  and  the  dead.  It  is  presided  over  by  Lorenzo  Snow, 
George  Q.  Cannon  and  Joseph  F.  Smith,  Apostles  of  Jesus  Christ, 
holding  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  with  the  binding  and 
loosing  power  which  Christ  conferred  upon  Peter,  James  and  John, 
and  which  they  restored  to  earth.  It  has  Twelve  Apostles  to  open 
the  door  of  the  kingdom  in  all  nations  and  set  in  order  the  affairs 
of  the  Church.  It  has  all  the  orders  of  the  Christian  ministry  and 
priesthood  which  were  in  the  Church  during  the  first  century  of  the 
Christian  era.  It  administers  the  same  ordinances  and  enjoys  the 
same  unity,  power,  spiritual  gifts  and  divine  communications  as  were 
then  bestowed. 

Mormonism  aflSrms  the  personality  of  God  and  the  universal 
diffusion  of  his  Spirit  as  the  life  and  light  of  all  things.  It  teaches 
that  the  spirit  of  man  is  the  offspring  of  Grod,  and  existed  as  a  liv- 
ing entity  before  the  incorporation  in  a  mortal  body;  that  it  will 
not  only  continue  after  death,  but  will  be  clothed  upon  with  a  resur- 
rected body  in  such  degree  of  glory  and  progress  as  it  shall  be 
fitted  for  by  the  deeds  done  in  the  flesh;  that  all  mankind  will  be 
raised  from  the  dead,  and  be  judged  according  to  their  works;  that 
in  order  to  gain  the  celestial  or  highest  degree  of  glory,  men  and 
women  must  be  bom  of  water,  ^y  baptism,  and  of  the  Spirit,  by  the 
gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  obtained  through  the  laying  on  of  hands, 
and  must  then  "live  by  every  word  that  proceedeth  out  of  the 
mouth  of  God;"  that  punishment  will  be  awarded  to  the  wicked 
according  to  their  demerits;  that  while  Grod's  punishment  is  eternal, 
because  he  is  the  eternal  lawgiver,  sinners  receive  of  that  punish- 
ment in  degree  and  for  the  necessary  time  to  bring  them  to  repent- 
ance and  reformation;  that  the  Gospel  preached  to  men  in  the  flesh 
is  and  will  be  preached  to  those  in  the  spirit  who  h^ve  departed 
from  the  body  without  the  opportunity  of  receiving  the  pure  truth 
as  revealed  from  heaven;  that  the  living  Saints  may  officiate  in 


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248  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

saored  places  in  behalf  of  their  dead  anoestors  and  relatives  in  tbe 
ordmances  necessary  for  salvation;  that  the  coming  of  the  Savior  to 
reign  as  king  of  kings  is  near  at  hand,  and  that  this  Gospel  of  the 
kingdom  is  to  be  preached  to  all  nations  as  a  witness  of  his 
advent;  that  the  kingdoms  of  this  world  will  become  the  kingdom 
of  God  and  his  Christ;  that  Satan  will  be  bound,  the  earth  be 
cleansed  from  corruption  and  the  glory  of  God  will  cover  it  as  the 
waters  cover  the  deep;  and  that  eventually  all  mankind,  with  the 
exception  of  the  sons  of  perdition,  who  sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost 
after  having  received  it,  will  be  saved  in  some  degree  of  happiness, 
usefulness  and  glory. 

Marriage  among  the  Latter-day  Saints  is  a  sacrament.  It  is 
solemnized  for  time  and  for  all  eternity.  It  is  sealed  on  earth  by 
one  having  divine  authority,  and  is  therefore  sealed  in  heaven. 
Death  may  part  the  pair  for  a  time,  but  the  bond  being  eternal,  can- 
not be  sundered  by  death  or  by  any  power  that  is  not  divine.  This 
union  of  the  sexes  is  essential  to  perfect  exaltation  in  the  celestial 
world.  The  marriage  does  not  take  place  in  or  after  the  resur- 
rection, but  in  this  life,  where  the  parties  are  tested  in  their  pro- 
bation. Those  persons  who  arrive  at  no  higher  condition  than  that 
of  angels,  are  ministering  spirits  unto  the  sons  and  daughters  of 
Grod,  who  obtain  %  far  more  and  eternal  and  exceeding  weight  of 
glory."  The  redeemed  and  sanctified  and  crowned  heirs  of  Grod  and 
joint  heirs  with  Jesus  Christ  dwell  in  the  presence  of  the  Father 
and  the  Son,  and,  at  the  head  of  their  own  posterity,  'Inherit  all 
things"  and  reign  as  kings  and  priests  unto  God  in  everlasting  glcny, 
majesty  and  dominion. 

The  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  when  asked  for  an  epitome  of  the 
faith  of  the  Latter-day  Saints  gave  it  in  the  following  form: 

ARTICLES  OP  FAITH. 

1.  We  believe  in  God,  the  Eternal  Father,  and  in  his  Son,  Jesus 
Christ,  and  in  the  Holy  Ghost. 

2.  We  believe  that  men  will  be  punished  for  thdr  own  sins  and 
not  for  Adam'^  transgression. 

3.  We  believe  that,  through  the  atonement  of  Christ,  all  mankind 
may  be  saved,  by  obedience  to  the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  Gospel 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  249 

4.  We  believe  that  tkese  ordinances  are:    First,  faith  in  the  Lord 
Christ;  second,  repentance;  third,  baptism  by  immersion  for  the 

remission  of  sins;  fourth,  laying  on  of  hands  for  the  gift  of  the  Holy 
Ghost. 

5.  We  believe  that  a  man  must  be  called  of  God,  by  "prophecy  and 
by  the  laying  on  of  hands,"  by  those  who  are  in  authority  to  preach  the 
Gospel  and  administer  in  the  ordinances  thoreof. 

6.  We  believe  in  the  same  organization  that  existed  in  the  primi- 
tive church,  viz..  Apostles,  Prophets,  Pastors,  Teachers,  Evangelists,  etc. 

7.  We  believe  in  the  gift  of  tongues,  prophecy,  revelation,  visions, 
healings,  interpretation  of  tongues,  etc. 

8.  We  believe  the  Bible  to  be  the  word  of  God,  as  far  as  it  is 
translated  correctly;  we  also  believe  the  Book  of  Mormon  to  be  the  word 
of  God. 

9.  We  believe  all  that  God  has  revealed,  all  that  he  does  now 
reveal,  and  we  believe  that  he  will  yet  reval  many  great  and  important 
things  pertaining  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven. 

10.  We  believe  in  the  literal  gathering  of  Israel  and  in  the  restora- 
tion of  the  Ten  Tribes.  That  Zion  will  be  built  upon  this  continent. 
That  Christ  will  reign  personally  upon  the  earth,  and  that  the  earth  will 
be  renewed  and  receive  its  paradisic  glory. 

11.  We  claim  the  privilege  of  worshiping  Almighty  God  accord- 
ing to  the  dictates  of  our  own  conscience,  and  allow  all  men  the  same 
privilege,  let  them  worship  how,  where  or  what  they  may. 

12.  We  believe  in  being  subject  to  kings,  presidents,  rulers  and 
magistrates,  in  obeying,  honoring  and  sustaining  the  law. 

13.  We  believe  in  being  honest,  true,  chaste,  benevolent,  virtuous 
and  in  doing  good  to  all  men;  indeed  we  may  say  that  we  follow  the 
admonition  of  Paul,  ''We  believe  all  things,  we  hope  all  things;"  we  have 
endured  many  things,  and  hope  to  be  able  to  endure  all  things.  If  there 
is  anything  virtuous,  lovely  or  of  good  report  or  praiseworthy,  we  seek 
after  these  things. — Joseph  Smith. 

As  to  the  personality  of  God  the  Father,  the  Latter-day  Saints 
refer  to  the  following: 

''And  God  said,  Let  us  make  man  in  our  image,  after  our  likeness. 
*  *  *  So  God  created  man  in  his  own  image,  in  the  image  of 
God  created  he  him,  male  and  female  created  he  them.**  (Gen.  i:  26,  27. 

"For  man  indeed  ought  not  to  cover  his  head,  forasmuch  as  he  is  the 
image  and  glory  of  God."    (I  Cor.  xi;  7.) 

'Then  went  up  Moses  and  Aaron,  Nadab  and  Abihu  and  seventy  of 


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250  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

the  elders  of  Israel,  and  they  saw  the  God  of  Israel,  and  there  was  under 
his  feet  as  it  were  a  paved  work  of  a  sapphire  stone,  and  as  it  were  the 
body  of  heaven  in  his  clearness."    (Exodus  xxiv;  9,  10.) 

Jesus  the  Son  of  God  is  declared  to  be  ''The  brightness  of  his  glory 
and  the  express  image  of  his  person."    (Heb.  i;  3.) 

"Who  is  the  image  of  the  invisible  God,  the  first-bom  of  every 
creature."    (Col.  i;  15.) 

The  omnipresence  of  God  by  his  Spirit  universally  diffused,  is 
thus  declared: 

'This  is  the  light  of  Christ,  as  also  he  is  in  the  sun  and  the  light  of 
the  sun  and  the  power  by  which  it  was  made;  also  he  is  in  the  moon, 
and  is  the  light  of  the  moon  and  the  power  thereof  by  which  it  was 
made;  as  also  the  light  of  the  stars  and  the  power  thereof  by  which  they 
were  made;  and  the  earth  also  and  the  power  thereof,  even  the  earth 
upon  which  ye  stand;  and  the  light  which  now  shineth,  which  giveth  you 
light,  is  through  him  which  enlighteneth  your  eyes,  which  is  the  same 
that  quickeneth  your  understandings,  which  light  proceedeth  forth  from 
the  presence  of  God,  to  fill  the  immensity  of  space.  The  light  which  is 
in  all  things,  which  giveth  life  to  all  things,  which  is  the  law  by  which 
all  things  are  governed,  even  the  power  of  God  who  sitteth  upon  his 
throne,  who  is  in  the  bosom  of  eternity,  who  is  in  the  midst  of  all  things." 
(Revelation  to  Joseph  Smith,  December  27,  1832.) 

"And  the  earth  was  without  form  and  void;  and  darkness  was  upon 
the  face  of  the  deep,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  moved  upon  the  face  of  the 
waters."    (Gen.  i;  2.) 

"By  his  Spirit  he  hath  garnished  the  heavens."    (Job  xxvi;  13.) 
"Thou  sendest  forth  thy  Spirit,  they  [the  beasts  of  the  field]  are 
created;  and  thou  renewest  the  face  of  the  earth."  (Psalm  civ;  30.) 
"And  shall  put  my  Spirit  in  you  and  you  shall  live."  (Ezek.  xxx vii ;  14) 
'There  is  a  spirit  in  man  and  the  inspiration  of  the  Almighty  giveth 
them  understanding."    (Job  xxxii;  8.) 

"And  it  shall  come  to  pass  afterward  that  I  will  pour  out  my  Spirit 
upon  all  flesh."    <Joel  ii;  28.) 

"It  is  the  Spirit  that  quickeneth."    (John  vi;  63.) 
"But  God  hath  revealed  them  unto  us  by  his  Spirit;  for  the  Spirit 
searcheth  all  things,  yea  the  deep  things  of  God."    (I  Cor.  ii;  10.) 

That  the  spirits  of  men  are  the  offspring  of  Grod,  is  shown  in 
the  following: 

"And  now  verily  I  say  unto  you,  I  was  in  the  beginning  with  the 


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Father  and  am  the  first-born;  and  all  those  who  are  begotten  through 
me  are  partakers  of  the  glory  of  the  same  and  are  the  Church  of  the 
first-born.  Ye  were  also  in  the  beginning  with  the  Father."  (From 
revelation  to  Joseph  Smith,  May  6, 1833.) 

'^Furthermore  we  have  had  fathers  of  our  flesh  which  corrected  ub 
and  we  gave  them  reverence;  shall  we  not  much  rather  be  in  subjection 
unto  the  Father  of  spirits  and  live?''    (Heb.  xii;  9.) 

"I  ascend  unto  my  Father  and  unto  your  Father;  and  to  my  God  and 
to  your  God."    (John  xx;  17.) 

'*  And  again  when  he  bringeth  in  the  first  begotten  into  the  world,'' 
etc.    (Heb.  i;  6.) 

*Torasmuch  then  as  the  children  are  partakers  of  flesh  and  blood, 
he  also  himself  likewise  took  part  of  the  same.  *  «  *  Wherefore 
in  all  things  it  behooveth  him  to  be  made  like  unto  his  brethren,"  etc* 
(Heb.  ii;  14-17.) 

"Beloved,  now  are  we  the  sons  of  God;  and  it  doth  not  yet  appear 
what  we  shall  be;  but  we  know  that,  when  he  shall  appear,  we  shall 
be  like  him;  for  we  shall  see  him  as  he  is."    (I  John  iii;  2.) 

"Where  wast  thou  when  I  laid  the  foundations  of  the  earth?  Declare 
if  thou  hast  understanding.  *  *  *  When  the  morning  stars  sang 
together  and  all  the  sons  of  (xod  shouted  for  joy?"    (Job  zxxviii;  4-7.) 

'Then  shall  the  dust  return  to  the  earth  as  it  was,  and  the  spirit 
shall  return  to  (xod  who  gave  it."    (Eccles.  xii;  7.) 

The  resurrection  of  the  body,  extending  to  the  resuscitation 
of  all  who  have  lived  and  died  on  earth,  to  be  judged  in  the  resur- 
rected body  for  the  deeds  done  in  the  natural  body,  is  a  scriptural 
doctrine,  as  may  be  seen  from  these  texts: 

'There  is  a  space  between  death  and  the  resurrection  of  the  body 
and  a  state  of  the  soul  in  happiness  or  in  misery,  until  the  time  which  is 
appointed  of  God  that  the  dead  shall  come  forth,  and  be  reunited  both 
soul  and  body  and  be  brought  to  stand  before  God  and  be  judged  accord- 
ing to  their  works.  The  soul  shall  be  restored  to  the  body  and  the  body  to 
the  soul;  yea,  and  every  limb  and  joint  shall  be  restored  to  its  body; 
yea,  even  a  hair  of  the  head  shall  not  be  lost,  but  all  things  shall  be 
restored  to  their  proper  and  perfect  frame."  (Book  of  Mormon,  page  354.) 

"Now  this  restoration  shall  come  to  all,  both  old  and  young,  both 
bond  and  free,  both  male  and  female,  both  the  wicked  and  the  righteous." 
(Ibid.,  page  267.) 

"Marvel  not  at  this,  for  the  hour  is  coming  in  the  which  all  that 
are  in  the  graves  shall  hear  his  voice,  and  shall  come  forth;  they  that 


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252  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

haye  done  good  unto  the  resurrection  of  life,  and  they  tiiat  have  done 
evil  unto  the  resurrection  of  damnation."    (John  v;  28,  29.) 

'^And  I  saw  the  dead,  small  and  great,  stand  before  God,  and  the 
books  were  opened,  and  another  book  was  opened,  which  is  the  book  of 
life,  and  the  dead  were  judged  out  of  those  things  which  were  written 
in  the  books,  according  to  their  works.**    (Rev.  xx;  12.) 

"There  is  one  glory  of  the  sun,  and  another  glory  of  the  moon,  and 
another  glory  of  the  stars.  For  one  star  differet  from  another  star  in 
glory;  so  also  is  the  resurrection  of  the  dead."    (I  Cor.  xy;  41.) 

That  baptism  of  water  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost  is  essential,  the 
following  show: 

"Go  ye  into  all  the  world,  preach  the  Gospel  to  every  creature,  act- 
ing in  the  authority  which  I  have  given  you,  baptizing  in  the  name  of 
the  Father,  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  And  he  that  believeth 
and  is  baptized  shall  be  saved,  and  he  that  believeth  not  shall  be 
damned.  *  *  *  As  I  said  to  mine  Apostles,  I  say  unto  you  again, 
that  every  soul  that  believeth  on  your  words  and  is  baptized  by  water 
for  the  remission  of  sins,  shall  receive  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  signs  shall 
foltow  them  that  believe.  ♦  ♦  ♦  Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  they 
that  believe  not  on  your  words  and  are  not  baptized  in  water  in  my 
name  for  the  remission  of  their  sins,  that  they  may  receive  the  Holy 
Ghost,  shall  be  damned  and  shall  not  come  into  my  Father's  kingdom." 
(Revelation  to  Joseph  Smith,  November,  1881.) 

"Jesus  answered,  verily,  verily  I  say  unto  thee,  except  a  man  be 
born  of  water  and  of  the  spirit,  he  cannot  enter  into  the  kingdom  of 
God."    (John  iii;  5.) 

"(jO  ye  into  all  the  world  and  preach  the  Grospel  to  every  creature; 
he  that  believeth  and  is  baptized  shall  be  saved;  but  he  that  believeth 
not  shall  be  damned."    (Mark  xvi;  15, 16.) 

"Then  Peter  said  unto  them,  repent  and  be  baptized  every  one  of 
you,  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  for  the  remission  of  sins,  and  ye  shall 
receive  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost."    (Acts  ii;  37,  38.) 

"But  when  they  believed  Philip  preaching  the  things  concerning 
the  kingdom  of  Crod,  and  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  they  were  baptized, 
both  men  and  women.  *  *  *  Then  laid  they  their  hands  on  them 
and  they  received  the  Holy  Ghost."  (Acts  viii;  12-18.) 

That  this  Gospel  will  be  preached  to  all  people,  both  living 
and  dead,  see  the  following: 

"For  Christ  also  hath  suffered  for  sins,  the  just  for  the  unjust,  that 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  258 

he  might  bring  us  to  God;  being  put  to  death  in  the  flesh,  but  quickened 
by  the  spirit,  by  which  also  he  went  and  preached  unto  the  spirits  in 
prison,  which  sometime  were  disobedient  when  once  the  long-suffering  of 
God  waited  in  the  days  of  Noah,  while  the  ark  was  a  preparing,  wherein 
few,  that  is  eight  souls,  were  saved  by  water."  (1  Peter  iii;  18-20.) 
'Tor,  for  this  cause  was  the  gospel  t>reached  also  to  them  that  are 
dead,  that  they  might  be  judged  according  to  men  in  the  flesh,  but  live 
according  to  God  in  the  spirit."    (Ibid,  iv;  6.) 

The  living  Saints  may  perform  ordinances  for  the  repentant 
dead: 

"Else  what  shall  they  do  which  are  baptized  for  the  dead,  if  the 
dead  rise  not  at  all?  Why  are  they  then  baptized  for  the  dead?"  (1 
Cor.  xv;  19.) 

''And  saviors  shall  come  up  on  Mount  Zion  to  judge  the  Mount  of 
Esau  and  the  kingdom  shall  be  the  Lord's."    (Obadiah  i;  21.) 

"God  having  provided  some  better  thing  for  us,  that  they  without 
us  should  not  be  made  perfect."    (Heb.  zi;  40.) 

That  the  true  Grospel  is  to  be  preached  to  prepare  the  way  for 
Christ's  coming  and  the  end  of  the  world,  see  the  following: 

"And  this  gospel  of  the  kingdom  shall  be  preached  in  all  the  world, 
for  a  witness  unto  all  nations,  and  then  shall  the  end  come."  (Matt. 
xxvi.  14.) 

"And  I  saw  another  angel  fly  in  the  midst  of  heaven,  having  the 
everlasting  gospel  to  preach  unto  them  that  dwell  on  the  earth,  and  to 
every  nation,  and  kindred  and  tongue  and  people,  saying  with  a  loud 
voice  Fear  God  and  give  glory  to  him,  for  the  hour  of  his  judgment  is 
come."    (Rev.  xiv;  6.  7.) 

That  Satan  will  be  bound,  the  earth  be  cleansed  from  corrup- 
tion, the  kingdoms  of  this  world  become  the  kingdom  of  our  (zod, 
and  that  the  reign  of  Christ  and  his  triumph  over  error  and  Satan 
shall  be  complete  and  universal,  are  supported  by  the  following 
texts: 

"And  I  saw  an  angel  come  down  from  heaven,  having  the  key  of 
the  bottomless  pit  and  a  great  chain  in  his  hand. 

"And  he  laid  hold  on  the  dragon,  that  old  serpent,  which  is  the 
devil,  and  Satan  and  bound  him  a  thousand  years. 

"And  cast  him  into  the  bottomless  pit,  and  shut  him  up,  and  set  a 
seal  upon  him,  that  he  should  deceive  the  nations  no  more,  till  the 


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254  •  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

thousand  years  should  be  fulfilled:  and  after  that  he  must  be  loosed  a 
little  season."    (Rev.  xx;  1-3.) 

"And  the  sea  gave  up  the  dead  which  were  in  it;  and  death  and  heU 
delivered  up  the  dead  which  were  in  them:  and  they  were  judged  every 
man  according  to  their  works. 

"And  death  and  hell  were  cast  into  the  lake  of  fire.  This  is  the 
second  death."    (Rev.  xx;  13, 14.) 

"And  I  heard  a  great  voice  out  of  heaven,  saying,  Behold,  the 
tabernacle  of  God  is  with  men,  and  he  will  dwell  with  them,  and  they 
shall  be  his  people,  and  God  himself  shall  be  with  them,  and  be  their  God. 

"And  God  shall  wipe  away  all  tears  from  their  eyes;  and  there 
shall  be  no  more  death,  neither  sorrow,  nor  crying,  neither  shall  there  be 
any  more  pain:  for  the  former  things  are  passed  away."  (Rev. 
xxi;  3,  4.) 

"But  the  day  of  the  Lord  will  come  as  a  thief  in  the  night;  in  the 
which  the  heavens  shall  pass  away  with  a  great  noise,  and  the  elements 
shall  melt  with  fervent  heat,  the  earth  also  and  the  works  that  are 
therein  shall  be  burned  up. 

"Seeing  then  that  all  these  things  shall  be  dissolved,  what  manner  of 
persons  ought  ye  to  be  in  all  holy  conversation  and  godliness, 

'Ijooking  for  and  hasting  unto  the  coming  of  the  day  of  God, 
wherein,  the  heavens  being  on  fire,  shall  be  dissolved,  and  the  elements 
shall  melt  with  fervent  heat? 

"Nevertheless  we,  according  to  his  promise,  look  for  new  heavens 
and  a  new  earth,  wherein  dwelleth  righteousness."    (2  Peter  iii;  10-13.) 

"Behold  the  Lord  maketh  the  earth  empty;  and  maketh  it  waste, 
and  tumeth  it  upside  down,  and  scattereth  abroad  the  inhabitants  thereof. 

"And  it  shall  be,  as  with  the  people,  so  with  the  priest;  as  with  the 
servant,  so  with  his  master;  as  with  the  maid,  so  with  her  mistress;  as 
with  the  buyer,  so  with  the  seller;  as  with  the  lender,  so  with  the  bor- 
rower; as  with  the  taker  of  usury,  so  with  the  giver  of  usury  to  him. 

"The  land  shall  be  utterly  emptied,  and  utterly  spoiled:  for  the 
Lord  hath  spoken  this  word. 

''The  earth  moumeth,  and  fadeth  away;  the  world  languisheth,  and 
fadeth  away;  the  haughty  people  of  the  earth  do  languish. 

"The  earth  also  is  defiled  under  the  inhabitants  thereof,  because 
they  have  transgressed  the  laws,  changed  the  ordinance,  broken  the 
everlasting  covenant. 

"Therefore  hath  the  curse  devoured  the  earth,  and  they  that  dwell 
therein  are  desolate:  therefore  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  are  burned, 
and  few  men  left."    (Isaiah  xxiv;  1-6.) 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  255 

"And  it  shall  come  to  pass  in  that  day,  that  the  Lord  shall  punish 
the  host  of  the  high  ones  that  are  on  high,  and  the  kings  of  the  earth 
upon  the  earth. 

'*And  they  shall  be  gathered  together  as  prisoners  are  gathered  in 
the  pit,  and  shall  be  shut  up  in  the  prison,  and  after  many  days  shall 
they  be  visited. 

"Then  the  moon  shall  be  confounded,  and  the  sun  ashamed,  when  the 
Lord  of  hosts  shall  reign  in  Mount  Zion,  and  in  Jerusalem,  and  before 
his  ancients,  gloriously."    (Isaiah  xziv;  21-23.) 

"And  at  the  name  of  Jesus  every  knee  should  bow,  of  things  in 
heaven  and  things  on  earth,  and  things  under  the  earth; 

"And  that  every  tongue  should  confess  that  Jesus  Christ  is  Lord, 
to  the  glory  of  God  the  Father.    (Philippians  ii;  10,  11.) 

"And  in  the  days  of  these  kings  shall  the  God  of  heaven  set  up  a 
kingdom  which  shall  never  be  destroyed:  and  the  kingdom  shall  not  be 
left  to  other  people,  but  it  shall  break  in  pieces  and  consume  all 
these  kingdoms,  and  it  shall  stand  for  ever.    (Daniel  ii;  44) 

'1  saw  in  the  night  visions,  and,  behold,  one  like  the  Son  of  man 
came  with  the  clouds  of  heaven,  and  came  to  the  Ancient  of  days,  and 
they  brought  him  near  before  him. 

"And  there  was  given  him  dominions,  and  glory,  and  a  kingdom, 
that  all  people,  nations,  and  languages,  should  serve  him:  his  dominion 
is  an  everlasting  dominion,  which  shall  not  pass  away,  and  his  kingdom 
that  which  shall  not  be.  destroyed.''    (Daniel  vii;  13,  14.) 

'The  wolf  and  the  lamb  shall  feed  together,  and  the  lion  shall  eat 
straw  like  the  bullock:  and  dust  shall  be  the  serpent's  meat.  They 
shall  not  hurt  nor  destroy  in  all  my  holy  mountain,  saith  the  Lord." 
(laaiah  Ixv;  25.) 

"For  as  the  new  heavens  and  the  new  earth,  which  I  will  make, 
shall  remain  before  me,  saith  the  Lord,  so  shall  your  seed  and  your 
name  remain.    (Isaiah  Izvi;  22.) 

"Then  cometh  the  end,  when  he  shall  have  delivered  up  the  kingdom 
to  God,  even  the  Father,  when  he  shall  have  put  down  all  rule  and  all 
authority  and  power. 

"For  he  must  reign,  till  he  hath  put  all  enemies  under  his  feet. 

"The  last  enemy  that  shall  be  destroyed  is  death. 

"For  he  hath  put  all  things  under  his  feet.  But  when  he  saith.  All 
things  are  put  under  him,  it  is  manifest  that  he  is  excepted,  which  did 
put  all  things  under  him. 

"And  when  all  things  shall  be  subdued  unto  him,  then  shall  the  Son 


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256  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

also  himself  be  subject  unto  him  that  put  all  things  under  him,  that  God 
may  be  all  in  all."    (Cor.  xv;  24-28.) 

"There  is  one  glory  of  the  sun,  and  another  glory  of  the  moon,  and 
another  glory  of  the  stars:  for  one  star  differeth  from  another  star 
in  glory. 

''So  also  is  the  resurrection  of  the  dead.  It  is  sown  in  corruption; 
it  is  raised  in  incormption: 

''It  is  sown  in  dishonor;  it  is  raised  in  glory:  it  is  sown  in 
weakness;  it  is  raised  in  power: 

It  is  sown  a  natural  body;  it  is  raised  a  spiritual  body.  There 
is  a  natural  body,  and  there  is  a  spiritual  body. 

"And  so  it  is  written,  The  first  man  Adam  was  made  a  living  soul; 
the  last  Adam  was  made  a  quickening  spirit. 

"Howbeit  that  was  not  first  which  is  spiritual,  but  that  which  is 
natural;  and  afterward  that  which  is  spiritual. 

"The  first  man  is  of  the  earth,  earthy:  the  second  man  is  the  Lord 
from  heaven. 

"As  is  the  earthy,  such  are  they  also  that  are  earthy:  and  as  is  the 
heavenly,  such  are  they  also  that  are  heavenly. 

"And  as  we  have  borne  the  image  of  the  earthy,  we  shall  also  bear 
the  image  of  the  heavenly. 

"Now  this  I  say,  brethren,  that  flesh  and  blood  cannot  inherit  the 
kingdom  of  God;  neither  doth  corruption  inherit  incormption. 

"Behold  I  show  you  a  mystery:  We  shall  not  all  sleep  but  we  shall 
all  be  changed, 

"In  a  moment,  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  at  the  last  trump:  for 
the  trumpet  shall  sound,  and  the  dead  shall  be  raised  incorruptible,  and 
we  shall  be  changed. 

"For  this  corruptible  must  put  on  incormption,  and  this  mortal  must 
put  on  immortality. 

"So  yrhen  this  cormptible  shall  have  put  on  incormption,  and  this 
mortal  shall  have  put  on  immortality,  then  shall  be  brought  to  pass  the 
saying  that  is  written,  Death  is  swallowed  up  in  victory."  (I.  Cor.  xv; 
41-54.) 

As  to  eternal  marriage  and  the  glory  and  dominion  of  the 
redeemed,  it  will  be  seen  that  when  the  first  marriage  was  per- 
formed in  Eden,  the  pair  were  immortal.  Death  came  by  sin,  but 
life  was  restored  through  the  atonement.  Adam  and  Eve  are 
therefore  man  and  wife  for  eternity. 

"And  the  rib  which  the  Lord  God  had  taken  from  man,  made  he  a 
woman,  and  brought  her  unto  the  man. 


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THE  MORMON  CHURCH.  251 

"And  Adam  said,  This  is  now  bone  of  my  bones,  and  flesh  of  my 
flesh:  she  shall  be  called  woman,  because  she  was  taken  out  of  man." 
(Gen.  ii;  22.) 

"So  God  created  man  in  his  own  image,  in  the  image  of  God  created 
he  him;  male  and  female  created  he  them. 

"And  God  blessed  them,  and  God  said  nnto  them.  Be  fmitful  and 
multiply,  and  replenish  the  earth,  and  subdne  it;  and  have  dominion  dver 
the  fish  of  the  sea,  and  over  the  fowl  of  the  air,  and  over  every  living 
thing  that  moveth  upon  the  earth."    (Gen.  i;  27,  28.) 

'Tor  since  by  man  came  death,  by  man  came  also  the  resurrection 
of  the  dead. 

"For  as  in  Adam  all  die,  even  so  in  Christ  shall  all  be  made  alive.'' 
a  Cor.  xv;  21,  22.) 

"Nevertheless,  neither  is  the  man  without  the  woman,  neither  the 
woman  without  the  man  in  the  Lord."    (I  Cor.  xi;  11.) 

"And  I  saw  thrones,  and  they  sat  upon  them,  and  judgment  was 
given  them:  and  I  saw  the  souls  of  them  that  were  beheaded  for  the 
witness  of  Jesus  and  for  the  word  of  God,  and  which  had  not  worshiped 
the  beast,  neither  his  image,  neither  had  received  his  mark  upon  their 
foreheads,  or  in  their  hands;  and  they  lived  and  reigned  with  Christ  a 
thousand  years. 

"But  the  rest  of  the  dead  lived  not  again  until  the  thousand  years 
were  finished.    This  is  the  first  resurrection. 

"Blessed  and  holy  is  he  that  hath  part  in  the  first  resurrection:  on 
such  the  second  death  hath  no  power,  but  they  shall  be  priests  of  God 
and  of  Christ,  and  shall  reign  with  him  a  thousand  years."  (Rev.  xz;  4-6. 

"An4  they  sung  a  new  song,  saying,  Thou  art  worthy  to  take  the 
book,  and  to  open  the  seals  thereof:  for  thou  wast  slain,  and  hast 
redeemed  us  to  God  by  thy  blood,  out  of  every  kindred,  and  tongue,  and 
people,  and  nation; 

"And  hast  made  us  unto  our  God  kings  and  priests:  we  shall  reign 
on  the  earth.    (Rev.  v;  9, 10.) 

"And  I  heard  a  great  voice  out  of  heaven,  saying.  Behold  the  taber- 
nacle of  God  is  with  men,  and  he  will  dwell  with  them,  and  they  shall  be 
his  people,  and  God  himself  shall  be  with  them,  and  be  their  God. 

"And  God  shall  wipe  away  all  tears  from  their  eyes;  and  there  shall 
be  no  more  death,  neither  sorrow,  nor  crying,  neither  shall  there  be  any 
more  pain:  for  the  former  things  are  passed  away. 

"And  he  that  sat  upon  the  throne  said.  Behold,  I  make  all  things 
new.    And  he  said  unto  me,  Write;  for  these  words  are  true  and  faithful^ 

"And  he  said  unto  me.  It  is  done.    I  am  Alpha  and  Omega,  the 


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258  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

beginning  and  the  end.    I  will  give  nnto  him  that  is  athirst,  of  the 
fonntain  of  the  water  of  life  freely. 

''He  that  overcome th  shall  inherit  all  things;  and  I  will  be  his  God, 
and  he  shall  be  my  son."    (Rev.  xxi;  3-7.)* 


A  DREAM  OP  YOUTH. 


{Written  for  the  Era.) 

A  dream  of  yonth  well  nigh  f orgot. 

Comes  o'er  me  like  a  new-bom  thonght. 

A  dream  to  me  that  now  doth  seem 

Twas  much  akin  to  Jacob's  dream — 

In  which  a  ladder  stretched  on  high 

Connection  made  'twixt  earth  and  sky. 

Not  mine  a  ladder,  bnt  a  stairway  wide, 

Bannistered  well  on  either  side. 

That  once,  when  started  on  the  way, 

Twas  easy  in  the  right  to  stay. 

'Twas  years  of  toil  to  reach  the  strand, 

Where  an  angel  beckoned  with  outstretched  hand 

To  me,  who  stood  in  doubt  and  fear, 

A  boy,  to  choose  twixt  "Far"  and  "Near," 

The  "Near"  the  earth,  the  joys  of  man, 

Which  well  have  proved  themselves  a  ban. 

The  "  Far,"  the  sky,  where  immortals  dwell — 

I  fain  no  more  my  dream  would  tell. 

For  lingering  there  twixt  doubt  and  fear 

I  saw  the  stairway  disappear — 


*  We  suggest  that  in  missions  where  the  Elders  are  publishing  tx*^ 
setting  forth  briefly  the  history  and  doctrines  of  the  church,  they  co^^ 
not  do  better  than  to  publish  the  above  article  as  a  tract. — Editor, 


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A  DREAM  OF  YOUTH.  259 

The  angel  faded  as  fade  the  stars 
At  the  approach  of  day! 

*  *       *  * 
This  dream  was  in  my  early  youtL 
Not  mine  to  realize  the  truth 

My  dream  had  tanght  me,  but  I  went 
Down  life's  wrong  way  with  nature  bent — 
Refusing  to  receive  the  truth. 
That  if  I  started  in  my  youth 
Upon  the  way  which  leads  to  God, 
Twere  easy  to  hold  fast  the  'Iron  Rod,"* 
Which  leads  into  the  courts  above, 
Made  happy  by  divinest  love. 

*  *        *        *        * 

I  failed,  did  wrong — am  struggling  yet 
Back  in  God's  highway  to  get. 
But  hard  it  is  when  once  we  stray 
Back  to  the  light  to  find  our  way! 

Anon. 


*  Meaninf  the  word  of  God.   The  simfle  is  taken  from  the  Bcok  of  Monnon. 


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ABDALLAH  AND  SABAT^ 


A  TALE. 


Abdallah  and  Sabat  were  intimate  friends,  and  being  young 
men  of  famUy  in  Arabia,  they  agreed  to  travel  together,  and  visit 
foreign  countries.  They  were  both  zealous  Mohammedans.  Sabat 
was  son  of  Ibraham  Sabat,  a  noble  family  of  the  line  of  Beni  Sabat, 
who  trace  their  pedigree  to  Mohammed.  The  two  friends  left  Arabia, 
after  paying  their  adorations  at  the  tomb  of  their  prophet,  and 
traveled  through  Persia,  and  thence  to  Cabul.  Abdallah  was 
appointed  to  an  office  of  state  under  Zeman  Shah,  idng  of  Cabul; 
and  Sabat  left  him  there,  and  proceeded  on  a  tour  through  Tartary. 

While  Abdallah  remained  at  Cabul,  he  was  converted  to  the 
Christian  faith,  by  the  perusal  of  a  Bible,  (as  is  supposed)  belong- 
ing to  a  Christian  from  Armenia,  then  residing  at  CabuL  In  the 
Mohammedan  states,  it  was  then  death  for  a  man  of  rank  to  become  a 
Christian.  Abdallah  endeavored  for  a  time  to  conceal  his  con- 
version; but  finding  it  no  longer  possible,  he  determined  to  flee  to 
some  of  the  Christian  churches  near  the  Caspian  Sea.  He  accord- 
ingly left  Cabul  in  disguise,  and  had  gained  the  great  city  of 
Bochara,  in  Tartary,  when  he  was  met  in  the  streets  of  that  city 
by  his  friend  Sabat,  who  immediately  recognized  him.  Sabat  had 
heard  of  his  conversion  and  flight,  and  was  filled  with  indignation 
at  his  conduct.  Abdallah  knew  his  danger,  and  threw  himself  at 
the  feet  of  Sabat.  He  confessed  he  was  a  Christian,  and  implored 
him,  by  the  sacred  tie  of  their  former  friendship,  to  let  him  escape 
with  his  life.  "But,  sir,''  said  Sabat,  when  relating  the  story  him- 
himself,  "I  had  no  pity.  I  caused  my  servants  to  seize  him,  and  I 
delivered  him  up  to  Marad  Shah,  king  of  Bochara.    He  was  sen- 


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ABDALLAH  AND  SABAT.  261 

tenced  to  die,  and  a  herald  went  through  the  city  of  Bochara, 
announcing  the  time  of  execution.  An  immense  multitude  attended, 
and  the  chief  men  of  the  city.  I  also  went,  and  stood  near  Abdal- 
lah.  He  was  offered  his  life  if  he  would  abjure  Christ,  the  execu- 
tioner standing  by  him  with  his  sword  in  his  hand.  'No,'  said  he 
(as  if  the  proposition  were  impossible  to  be  complied  with),  1  can- 
not abjure  Christ.'  Then  one  of  his  hands  was  cut  off  at  the  wrist. 
He  stood  firm,  his  arm  hanging  by  his  side,  but  with  little  motion. 
A  physician,  by  desire  of  the  king,  offered  to  heal  the  wound  if  he 
would  recant.  He  made  no  answer,  but  looked  up  steadfastly 
towards  heaven  like  Stephen,  the  first  martyr,  his  eyes  streaming 
with  tears.  He  did  not  look  with  anger  towards  me.  He  looked 
at  me,  but  it  was  benignly,  and  with  the  countenance  of  forgive- 
ness. His  other  hand  was  then  cut  off.  But,  sir,"  said  Sabat,  in 
his  imperfect  English,  '%e  never  changed,  he  never  changed!  And 
when  he  bowed  his  head  to  receive  the  blow  of  death  all  Bochara 
seemed  to  say,  'What  new  thing  is  this?"' 

Sabat  had  indulged  the  hope  that  Abdallah  would  have  recanted 
when  he  was  offered  his  life;  but  when  he  saw  that  his  friend  was 
dead,  he  resigned  himself  to  grief  and  remorse.  He  traveled  from 
place  to  place  seeking  rest  and  finding  none.  At  last  he  thought  he 
would  visit  India.  He  accordingly  came  to  Madras  about  five  years 
ago.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  he  was  appointed  by  the  English  govern- 
ment a  mufti,  or  expounder  of  the  Mohammedan  law,  his  great  learn- 
ing and  respectable  station  in  his  own  country  rendering  him  well 
qualified  for  that  office.  And  now  the  period  of  his  conversion  drew 
near.  While  he  was  at  Visagapatam,  in  the  northern  Circars,  exercis- 
ing his  professional  duties.  Providence  brought  in  his  way  the  New 
Testament,  in  the  Arabic  language.  He  read  it  with  deepi  thought, 
the  Koran  lying  before  him.  He  compared  them  together  with 
patience  and  solicitude,  and  at  length  the  truth  of  the  gospel  fell 
on  his  mind,  as  he  expressed  it,  like  a  flood  of  light.  Soon  after- 
wards, he  proceeded  to  Madras,  a  journey  of  three  hundred  miles, 
to  seek  Christian  baptism,  and  having  make  a  public  confession  of 
his  faith,  he  was  baptized  in  the  English  church  at  that  place,  by 
the  name  of  Nathaniel,  in  the  twenty-seventh  year  of  his  age. 
When  his  family  in  Arabia  heard  that  he  had  followed  the  example 
of  Abdallah,  and  become  a  Christian,  they  dispatched  his  brother 


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262  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

to  India  (a  voyage  of  two  months)  to  assassinate  him.  While  Sabat 
was  sitting  in  his  house  at  Visagapatam  his  brother  presented  him- 
self in  the  disguise  of  a  faquir,  or  beggar,  having  a  dagger  con- 
cealed under  his  mantle.  He  rushed  on  Sabat,  and  wounded  him. 
But  Sabat  seized  his  arm,  and  his  servants  came  to  his  assistance. 
He  then  recognized  his  brother!  The  assassin  would  have  become 
the  victim  of  public  justice;  but  Sabat  interceded  for  him,  and  sent 
him  home  in  peace,  with  letters  and  presents,  to  his  mother's  house 
in  Arabia. 

When  Sabat  forgave  and  interceded  for  his  brother,  he  wasm) 
longer  the  fanatic  pitiless  Mohammedan,  but  the  professor  (A  a 
religion  which  teaches  mercy  and  f  or^veness  to  our  most  implacable 
enemies. 


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ACTS  OF  SPECIAL  PROVTOENCE  IN   MIS- 
SIONARY EXPERIENCE^ 


FULFILLMENT    OF     DREAMS. 

BY  ELDER  M.  P.  COWLEY. 


On  the  5th  day  of  July,  1876, 1  was  told  by  the  Patriarch  Wm. 
McBride,  'Thou  must  prepare  thy  mind,  for  the  time  is  not  far  dis- 
tant when  thou  shalt  be  called  into  the  ministry,  and  shalt  travel 
much  for  the  Gospel's  sake  both  at  home  and  abroad.''  From  my 
earliest  remembrances  I  had  anticipated  that  at  some  future  time, 
I  would,  like  other  young  men,  be  called  to  *'fill  a  mission,''  but 
from  the  time  the  Patriarch  uttered  the  words  quoted  above  upon 
my  head,  the  spirit  of  studying  the  Scriptures  and  preparing  my 
heart  for  the  work,  rested  upon  me  more  intensely  than  ever 
before.  Accordingly  I  studied  and  memorized  many  passages  of 
Scripture  upon  the  fundamental  principles  of  the  Gospel,  which 
proved  to  be  of  inestimable  value  to  me  in  subsequent  years.  The 
latter  part  of  January,  1878, 1  was  called  to  perform  a  mission  in 
the  Southern  States.  About  that  time  Elder  John  Morgan  was 
called  to  preside  over  the  Southern  States  Mission.  Before  leaving 
home  President  Morgan  was  very  careful  to  teach  myself  and 
others  the  absolute  necessity  of  traveling  without  ''purse  or 
scrip,"  and  to  avoid  sending  home  for  money,  stating  that  those 
who  had  been  supplied  with  means  from  home,  and  depended  upon 
that  means  for  support  in  the  missionary  field  had  blocked  up  the 


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264  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

way  of  receiving  testimonies,  by  the  direct  manifestations  of  God's 
power  in  their  behalf,  and  in  too  many  instances  had  made  total 
failures  of  their  missions.  This  counsel  made  a  deep  impression 
upon  my  mind,  and  I  felt  determined  to  carry  it  out.  While  this 
was  a  good  resolution,  it  was  probably  made,  as  proven  by  subse- 
quent events,  too  much  in  the  same  spirit  of  self-reliance  which 
actuated  Peter  when  he  said  to  his  Lord  and  Master,  ''  Though  all 
men  deny  thee  yet  will  I  nof 

Elder  Henry  W.  Bamett  and  myself  left  Salt  Lake  City, 
February  24th,  1878,  for  the  South,  with  instructions  to  spend 
some  time  in  Graves  County,  Kentucky,  among  the  relatives  of 
Elder  Samuel  R.  Tumbow  of  this  city,  and  from  whose  nephew  B. 
R.  Tumbow,  the  Elders  had  received  an  invitation  to  visit  If  we 
found  no  encouraging  field  of  labor  there  we  were  to  proceed  to  the 
State  of  Virginia.  We  spent  one  month  in  Kentucky,  and  held  a 
number  of  public  meetings  and  Gospel  conversations.  My  com- 
panion felt  impressed  that  we  should  go  to  Virginia,  and  started 
for  that  field  about  April  1st.  Not  having  a  very  liberal  supply  of 
money  we  traveled  by  steamboat  instead  of  rail  from  Paducah, 
Ky.,  to  Nashville,  Tennessee.  Prom  thence  we  proceeded  by  rail  to 
Chattanooga,  where  we  found  ourselves  in  a  strange  city  without 
sufficient  means  to  pay  our  way  to  Big  Lick,  our  railroad  destina- 
tion in  the  State  of  Virginia.  We  had  enough,  however,  to  pay  for 
lodging  a  few  days,  and  obtain  a  little  food  each  day.  We  had 
addresses  of  members  of  the  Church  in  Kentucky  and  Virginia, 
and  concluded  to  write  them  for  means,  as  a  loan,  to  help  us  to  our 
field  of  labor.  We  did  so,  but  in  every  instance  failed  to  procure 
assistance,  and  in  some  instances  received  no  response  to  our  letters. 
In  the  meantime  the  little  money  we  had  was  well  nigh  exhausted, 
until  we  had  to  get  trusted  for  our  lodging,  and  for  food 
expended  sometimes  five  cents,  sometimes  ten  cents  a  day  each  for 
a  few  crackers  and  a  little  cheese  or  a  bowl  of  bread  and  milk. 
While  in  this  straightened  situation,  I  dreamed  that  I  was  housed  up 
in  a  room  where  there  was  no  air,  and  in  struggling  for  breath  I 
would  turn  to  the  North,  then  to  the  East,  then  to  the  South,  but 
in  vain,  until  I  turned  my  face  to  the  West,  when  it  seemed  that 
an  opening  was  made  in  the  enclosure  and  I  breathed  with  freedom. 
Upon  awakening  I  felt  very  depressed,  for  it  seemed  to  me  that  the 


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ACTS  OF  SPECIAL  PROVIDENCE.  265 

dream  meant  that  while  we  had  friends  North  of  us  in  Eentacky, 
East  in  Virginia,  and  South  in  Georgia,  the  only  hope  was  to  write 
home  for  money  and  this  I  fought  against  with  a  strong  resolution. 
Again,  I  slept  and  dreamed  that  I  received  two  letters  from  home 
in  the  same  mail,  one  was  a  pale,  cream-colored  envelope,  the  other, 
the  old-fashioned  deep  yellow,  and  addressed  to  me  in  my  mother's 
hand-writing.  When  I  awoke  in  the  morning  I  was  still  depressed, 
for  while  the  dreams  were  clear  to  my  mind  as  having  a  decided 
importance,  it  was  against  my  inclination  to  write  home  for  money, 
80  I  held  out  for  several  days,  and  did  not  tell  my  companion  the 
dream.  In  a  few  days,  however.  Elder  Bamett  made  a  remark  to 
me,  which  impressed  me  that  it  was  my  duty  to  write  for  means, 
which  I  did,  and  when  the  answer  came,  there  were  two  letters 
instead  of  one.  One  was  contained  in  a  pale,  cream-colored  enve- 
lope, the  other  a  deep  yellow,addressed  to  me  in  my  mother's  hand- 
writing, in  all  particulars  just  as  I  had  seen  it  in  my  dream,  and 
containing  means  for  our  assistance. 

During  a  six  weeks'  sojourn  in  Chattanooga  without  friends 
and  short  of  means,  I  also  had  a  dream  which  was  given  to  me 
more  than  once,  and  which  many  Elders  also  experience,  and  that 
was  that  I  was  home  from  my  mission  before  my  time;  and  any 
E3der  who  has  such  a  manifestation  knows  what  remorse  and  sor- 
row rests  upon  him  while  in  the  dream,  and  what  joy  and  peace 
fills  his  soul  when  he  awakes  and  finds  himself  still  far  away  from 
home  and  kindred  where  duty  casts  his  lot.  In  one  of  these  dreams 
I  saw  President  John  Taylor,  and  was  very  fearful  of  meeting 
him  lest  he  should  chide  me  for  being  home  too  soon;  but  when 
he  spoke,  he  smiled  and  in  terms  of  kindness  said,  "Well  you're 
home,  are  you;  you  can  prepare  to  go  to  (Jeorgia  now."  I  finished 
my  mission,  was  honorably  released,  and  was  home  a  little  less  than 
six  months,  when  I  was  called  again  to  the  Southern  States. 
Having  been  so  greatly  blessed  in  Virginia,  having  so  many  friends 
there,  I  naturally  inclined  to  go  there  on  my  second  mission,  but  Pres- 
ident Morgan  did  not  want  me  to  return  to  that  field  but  assigned 
me  to  the  State  of  Georgia  to  labor  with  Brother  John  W.  Taylor. 
Thus  fulfilling  my  dream,  though  President  Morgan  knew  nothing 
of  the  dream  until  after  its  fulfillment. 

To    some    these  manifestations  may  appear    childlike  and 


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266  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

simple.  Suppose  they  do;  we  are  all  children — "children  of  a 
larger  growth."  The  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  said  if  the  Lord 
should  speak  to  a  child  he  would  speak  as  a  child,  that  the  child 
might  understand. 

The  lessons  I  learned  by  my  experience  of  trial  and  dreams  in 
Chattanooga  were  very  useful.  The  experience  taught  me  that 
while  a  doctrine  is  true  and  designed  to  be  continuous,  such  as 
the  injunction  to  travel  without  "purse  and  scrip,''  no  man  can 
carry  it  out  by  his  own  strength,  it  must  be  done  by  the  help  of  the 
Lord,  or  it  can  not  be  done  at  all.  It  is  one  thing  to  know  the 
truth  of  a  doctrine  in  theory;  it  is  another  thing  to  know  bow 
to  rightly  apply  it. 

The  manifestation  of  being  home  before  the  right  time  so 
filled  me  with  chagrin  and  sorrow,  that  I  was  constantly  buoyed 
up  with  courage  to  discharge  my  duty  and  be  contented  in  my 
field  of  labor  until  honorably  released  to  return  to  my  mountain 
home. 


NIGHT. 


Deep  in  the  starry  silence  of  the  night 

Breathes  low  the  mystery  of  Life  and  Death, 

While  o'er  the  darkened  waters  wandereth 
A  voiceless  spirit,  veiled  from  mortal  sight. 
Upheld,  enfolded  in  the  encircling  height 

Of  heaven,  the  hashed  Earth  softly  draws  her  breath, 

And  in  the  holy  stillness  listeneth 
To  sweeping  wings  of  far-off  worlds  in  flight. 
Beauty  ascends  in  elemental  prayer: 

Lifted  in  worship,  lost  in  wonderment, 

I  join  in  Nature's  night  antiphony 
That  vibrates  in  the  calm  and  sentient  air; 

And  through  the  veil  of  darkness  am  content 

To  touch  the  garment  of  Eternity. 

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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE 

CHURCH. 


BY  OLIVER  COWDERY. 


LETTER  n. 
Dear  Brother:— 

In  the  last  Messenger  and  Advocate  I  promised  to  commence  a 
more  particular  or  minute  history  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  the 
Church  of  Latter-day  Saints;  and  publish,  for  the  benefit  of 
inquirers,  and  all  who  are  disposed  to  learn.  There  are  certain 
facts  relative  to  the  works  of  God  worthy  the  consideration  and 
observance  of  every  individual,  and  every  society: — ^They  are  that 
he  never  works  in  the  dark — his  works  are  always  performed  in  a 
clear,  intelligible  manner;  and  another  point  is,  that  he  never  works 
in  vain.  This  is  not  the  case  with  men;  but  might  it  not  be? 
When  the  Lord  works,  he  accomplishes  his  purposes,  and  the  effects 
of  his  power  are  to  be  seen  afterward.  In  view  of  this,  suffer  me 
to  make  a  few  remarks  by  way  of  introduction.  The  works  of  man 
may  shine  for  a  season  with  a  degree  of  brilliancy,  but  time  changes 
their  complexion;  and  whether  it  did  or  not,  all  would  be  the  same 
in  a  little  space,  as  nothing  except  that  which  was  erected  by  a 
hand  which  never  grows  weak,  can  remain  when  corruption  is  con- 
sumed. 

I  shall  not  be  required  to  adorn  and  beautify  my  narrative 
with  a  relation  of  the  faith  of  Enoch,  and  those  who  assisted  him 
to  build  up  Zion,  which  fled  to  God — on  the  mountains  of  which  was 
commanded  the  blessing,  life  forever  more — ^to  be  held  in  reserve 
to  add  another  ray  of  glory  to  the  grand  retinue,  when  worlds  shall 


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268  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

rock  from  their  base  to  their  center;  the  nations  of  the  righteous 
rise  from  the  dnst,  and  the  blessed  millions  of  the  church  of  the 
first  bom,  shout  his  triumphant  coming,  to  receive  his  kingdom, . 
over  which  he  is  to  reign  till  all  enemies  are  subdued. 

Nor  shall  I  write  the  history  of  the  Liord's  church,  raised  up 
according  to  his  own  instructions  to  Moses  and  Aaron;  of  the  per- 
plexities and  discouragements  which  came  from  Israel  for  thehr 
transgressions;  their  organizations  upon  the  land  of  Canaan,  and 
their  overthrow  and  dispersion  among  all  nations,  to  reap  the 
reward  of  their  iniquities,  to  the  appearing  of  the  Great  Shepherd, 
in  the  flesh. 

But  there  is,  of  necessity,  a  uniformity  so  ^xact;  a  manner  so 
precise,  and  ordinances  so  minute,  in  all  ages  and  generations 
whenever  God  has  established  his  church  among  men,  that  should 
I  have  occasion  to  recur  to  either  age,  and  particularly  to  that 
characterized  by  the  advent  of  the  Messiah,  and  the  ministry  of  the 
apostles  of  that  church;  with  a  cursory  view  of  the  same  till  it 
lost  its  visibility  on  earth;  was  driven  into  darkness,  or  till  God 
took  the  holy  priesthood  unto  himself,  where  it  has  been  held  in 
reserve  to  the  present  century,  as  a  matter  of  right,  in  this  free 
country,  I  may  take  the  privilege.  This  may  be  doubted  by  some — 
indeed  by  many — as  an  admission  of  this  point  would  overthrow 
the  popular  systems  of  the  day.  I  cannot  reasonably  expect,  then, 
that  the  large  majority  of  professors  will  be  willing  to  listen  to  my 
argument  for  a  moment,  as  a  careful,  impartial,  and  faithful  inves- 
tigation of  the  doctrines  which  I  believe  to  be  correct,  and  the 
principles  cherished  in  my  bosom — and  believed  by  this  church — 
by  every  honest  man  must  be  admitted  as  truth.  Of  this  I  may 
say  as  TertuUian  said  to  the  emperor  when  writing  in  defense  of 
the  saints  in  his  day:  ^'Whoever  looked  well  into  our  religion  that 
did  not  embrace  it?" 

Common  undertakings  and  plans  of  men  may  be  overthrown  or 
destroyed  by  opposition.  The  systems  of  this  world  may  be  exploded 
or  annihilated  by  oppression  or  falsehood;  but  it  is  the  reverse 
with  pure  religion.  There  is  a  power  attendant  on  truth  that  all 
the  arts  and  designs  of  men  cannot  fathom;  there  is  an  increasing 
influence  which  rises  up  in  one  place  the  moment  it  is  covered  in 
another,  and  the  more  it  is  traduced  and  the  harsher  the  means 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.       269 

employed  to  effect  its  extinction,  the  more  numerous  are  its  votar- 
ies. It  is  not  the  vain  cry  of  "delusion"  from  the  giddy  multi- 
tade;  it  is  not  the  sneers  of  bigots;  it  is  not  the  frowns  of  zealots, 
"neither  the  rage  of  princes,  kings,  nor  emperors,  that  can  prevent 
its  influence.  The  fact  is,  as  Tertullian  said,  no  man  ever  looked 
carefully  into  its  consistency  and  propriety  without  embracing  it. 
It  is  impossible:  that  light  which  enlightens  men,  is  at  once  enrap- 
tured; that  intelligence  which  existed  before  the  world  was,  will 
unite,  and  that  wisdom  in  the  Divine  economy  will  be  so  conspic- 
uous, that  it  will  be  embraced,  it  will  be  observed,  and  it  must  be 
obeyed! 

Look  at  pure  'religion  whenever  it  has  had  a  place  on  earth, 
and  you  will  always  mark  the  same  characteristics  in  all  its 
features.  Look  at  truth  (without  which  the  former  could  not 
exist,)  and  the  same  peculiarities  are  apparant.  Those  who  have 
been  guided  by  them  have  always  showil  the  same  principles;  and 
those  who  were  not,  have  as  uniformly  sought  to  destroy  their 
influence.  Reli^on  has  had  its  friends  and  its  enemies;  its  advo- 
cates and  its  opponents.  But  the  thousands  of  years  which  have 
come  and  gone,  have  left  it  unaltered;  the  millions  who  have 
embraced  it,  and  are  now  enjoying  that  bliss  held  forth  in  its  prom- 
ises, have  left  its  principles  unchanged,  and  its  influence  upon  the 
honest  heart  unweakened.  The  many  oppositions  which  have 
encountered  it;  the  millions  of  calumnies,  the  numberless  re- 
proaches, and  the  myriads  of  falsehoods,  have  left  its  fair  form 
unhnpaired,  its  beauty  untarnished,  and  its  excellence  as  excellent; 
while  its  certainty  is  the  same,  and  its  foundation  upheld  by  the 
hand  of  God! 

One  peculiarity  of  men  I  wish  to  notice  in  the  early  part  of  my 
narrative. — So  far  as  my  acquaintance  and  knowledge  of  men  and 
their  history  extends,  it  has  been  the  custom  of  every  generation 
to  boast  of,  or  extol  the  acts  of  the  former.  In  this  respect  I 
wish  it  to  be  distinctly  understood,  that  I  mean  the  righteous — 
those  to  whom  God  communicated  his  will.  There  has  ever  been 
an  apparent  blindness  common  to  men,  which  has  hindered  their 
discovering  the  real  worth  and  excellence  of  individuals  while 
residing  with  them;  but  when  once  deprived  of  their  society,  worth, 


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270  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

and  coxmsel,  they  were  ready  to  exclaim/'how  great  and  ineetimable 
were  their  qualities,  and  how  precious  is  their  memory  r 

The  vilest  and  most  corrupt  are  not  exempted  from  this  charge: 
even  the  Jews,  whose  former  principles  had  become  degenerated/ 
and  whose  religion  was  a  mere  show,  were  found  among  that  class 
who  were  ready  to  build  and  garnish  the  sepulchres  of  the  propln 
ets,  and  condemn  their  fathers  for  putting  them  to  death;  making 
important  boasts  of  their  righteousness,  and  of  their  assurance  of 
salvation,  in  the  midst  of  which  they  rose  up  with  one  consent, 
and  treacherously  and  shamefully  betrayed,  and  crucified  the 
Savior  of  the  world!  No  wonder  that  the  inquirer  has  turned 
aside  with  disgust,  nor  marvel  that  God  has  appointed  a  day  when 
he  will  call  the  nations  before  him,  and  reward  every  man  according 
to  his  works! 

Enoch  walked  with  God,  and  was  taken  home  without  tasting 
death.  Why  were  not  all  converted  in  his  day  and  taken  with  him  to 
glory?  Noah  it  is  said,  was  perfect  in  his  generation:  and  it  is  plain 
that  he  had  communion  with  his  Maker,  and  by  his  direction  accom- 
plished a  work  the  parallel  of  which  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  annals 
of  the  world.  Why  were  not  the  world  converted,  that  the  flood 
might  have  been  stayed?  Men,  from  the  days  of  our  father  Abra- 
ham, have  talked,  boasted,  and  extolled  his  faith:  and  he  is  ev&a 
represented  in  the  scriptures: — "  The  father  of  the  faithful."  Moses 
talked  with  the  Lord  face  to  face;  received  the  great  moral  law, 
upon  the  basis  of  which  those  of  all  civilized  governments  are 
founded;  led  Israel  forty  years,  and  was  taken  home  to  receive  the 
reward  of  his  toils — then  Jacob  could  realize  his  worth.  Well  was 
the  question  asked  by  our  Liord,  ''How  can  the  children  of  the  bride- 
chamber  mourn  while  the  bridegroom  is  With  them?"  It  is  said, 
that  he  traveled  and  taught  the  righteous  principles  of  his  king- 
dom, three  years,  during  which  he  chose  twelve  men,  and  ordained 
them  apostles,  etc.  The  people  saw  and  heard — they  were  partic- 
ularly benefited  many  of  them,  by  being  healed  of  infirmities,  and 
diseases;  of  plagues  and  devils;  they  saw  him  walk  upon  the  water; 
they  saw  the  winds  and  waves  calmed  at  his  command;  they  saw 
thousands  fed  to  the  full  with  a  pittance,  and  the  very  powers  of 
darkness  tremble  in  his  presence — and  like  others  before  them, 
considered  it  as  a  dream,  or  a  common  occurrence,  till  the  time  was 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.       271 

fulfilled,  and  he  was  offered  up.  Yet  while  he  was  with  them  he  said, 
yon  shall  desire  to  see  one  of  the  days  of  the  Son  of  Man,  and  shall 
not  see  it.  He  knew  that  calamity  would  fall  upon  the  people,  and  the 
iMrrath  of  heaven  overtake  them  to  their  overthrow;  and  when  that 
-devoted  city  was  surrounded  with  armies,  well  may  we  conclude 
that  they  desired  a  protector  possessing  sufficient  power  to  lead 
them  to  some  safe  place  aside  from  the  tumult  of  a  siege. 

Since  the  apostles  fell  asleep  all  men  who  profess  a  belief  in 
the  truth  of  their  mission,  extol  their  virtues  and  celebrate  their 
fame.  It  seems  to  have  been  forgotten  that  they  were  men  of 
infirmities  and  subject  to  all  the  feelings,  passions,  and  imperfec- 
tions cnmmon  to  other  men.  But  it  appears  that  they,  as  others 
iKrere  before  them,  were  looked  upon  as  men  of  perfection,  holiness, 
purity,  and  goodness,  far  in  advance  of  any  since.  So  were  the 
<^haracters  of  the  prophets  held  in  the  days  of  these  apostles. 
What  can  be  the  difference  in  the  reward,  whether  a  man  died  for 
Tighteousness'  sake  in  the  days  of  Abel,  Zacharias,  John,  the  twelve 
apostles  chosen  at  Jerusalem,  or  since?  Is  not  the  life  of  one 
-equally  as  precious  as  the  other?  and  is  not  the  truth  just  as  true? 

But  in  reviewing  the  lives  and  acts  of  men  in  past  generations, 
whenever  we  find  a  righteous  man  among  them,  there  always  were 
excuses  for  not  giving  heed  or  credence  to  his  testimony.  The 
people  could  see  his  imperfections;  or,  if  no  imperfections,  sup- 
posed ones,  and  were  always  ready  to  frame  an  excuse  upon  that 
for  not  believing. — No  matter  how  pure  the  principles,  nor  how 
precious  the  teachings — an  excuse  was  wanted — and  an  excuse 
was  had. 

The  next  generation,  perhaps,  was  favored  with  equally  as 
righteous  men,  who  were  condemned  upon  the  same  principles  of 
the  former,  while  the  acts  and  precepts  of  the  former  were  the 
boasts  of  the  multitude;  when,  in  reality,  there  doctrines  were  no 
more  pure,  their  exertions  to  turn  men  to  righteousness  no  greater 
neither  their  walk  any  more  circumspect — the  grave  of  the  former 
is  considered  to  be  holy,  and  his  sepulchre  is  garnished  while  the 
latter  is  deprived  a  dwelling  among  men,  or  even  an  existence  upon 
earth!  Such  is  a  specimen  of  the  depravity  and  inconsistency  of 
men,  and  such  has  been  their  conduct  toward  the  righteous  in  cen- 
turies past. 


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272  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

When  John  the  son  of  Zacharias  came  among  the  Jews,  it  is 
said  that  he  came  neither  eating  bread  nor  drinking  wine,  b 
another  place  it  is  said  that  his  meat  was  locnsts  and  wild  honey. 
The  Jews  saw  him,  heard  him  preach,  and  were  witnesses  of  the 
purity  of  the  doctrines  he  advocated — they  wanted  an  excnse,  and 
they  soon  found  one — "He  hath  a  devil!"  And  who  among  all 
generations,  that  valued  his  salvation,  would  be  taught  by,  or  follow 
one  possessed  of  a  devil? 

The  Savior  came  in  form  and  fashion  of  a  man;  he  ate,  drank, 
and  walked  about  as  a  man,  and  they  said,  "Behold,  a  man  glutton- 
ous, and  a  wine-bibber,  a  friend  of  publicans  and  sinners!"  Too 
see  an  excuse  was  wantmg,  but  not  long  wanting  till  it  was  found— 
who  would  follow  a  dissipated  leader?  or  who,  among  the  right- 
eous Pharisees  would  acknowledge  a  man  who  would  condescend  to 
eat  with  publicans  and  sinners?  This  was  too  much— they  could 
not  endure  it.  An  individual  teaching  the  doctrines  of  the  king- 
dom of  heaven,  and  declaring  that  that  kingdom  was  nigh,  or  that 
it  had  already  come,  must  appear  different  £rom  others  or  he  could 
not  be  received.  If  he  were  athirst  he  must  not  drink,  if  faint  he 
must  not  eat,  and  if  weary  he  must  not  rest^  because  he  had 
assumed  the  authority  to  teach  the  world  righteousness,  and  he 
must  be  different  in  manners,  and  in  constitution,  if  not  in  form, 
that  all  might  be  attracted  by  his  singular  appearance:  that  his 
singular  demeanor  might  gain  the  reverence  of  the  people,  or  he 
was  an  impostor — a  false  teacher — a  wicked  man — a  sinner  and  an 
accomplice  of  Beelzebub,  the  prince  of  devils! 

If  singularity  of  appearance,  of  difference  of  manners  wonld 
command  respect,  certainly  John  would  have  been  reverenced,  and 
heard.  To  see  one  dressed  so  ridiculously,  eating  no  common  food, 
neither  drinking  wine  like  other  men;  stepping  in  advance  of  the 
learned  and  reverend  Pharisees,  wise  doctors,  the  righteous  scribes, 
and  declaring,  at  the  same  time  that  the  Lord's  kingdom  would 
soon  appear  could  not  be  borne — he  must  not  teach — ^he  must  not 
assume— he  must  not  attempt  to  lead  the  people  after  him— "He 
hath  a  devil." 

The  Jews  were  willing,  (professedly  so,)  to  believe  the  ancient 
prophets,  and  follow  the  direction  of  heaven  as  delivered  to  the 
world  by  them;  but  when  one  came  teaching  the  same  doctrines, 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.       273 

and  proclaiming  the'same  things,  only  that  they  were  nearer,  they 
would  not  hear.  Men  say  if  they  could  see  they  would  believe;  but 
I  have  thought  the  reverse  in  this  respect — if  they  cannot  see 
they  will  believe. 

One  of  two  reasons  may  be  assigned  as  the  cause  why  the 
messengers  of  truth  have  been  rejected— perhaps  both.  The  multi- 
tude saw  their  imperfections,  or  supposed  ones,  and  from  that 
framed  an  excuse  for  rejecting  them;  or  else  in  consequence  of  the 
corruption  of  their  own  hearts,  when  reproved,  were  not  willing  to 
repent;  but  sought  to  make  a  man  an  offender  for  a  word;  or  for 
wearing  camels'  hair,  eating  locusts,  drinking  wine,  or  showing 
friendship  to  publicans  and  sinners! 

When  looking  over  the  sacred  scriptures,  we  seem  to  forget 
that  they  were  given  through  men  of  imperfections,  and  subject  to 
passions.  It  is  a  general  belief  that  the  ancient  prophets  were  per- 
fect— ^that  no  stain  or  blemish  ever  appeared  upon  their  charac- 
ters while  on  earth,  to  be  brought  forward  by  the  opposer  as  an 
excuse  for  not  believing.  The  same  is  said  of  the  apostles;  but 
James  said  that  Elias  (Elijah)  was  a  man  subject  to  like  passions 
as  themselves,  and  yet  he  had  that  power  with  God  that  in  answer 
to  his  prayers  it  rained  not  on  the  earth  by  the  space  of  three  years 
and  a  half. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  those  to  whom  he  wrote  looked 
upon  the  ancient  prophets  as  a  race  of  beings  superior  to 
any  in  those  days;  and  in  order  to  be  constituted  a  prophet  of  God, 
a  man  must  be  perfect  in  every  respect.  The  idea  is,  that  he  must 
be  perfect  according  to  their  signification  of  the  word.  If  a  people 
were  blessed  with  prophets,  they  must  be  individuals  who  were  to 
prescribe  the  laws  by  which  they  must  be  governed,  even  in  their 
private  walks.  The  generation  following  were  ready  to  suppose, 
that  those  men  who  believed  the  word  of  God  were  as  perfect  as 
those  to  whom  it  was  delivered  supposed  they  must  be,  and  were 
as  forward  to  prescribe  the  rules  by  which  they  were  governed,  or 
rehearse  laws  and  declare  them  to  be  the  governing  principles  of 
the  prophets,  as  though  they  themselves  held  the  keys  of  the  mys. 
teries  of  heaven  and  had  searched  the  archives  of  the  generations 
of  the  world. 

You  will  see  that  I  have  made  mention  of  the  Messiah,  of  hia 


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274  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

mission  into  the  world,  and  of  his  walk  and  outward  appearance; 
but  do  not  understand  me  as  attempting  to  place  him  on  a  level 
with  men,  or  his  mission  on  a  parallel  with  those  of  the  prophets 
and  apostles — far  from  this.  I  view  his  mission  such  as  none  other 
conld  fill;  that  he  was  offered  without  spot  to  God  a  propitiation  for 
our  sins;  that  he  rose  triumphant  and  victorious  over  the  grave 
and  him  that  has  the  power  of  death.  This,  man  could  not  do — ^it 
required  a  perfect  sacrifice — ^man  is  imperfect;  it  required  a  spot- 
less offering — ^man  is  not  spotless;  it  required  an  infinite  atone- 
ment— ^man  is  mortal! 

I  have,  then,  as  you  will  see,  made  mention  of  our  Lord,  to 
show  that  individuals  teaching  truth,  whether  perfect  or  imperfect^ 
have  been  looked  upon  as  the  worst  of  them.  And  that  even  our 
Savior,  the  great  Shepherd  of  Israel,  was  mocked  and  derided,  and 
placed  on  a  parallel  with  the  prince  of  devils;  and  the  prophets  and 
apostles  though  at  this  day,  looked  upon  as  perfect  as  perfection, 
were  considered  the  basest  of  the  human  family  by  those  among 
whom  they  lived.  It  is  not  rumor  though  it  is  wafted  by  every 
gale,  and  reiterated  by  every  zephyr,  upon  which  we  are  to  found 
our  judgments  of  one's  merits  or  demerits.  If  it  is,  we  erect  an 
altar  upon  which  we  sacrifice  the  most  perfect  of  men  and  estab- 
lish a  criterion  by  which  the  "vilest  of  the  vile"  may  escape  censure. 

But  lest  I  weary  you  with  too  many  remarks  upon  the  history 
of  the  past^  after  a  few  upon  the  propriety  of  a  narrative  of  the 
description  I  have  proposed,  I  shall  proceed. 


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J\NSWERS  TO  INTERESTING  QUESTIONS- 

BY  ELDER  C.  W.  PENROSE,  ASSISTANT  CHURCH  HISTORIAN. 


[Some  time  ago  a  gentleman  in  Shirley,  Massachusetts,  wrote  to 
President  Lorenzo  Snow  for  information  concerning  "Mormonism,*^  in 
.answer  some  literature  was  sent  to  the  gentleman  which  gave  rise  to 
the  following  correspondence  which  is  self-explanatory. — Editors.] 


Shirley,  Mass.,  Nov.  29th,  1898. 
Lorenzo  Snow,  President  Mormon  Church: 

Friend:  I  acknowledge  with  thanks  the  receipt  of  pamphlet 
entitled  "Voice  of  Warning,"  and  twelve  numbers  of  "Rays  of 
Light."  I  have  been  much  interested  in  reading  this  matter  and 
idtiiough  it  is  rather  out  of  the  course  of  my  usual  line  of  thought 
I  yet  recognize  a  ray  or  two  of  light.  To  say  the  least,  your  sys- 
tem seems  worthy  of  investigation,  and  as  I  have  been  for  some 
years  past  and  still  am  a  seeker  after  truth  I  would  ask  the  privi- 
lege of  corresponding  with  some  intelligent  mind  of  your  f  aitii.  I 
desire  to  become  satisfied  as  to  whether  or  not  I  am  called  to  be  a 
partaker  with  you  in  your  sphere  of  action.  There  are  some  points 
not  touched  upon  in  the  pamphlets  sent  which  I  would  like  to  know 
^bout  and  think  a  good  way  would  be  to  ask  questions.  In  this 
way  you  will  comprehend  the  bent  of  my  thought  and  I  shall  come 
to  an  understanding  of  your  faith.  If  you  will  kindly  answer  clearly 
^md  to  the  point,  I  shall  be  greatly  obliged. 

THE  QUESTIONS. 

1.  At  the  present  time  are  there  any  among  you  who  are  able 
4md  who  do  cast  out  devils,  speak  with  new  tongues,  handle  deadly 


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276  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

things  without  harm,  and  heal  physical  diseases  by  laying  on  of 
hands? 

2.  Are  there  any  medical  doctors  and  lawyers  among  yon 
who  practice  their  profession? 

8.  Do  yon  recognize  community  of  goods  to  be  an  essential 
doctrine  of  Christianity?  Is  your  system  communistic?  If  not 
how  do  you  explain  the  following:  ''And  the  multitude  of  them 
that  believed  were  of  one  heart  and  of  one  soul:  neither  said  any  of 
them  that  ought  of  the  things  which  he  possessed  was  his  own;  but 
they  had  all  things  in  common."  ''Neither  was  there  any  among 
them  that  lacked/'  etc.  The  Acts,  32:  34th  and  35th  verses. 
Kindly  explain  your  system,  if  neither  communistic  nor  competitive. 

4.  Do  you  practice  polygamy,  and  if  so,  where  in  the  teach- 
ings of  Jesus  Christ  do  you  find  authority  for  such  practice?  Kindly 
give  me  your  views  on  the  sex  question  and  reasons  for  polygamy. 

5.  How  do  you  explain  the  following:  "But  he  said  unto 
them,  all  men  cannot  receive  this  saying  save  they  to  whom  it  is 
given."  "For  there  are  some  eunuchs  which  were  so  bom  from 
their  mother's  womb:  and  there  are  some  eunuchs  which  were  made 
eunuchs  of  men  and  there  be  eunuchs  which  have  made  themselves 
eunuchs  for  the  kingdom  of  heaven's  sake.  He  that  is  able  to 
receive  it  let  him  receive  it"  ?  Matthew  xix:  11th  and  12th  verses. 

6.  How  do  you  explain  the  following:  "Jesus  answered  and 
said  unto  them,  ye  do  err  not  knowing  the  scriptures,  nor  the 
power  of  God."  "For  in  the  resurrection  they  neither  many  nor 
are  given  in  marriage  but  are  as  the  angels  of  Grod  in  heaven"  ? 
Matthew  xxii:  29th  and  30th  verses.  What  do  you  understand  by 
the  word  "resurrection"  as  used  here? 

7.  Explain  the  following:  "But  as  the  days  of  Noe  were,  so 
shall  also  the  coming  of  the  Son  of  man  be."  "For  as  in  the  days 
that  were  before  the  flood,  they  were  eating  and  drinking  and  giv- 
ing in  marriage  until  the  day  that  Noe  entered  into  the  ark." 
Matthew  xxiv:  37th  and  38th  verses. 

8.  Explain  the  following:  "For  when  they  shall  rise  from 
the  dead  they  neither  marry  nor  are  given  in  marriage  but  are  as 
the  angels  which  are  in  heaven."  Mark  xii:  25th  verse.  What  do 
you  understand  by  the  word  "dead"  as  U3ed  in  this  verse? 

9.  Explain  the  following:   "And  he  stretched  forth  his  hand 


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ANSWERS  TO  INTERESTING  QUESTIONS.  277 

toward  his  disciples  and  said^  Behold  my  mother  and  my  brethren. 
For  whosoever  shall  do  the  will  of  my  Father,"  etc.  Matthew  xii: 
49th  and  50th  verses. 

10.  Explain:  '1  am  come  not  to  send  peace  but  a  sword. 
For  I  am  come  to  set  a  man  at  variance  against  his  father  and  a 
daughter  against  her  mother,"  etc.  Matthew  x:  34th  to  39th 
verses. 

If  you  have  greater  light  than  I  am  already  in  possession  of 
and  can  demonstrate  a  purer,  holier  life  I  am  willing  to  acknowledge 
it.  Sincerely  in  truth  I  remain, 

£j.  J.  S. 


Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  Dec.  29, 1898. 
Mr.  E.  J.  S.: 

Dear  Friend:  A  letter  of  inquiry  addressed  by  you  to  Presi- 
dent Lorenzo  Snow  has  been  handed  to  me  to  answer,  as  President 
Snow  has  been  too  busy  to  give  it  his  personal  attention.  This  will 
account  for  the  delay  in  replying  to  your  questions. 

THE  ANSWERS. 

Pird:  You  ask  if  there  are  any  among  us  who  are  able  to 
east  out  devils,  speak  with  new  tongues,  heal  diseases  by  laying  on 
hands,  etc.  Amwer:  The  promise  of  Jesus  Christ  to  "them  that 
believe''  (Mark  xvi:  17,  18)  has  been  fulfilled  to  the  letter  in  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  as  it  was  among  the 
saints  in  former  days.  There  have  been  and  are  frequent  manifes- 
tations of  the  power  of  God  through  faith  among  the  members  of 
this  Church.  No  one  claims  to  have  such  power  in  and  of  himself. 
It  is  of  God,  obtained  by  individual  faith. 

Second:  Yes,  there  are  medical  doctors  and  lawyers  among  us 
who  practice  their  profession. 

Third:  We  do  not  recognize  "community  of  goods  as  an 
essential  doctrine  of  Christianity."  The  passages  in  Acts  iii  simply 
relate  what  took  place  in  the  days  of  the  Apostles.  Communism' 
is  not  taught  in  the  New  Testament  nor  believed  in  by  the  Latter- 
day  Saints.    At  present  every  person  enjoys  the  right  of  property. 


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278  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Each  owns  that  which  he  accnmulates,  one-tenth  of  his  increase- 
being  donated  to  the  Church,  the  authorities  of  which  see  that  the 
poor  are  properly  supplied.  Our  system  contemplates  a  more  per- 
fect social  order,  in  which  every  man  will  be  a  steward  over  that 
which  is  placed  in  his  possession,  the  ownership  being  recognized 
as  in  the  Lord.  The  earth  and  the  fullness  thereof  are  his.  Each 
steward  will  receive  his  support  out  of  the  means  which  he  handles,^ 
the  increase  and  surplus  being  held  by  the  Church,  for  the  benefit 
of  the  whole  body  of  its  recognized  members,  he  giving  an  annual 
account  of  his  stewardship.  This  is  but  a  veiy  brief  outline  of 
the  plan  revealed  for  the  future  government  of  the  Saints  finan- 
cially, which  cannot  be  fully  carried  out  in  the  present  condition 
of  statutory  enactments. 

Fourth:  Polygamy,  that  is  the  marrying  of  plural  wives,  is 
not  now  practiced  in  this  Church.  The  law  of  the  Lord  requires 
the  Saints  to  be  obedient  to  the  laws  of  the  land  in  whatever  nation 
they  reside.  The  secular  law  being  against  this  practice,  it  is  now 
prohibited  both  by  Church  and  State. 

FifVi:  The  meaning  of  Matthew  xix:  11, 12  is  obvious,  except 
that  part  of  it  which  speaks  of  those  who  "have  made  themselves 
eunuchs  for  the  kingdom  of  heaven's  sake."  This  means  that  some 
men  have  devoted  themselves  to  laboring  for  the  interests  and 
salvation  of  mankind  to  the  extent  that  they  do  not  marry,  but 
continue  in  the  ministry  and  sacrifice  themselves;  so  that  it  maybe 
said  of  them,  figuratively,  that  they  have  made  themselves  eunuchs 
for  the  kingdom  of  heaven's  sake.  As  Jesus  said,  ''There  are  few 
that  can  receive  this,"  and  practice  it. 

Sixth:  The  meaning  of  the  word  "resurrection"  in  Matthew 
XX :  29,  30  is  the  state  of  mankind  after  they  are  raised  from  the 
dead  (see  John  v:  28,  29;  Revelation  xx.)  Marrying  and  giving  in 
marriage  is  not  ordained  for  that  state.  It  is  an  ordinance  for  this 
life,  established  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  before  death  entered  into 
the  world.  Adam  and  Eve  were  made  one  by  a  divine  ceremony, 
and  as  "the  man  is  not  without  the  woman,  neither  the  woman 
without  the  man  in  the  Lord,"  (I.  Cor.  xi:  11.)  Adam  and  Eve 
will  be  one  flesh  in  the  resurrection  state.  So  with  all  pairs  mar- 
ried under  the  same  law,  that  which  is  sealed  on  earth  being  sealed 
in  heaven.    The  people  about  whom  Jesus  Christ  was  speaking,  as 


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ANSWERS  TO  IhTERESTlNG  QUESTIONS.  279 

recorded  in  the  passage  you  quote,  were  not  in  the  sacred  relation 
herein  referred  to.  Therefore,  in  the  world  to  come  they  will  be  "as 
the  angels,"  who  are  separate  and  single  and  are  ministering  spirits 
unto  those  who  are  worthy  of  "a  far  more  and  eternal  and  exceeding 
weight  of  glory.** 

Seventh:  The  meaning  of  Matt,  xxiv:  27,  28,  is  that  the 
destruction  of  the  wicked  at  the  time  of  the  coming  of  the  Son  of 
Man  will  be  as  sudden,  and  overtake  them  as  surely  and  completely, 
as  the  destruction  that  came  by  the  flood  in  the  days  of  Noah,  (see 
n.  Thess.  i:  7,  10.)  As  the  preaching  of  Noah  by  revelation  from 
God  preceded  the  destruction  by  the  flood,  so  the  preaching  of  the 
Gospel  by  revelation  from  God  in  the  latter  days  precedes  the 
destruction  of  the  wicked  at  the  time  of  the  Lord's  advent. 

Eighth:  The  word  "dead"  in  Mark  xii:  25,  means  the  condi- 
tion of  the  body  in  the  grave  when  the  spirit  has  departed.  "The 
body  without  the  spirit  is  dead,"  (James  ii:  26.) 

Ninth:  The  meaning  of  Matt,  xii:  49,  50,  is  that  Christ 
regards  those  who  keep  the  commandments  of  God  and  do  the 
Father's  will,  as  dearer  to  him  than  blood  relations  who  do  not  obey 
the  Grospel  and  walk  in  the  ways  of  the  Lord.  The  meaning  of 
Matt,  x:  34,  39,  is  that  Christ  came  to  introduce  light  and  truth 
and  the  power  of  God.  These  are  opposed  to  darkness,  error  and 
the  power  of  the  devil.  These  opposites  cannot  harmonize.  They, 
therefore,  create  commotion.  When  people  of  the  same  family  are 
divided  on  these  lines,  those  who  receive  the  Gospel  are  hated  and 
fought  against  by  those  who  receive  it  not,  and  thus  in  many  cases 
the  father  is  against  the  son,  the  mother  against  the  daughter,  and  "a 
man's  greatest  foes  are  they  of  his  own  household." 

That  the  Lord,  in  his  infinite  mercy  to  the  earth's  inhabitants, 
has  revealed  a  greater  light  than  was  in  the  world  previous  to  the 
ushering  in  of  this  last  dispensation,  is  evident  to  all  who  are  seek- 
ing sincerely  for  the  light  that  cometh  from  above.  As  to  "demon- 
strating a  purer,  holier  life"  than  yours,  or  that  of  any  other  per- 
son, we  have  nothing  which  we  desire  to  offer.  We  have  no  boast- 
ing on  that  subject.  Each  man's  life  is  open  to  his  God,  who  is 
the  supreme  judge  of  men's  acts.  To  him  we  will  have  to  give 
account.  We  are  not  posing  before  the  world  as  beings  of  peculiar 
sanctity  above  our  fellow-men,  nor  do  we  exclaim,  "I  am  holier 


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280  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

than  thou."  We  do  say  that  God^' through  Jesos  Chrigt  his  Soiv 
has  opened  the  dispensation  of  the  fullness  of  times  by  Joseph  Smith 
the  Firophet  of  the  latter  days  and  his  successors,  and  that  the  truths 
connected  therewith  are  offered  freely  to  all  mankind  to  receive  or 
reject  them  as  they  will.  We  know  that  this  work  is  of  God,  and 
we  testify  of  this  in  all  solemnity  and  soberness.  May  the  Lord 
open  your  eyes  to  see  this  glorious  light  and  incline  your  heart  to 
receive  and  obey  the  truth  as  it  is  in  Christ  Jesus! 

Yours  sincerely, 

C.  W.  Penrose. 


HABITS. 

A.  WOOTTON. 


The  tendency  of  habits  of  action  as  well  as  of  thought  to 
repeat  themselves  uncounsciously  should  teach  the  necessity  of 
forming  only  such  habits  as  we  would  be  willing  to  have  repeated 
anywhere,  in  any  company  and  in  the  broad  light  of  day. 

No  habit  of  speech  or  action  should  be  indulged  in  at  home 
that  would  bring  chagrin  if  repeated  abroad;  and  that  which  is 
done  in  the  dark  should  be  of  such  a  character  that  unconscious 
repetition  in  the  daylight  or  before  the  world  would  not  bring  a 
blush  of  shame  to  the  cheek. 

Building  habits  is  virtually  character  ibuilding,  and  character 
is  something  as  lasting  as  eternity,  so  that  negligence  in  the  smaller 
details  will  seriously  mar  the  beautiful  whole,  as  the  slightest  daub 
on  a  masterpiece  of  art  would  seriously  detract  from  its  beauty  and 
reduce  its  market  value  to  a  minimum. 

A  blemish  on  a  beautiful  picture  tends  to  mar  its  beauty  in 
direct  proportion  to  the  artistic  perfection  displayed  in  the  picture 
as  a  whole;  so  also  the  slightest  deformity  appears  more  conspicu- 
ous as  the  character  approaches  the  highest  ideal 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES- 

n. 

JAMES  AND  JOHN. 

BY  PROFESSOR  WILLARD  DONE,  PRESIDENT  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS' 
COLLEGE,  SALT  LAKE  CITY. 


The  two  sons  of  Zebedee  were  so  closely  associated  daring 
the  life  of  Christ,  and  one  of  them,  James,  met  a  martyr's  death 
so  early  in  the  ministry  of  the  Apostles  that  it  seems  permissible 
to  combine  their  lives  into  one  account. 

Like  Peter,  they  were  fishermen  on  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  and, 
no  doabt,  natives  of  the  same  village,  Bethsaida.  Like  Peter,  too, 
they  first  came  into  prominence  in  connection  with  their  disciple- 
ship  to  John  the  Baptist,  at  the  time  of  the  baptism  of  Christ. 
That  John  is  ''that  other  disciple''  referred  to  in  his  own  account 
of  that  event,  there  can  be  little  doubt.  From  this  time  he  and 
his  brother,  together  with  Peter  and  Andrew,  were  devoted  fol- 
lowers of  Christ.  Their  call  to  the  active  ministry  occurred  simul- 
taneously with  that  of  Peter  and  Andrew,  all  four,  indeed;  being 
called  through  the  same  miracle.  From  thenceforth  the  lives  of 
Peter,  James,  and  John  were  indissolubly  united.  These  three 
^ere  present  at  the  raising  of  the  daughter  of  Jairus  from  the 
dead,  the  transfiguration,  and  the  silent  vigil  in  Grethsemane. 

James  and  John,  however,  did  not  come  into  quite  the  promi- 
nence attained  by  the  bolder  and  more  assertive  Peter.  Hence 
their  names  are  not  so  often  particularized  by  the  evangelists. 
But  we  are  not  to  make  the  mistake  of  concluding  from  this  cir- 


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282  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

cnmstance  that  these  two  were  lacking  in  force  and  fire.  The 
title  applied  to  them,  "Boanerges,"  (sons  of  thunder,)  would  indi- 
cate the  contrary.  Two  incidents  which  occurred  during  the  life 
of  Jesus  illustrate  this  forcefulness.  On  one  occasion,  while  the 
Lord  and  the  Apostles  were  traveling  through  Samaria,  a  request 
was  sent  ahead  for  entertainment  at  one  of  the  small  villages.  To 
the  intense  surprise  and  indignation  of  the  disciples,  this  enter- 
tainment was  refused.  In  the  eyes  of  the  Apostles  a  double 
offense  was  committed  by  those  Samaritans.  They  had  broken  the 
strict  rule  of  eastern  hospitality,  which  demands  food  and  shelter 
for  the  traveler,  no  matter  how  poor  and  mean.  They  had  also 
shown  disrespect  for  the  Messiah,  whom  his  followers  had  learned 
by  infallible  signs  and  testimonies,  to  regard  as  of  higher  authority 
than  any  of  the  prophets  who  had  preceded  him.  Since,  therefore, 
doubtless  in  this  very  region,  Elijah  had  called  down  fire  from 
heaven  by  which  one  hundred  and  two  men  were  consumed,  (II. 
Kings  1:  10-12,)  James  and  John  thought  the  present  case  even 
more  deserving  of  punishment.  Hence  their  indignant  question, 
"Lord,  wilt  thou  that  we  command  fire  to  come  down  from  heaven, 
and  consume  them,  even  as  Elias  did?"  The  answer  of  our  Lord, 
dissuading  and  rebuking  them,  is  characteristic  of  his  love  and 
forgiveness. 

According  to  some  authorities  it  was  a  short  time  after  this 
event  that  James  and  John  again  came  into  prominence  on  account 
of  the  ambition  of  their  mother,  Salome.  The  manner  of  Christ's 
approaching  death,  and  the  nature  of  the  kingdom  into  which  he 
was  about  to  enter,  had  doubtless  become  quite  well  known  to  his 
disciples.  Whether  or  not  Salome  was  acquainted  with  these 
points  is  not  known.  There  is  no  doubt,  however,  that  she  knew 
the  greatness  of  his  destiny,  and  how  desirable  it  would  be  to  be 
associated  with  him  therein.  Therefore  she  came  to  him  and 
preferred  the  ambitious  request,  "Grant  that  these  my  two  sons 
may  sit,  the  one  on  thy  right  hand,  and  the  other  on  the  left,  in 
thy  kingdom."  When  the  two  men  assured  him  that  they  would 
be  able  to  endure  the  drinking  of  his  cup  and  the  partaking  of  his 
baptism,  he  dismissed  them  with  the  assurance  that  only  the 
Father  could  decide  who  should  exercise  authority  in  the  kingdom. 
He  assuaged  the  rising  indignation  of  the  other  ten  by  showing 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  283 

them  the  difference  between  his  kingdom  and  those  of  the  gentiles, 
the  ruler  in  the  latter  exercising  dominion,  while  those  in  the 
former  were  to  be  servants  of  all.  Surely,  there  could  be  no  more 
effectual  cure  for  ambition  than  this. 

After  this  event,  James  fell  into  obscurity,  being  no  more 
mentioned  by  name  by  any  of  the  evangelists,  except  in  connection 
with  the  prediction  of  the  fall  of  Jerusalem  and  with  the  agony  in 
Grethsemane.  Of  course,  he  was  with  Jesus  and  the  other  Apostles 
in  all  the  transactions  of  the  eventful  week  preceding  the  cruci- 
fixion, and  on  the  occasion  of  the  various  appearances  of  the  Savior 
to  the  Apostles.  In  fact,  one  of  these  appearances  was  to  James 
individually,  as  testified  by  Paul  (I.  Cor.  15:  7.)  James  is  next 
mentioned  in  the  list  of  Apostles  in  the  first  chapter  of  Acts,  and 
then  he  is  spoken  of  no  more  until  brief  mention  is  made  of  his 
martyrdom.  '*And  he  [Herod]  killed  James,  the  brother  of  John, 
with  the  sword,"  (Acts  12:  2.)  This  event  occurred  probably  as 
early  as  44  A.  D.  James  therefore  has  the  distinction  of  being  the 
first  Apostolic  martyr.  It  is  unfortimate  that  so  notable  an  event 
should  receive  such  brief  treatment  at  the  hands  of  the  historian. 
Tradition,  however,  has  attempted  to  fill  in  the  details.  It  is 
asserted  that  the  officer  who  had  the  distinguished  martyr  in 
charge,  was  so  impressed  with  his  dignified  fortitude  that  he  was 
converted  to  Christianity,  and  was  beheaded  at  the  same  time  as 
James.  The  legend  is  related  by  Clement  of  Alexandria,  and  pre- 
served by  Eusebius  in  these  words:  '*The  accuser  of  the  Apostle, 
beholding  his  confession  and  moved  thereby,  confessed  that  he 
too  was  a  Christian.  So  they  were  both  led  away  to  execution 
together,  and  on  the  road  the  accuser  asked  James  for  forgiveness. 
Gazing  on  him  for  a  little  while,  he  said,  'Peace  be  with  thee,'  and 
kissed  him.    And  then  they  were  both  beheaded  together." 

This  martyrdom  of  James  is  one  of  the  strongest  testimonies 
to  his  prominence  and  importance  among  the  Apostles,  and  does 
much  to  correct  the  impression  naturally  formed  by  the  lack  of 
prominent  mention  of  him  by  the  evangelists.  Surely,  since  Herod 
undertook  this  persecution  for  tl)e  sake  of  gaining  the  favor  of 
the  Jews,  and  since,  no  doubt,  he  could  choose  the  victim,  he  would 
surely  select  one  of  the  most  influential  and  prominent  of  the 


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284  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Apostles.  His  selection  of  James,  therefore,  is  a  high  tribute  to 
the  Apostle's  worth  and  dignity. 

Considerable  prominence  is  given  to  John  in  connection  with 
the  closing  events  of  the  life  of  Jesus,  and  also  the  labors  of  the 
Apostles.  At  the  last  supper  he  reclined  next  to  Jesus,  and  heard 
some  details  of  the  conversation  which  no  doubt  escaped  the  ears 
of  the  other  Apostles.  Prominent  among  these  was  the  reference 
to  the  betrayal  wrought  by  Judas  of  Kerioth.  We  cannot  help 
thinking  that  if  the  head-strong,  self-assertive  Peter  had  heard 
Christ's  injunction  to  Judas,  'That  thou  doest,  do  quickly,"  and 
had  understood  its  import  as  John  seems  to  have  done,  there  might 
have  been  an  interference  with  the  traitor's  carefully  laid  plan  of 
betrayal.  We  are  also  very  much  interested  in  the  record  John 
has  kept  of  the  wonderful  discourse  and  impressive  prayer  of  our 
Lord  on  that  solemn  occasion. 

When  Jesus  was  taken  and  led  away  to  his  trial,  John  was 
the  only  one  of  the  Apostles  to  remain  in  his  immediate  company. 
Being,  as  he  himself  says,  'Imown  to  the  high  priest,"  he  was 
admitted  to  the  house  of  that  officer,  where  the  first  stage  of  the 
trial  took  place.  From  there  John  followed  the  Master  through  the 
tragic  events  of  that  forenoon,  to  Calvary.  '  He  stood  within  ear- 
shot with  the  women,  probably  his  own  mother,  the  mother  of 
Jesus,  Mary,  the  wife  of  Cleophas,  and  Mary  Magdalene,  during  the 
awful  agony  of  the  cross.  It  was  here  that  the  touching  incident 
occurred  of  Jesus  consigning  his  heart-broken  mother  to  John's 
care.  His  impressive  words  to  his  mother,  "Woman,  behold  thy 
son,"  and  to  John,  "Son,  behold  thy  mother,"  seem  to  have  been 
the  signal  for  John  to  lead  Mary  away,  so  that  she  might  not  wit- 
ness the  death  struggle.  It  is  supposed  that  John  immediately 
took  Mary  to  his  own  house  in  Jerusalem,  and  remained  in  close 
attendance  upon  her  until  her  death,  leaving  his  home  for  no  great 
length  of  time  during  that  period. 

Together  with  Peter,  John  visited  the  sepulchre  just  af  t^  the 
resurrection  of  Jesus,  and  was  therefore  one  of  the  first  witnesses 
of  that  event.  He  was  also  in  company  with  Peter,  John,  Thomas 
and  Nathanael  on  the  sea  of  Galilee,  when  the  notable  appearance 
of  the  resurrected  Lord  occurred  there.  John  comes  into  special 
prominence  in  connection  with  this  event,  because  of  the  predic- 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  285 

tioD  that  he  should  remain  upon  the  earth  until  Christ's  second 
coming. 

The  next  personal  mention  of  John  is  in  connection  with  the 
healing  of  the  lame  man  by  Peter,  at  the  'iSeautif  ul  Gate''  of  the 
temple.  John  witnessed  this  miracle,  went  with  Peter  into  the 
temple,  and  endured,  with  him,  the  taunts  and  abuse  heaped  upon 
them  by  the  Jews,  joining  with  him  in  the  determination  to  "obey 
God  rather  than  men,"  in  preaching  Christ.  John  accompanied 
Peter  to  Samaria,  to  confer  the  Holy  Ghost  on  those  whom  Philip 
had  baptized.  This  is  the  last  mention  of  John  in  the  Acts, 
although  Paul  refers  to  him  as  one  of  the  three  "  pillar  Apostles" 
at  Jerusalem  (Peter,  James  and  John)  on  the  occasion  of  his  visit 
there.    (Gal.  2:  9.) 

For  information  regarding  the  subsequent  life  of  John  we  are 
entirely  dependent  upon  tradition.  It  is,  necessarily,  difficult  to 
determine  what  legends  out  of  the  many  clustering  about  his  name 
are  based  on  fact,  and  what  ones  on  imagination.  The  only  safe 
course  to  follow  is  to  accept,  conditionally,  those  which  are  sup- 
ported by  the  greatest  mass  of  evidence,  and  reject,  also  condi- 
tionally, the  others.  In  pursuance  of  this  plan,  those  traditions 
which  are  most  worthy  of  belief  will  be  named  first,  the  less  likely 
ones  being  afterwards  particularized. 

He  is  said  to  have  remained  at  Jerusalem  until  about  the  year 
68  B.  C,  or  about  eighteen  years  after  the  visit  of  the  Apostle 
Paul  above  referred  to.  What  the  motive  was  for  his  leaving 
Jerusalem  is  not  conjectured.  It  is  even  uncertain  where  he  went. 
Some  authorities  are  of  opinion  that  he  went  to  Rome,  others,  to 
Bphesus.  The  main  reason  for  supposing  that  he  went  to  Rome  is 
the  graphic  description  he  gives  of  the  Neronic  persecutions  of 
the  Christians,  (Rev.)  which  argues  strongly  for  his  having  wit- 
nessed those  cruelties.  It  is  supposed,  too,  that  he  resided  at 
EphesuB  before  his  removal  to  Patmos,  this  latter  event  occurring, 
according  to  the  general  presumption,  soon  after  the  year  68.  As 
to  the  reason  for  his  being  at  Patmos,  we  are  left  somewhat  in 
doubt.  There  is  reason,  however,  for  inclining  to  the  belief  that 
he  was  banished  thither  for  the  testimony  of  the  Gospel.  The 
existence  on  that  island  of  mines,  or  quarries,  in  which  prisoners 
were  wont  to  labor,  is  a  strong  presumption  for  that  belief.    His 


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286  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

stay  on  this  rocky  island  was  immortalized  by  his  writing  the 
Apocalypse,  or  Revelation.  In  spite  of  hostile  criticism,  the  fact 
that  this  grand  book  was  written  by  John  the  Apostle,  stands  well 
attested. 

We  are  almost  sure  that  he  spent  a  great  portion  of  his  life 
toward  the  close  of  the  first  century,  in  Ephesus,  and  probably 
presided  over  the  church  there,  being  possibly,  in  charge  of  all  the 
branches  situated  in  Asia  Minor.  We  are  safe  in  supposing  that 
he  occupied  this  responsible  position  before,  as  well  as  af t^  ius 
residence  on  Patmos,  from  the  tone  of  authority  he  assumes  in 
addressing  the  seven  churches  in  Asia,  in  the  book  of  Revelation. 
If  this  supposition  is  correct,  the'  importance  of  John  as  the  last 
of  the  Apostles  to  survive,  is  clearly  shown.  Indeed,  we  may  be 
sure  that  he  exercised  a  presidential  authority  over  all  the  churches, 
at  least  in  Asia,  that  still  remained  true  to  the  faitL  In  consid- 
eration of  the  fact  that  the  quorum  of  Apostles  was  not  perpetu- 
ated, we  are  not  surprised  that  the  last  surviving  member  of  the 
quorum  was  looked  upon  with  so  much  reverence  by  the  decaying 
church. 

All  that  is  further  known  about  the  history  of  John  is  that 
he  grew  old  in  the  Ephesian  community.  A  tradition  which  shows 
a  striking  characteristic  of  the  Apostle,  is  to  the  effect  that  when 
he  was  so  old  as  to  be  unable  to  walk  to  the  church,  he  caused 
himself  to  be  carried  in  by  some  young  men.  Being  unable  to 
talk  at  any  length,  he  merely  greeted  the  members  of  the  com- 
munity with  the  words,  "Little  children,  love  one  another."  When 
asked  why  he  was  so  persistent  in  repeating  this  admonition,  he 
replied,  "Because  it  is  the  command  of  the  Lord,  and  if  this  is 
done  it  is  enough."  Nor,  according  to  the  tradition,  did  he  confine 
this  precept  to  theory.  He  applied  it  in  his  intercourse  with  his 
brethren.  It  is  related  that  he  took  a  fancy  to  a  young  man,  and 
placed  him  in  the  care  of  a  bishop,  while  he  (John)  was  attending 
to  some  of  his  pastoral  duties,  with  the  admonition  that  he  should 
look  carefully  after  the  training  of  the  youth.  When  John  returned 
to  the  place  after  a  prolonged  absence,  he  inquired  after  the  young 
man,  and  found  to  his  sorrow  that  he  had  become  a  bandit  chief. 
Without  any  hesitancy,  the  aged  Apostle  sought  him  out,  and  was 
taken  captive  by  the  band.    At  his  own  request  he  was  brought 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  287 

into  the  presence  of  the  chief,  and,  by  his  nobility  and  self-sacri- 
fice in  looking  after  the  souls  of  others,  he  rescued  the  bandit 
from  his  downward  course. 

The  doubtful  legends  will  be  briefly  mentioned.  One  is  to  the 
effect  that  while  he  was  in  Rome,  he  was  doomed  to  martyrdom, 
his  end  to  be  accomplished  by  his  being  boiled  in  oil.  But  instead 
of  the  oil  producing  any  harmful  effect,  it  only  served  to  make 
him  more  youthful  and  vigorous.  This  tradition  is  seriously 
doubted  becase  it  is  mentioned  by  only  one  writer,  Tertullian,  who 
was  rather  undiscriminating,  and  for  the  further  reason  thiat  boil- 
ing in  oil  was  an  unusual,  not  to  say  unknown,  method  of  execu- 
tion. There  is  another  tradition,  equally  doubtful,  to  the  effect 
that  he  was  given  the  poisoned  hemlock,  as  in  the  case  of  Socrates, 
but  escaped  unharmed  after  drinking  it.  The  last  tradition  to  be 
referred  to,  has  to  do  with  the  death  of  the  Apostle.  It  relates 
that  John  died  at  Ephesus  in  the  hundredth  or  one  hundred  and 
twentieth  year  of  his  life,  and  that  his  grave  was  often  pointed 
out  by  his  followers,  to  wondering  visitors.  It  was  distinguished 
from  the  surrounding  sepulchres,  by  the  alternate  rising  and  falling 
of  the  ground  above  the  Apostle's  breast,  occasioned  by  his  breath- 
ing as  he  lay  in  immortal  sleep.  It  is  also  stated  that  the  grave 
was  opened  at  a  later  period  and  found  empty,  the  body  having  been 
raised  and  immortalized.  For  the  traditions  last  named  there  is 
scarcely  a  shred  of  authority. 

With  reference  to  the  death  of  John.  It  was  a  common  belief 
during  the  early  Christian  century,  that  he  did  not  die,  but  that  he 
was  given  the  privilege  of  remaining  on  the  earth  until  the  second 
coming  of  the  Savior.  This  opinion  had  its  rise  from  the  passage 
which  occurs  in  the  last  chapter  of  the  Gospel  of  John,  where  the 
Messiah,  in  answer  to  the  question  of  Peter,  ''What  shall  this  man 
dor  said,  ''If  I  will  that  he  tarry  till  I  come,  what  is  that  to  thee? 
Follow  thou  me."  The  next  verse  says,  "Then  went  this  saying 
abroad  among  the  brethren,  that  that  disciple  should  not  die." 
From  that  time  until  the  present,  some  Bible  authorities  have  been 
of  the  opinion  that  John  did  not  die,  while  others  are  of  opinion 
that  the  legend  of  his  death  is  true.  All  doubt  is  set  at  rest,  how- 
ever, by  the  unequivocal  testimony  of  Jesus  when  speaking  to  his 
Nephite  disciples,  and  by  the  word  of  the  Lord  to  the  Prophet 


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288  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

Joseph  Smith.  In  both  these  passages  it  is  clearly  stated  that 
John  was  permitted  to  remain  on  the  earth  until  the  second  com- 
ing of  Christ  should  occur.  * 

It  now  remains  only  to  give  a  brief  estimate  of  the  character 
of  John.  We  would  first  say  that  he  was  quick  to  respond  to 
the  influence  of  good.  On  this  account,  perhaps  as  much  as  on 
any  other,  his  Master  loved  him  especially.  In  at  least  three 
instances  this  quickness  of  response  is  illustrated.  One  was  where 
he  followed  the  Savior  so  closely  on  the  way  to  the  final  agony  of 
the  cross,  his  natural  feeling  of  reverence  overcoming  the  tendency 
toward  fear.  The  next  incident  was  when  he  first  heard  of  the 
resurrection  of  the  Lord.  With  his  usual  quick  response,  he  ran 
at  full  speed  to  the  sepulchre,  his  youth  and  his  zealous  respon- 
siveness enabling  him  to  distance  Peter  and  arrive  first  at  the 
tomb.  But  the  difference  between  the  two  characters  is  well 
illustrated  in  the  fact  that  although  John  first  arrived  at  the  tomb» 
his  awe  restrained  him  from  entering  at  once,  while  the  bold» 
impetuous  Peter  rushed  past  him  into  the  tomb  without  a  moment's 
hesitation.  The  third  occasion  was  when  Jesus  appeared  to  the 
Apostles  on  the  shore  of  the  Sea  of  Galilee,  after  the  resurrection. 
Peter,  James,  John,  and  some  others  of  the  disciples  had  gone 
back  to  their  nets,  and  had  toiled  all  the  night  without  taking  any 
fish.  In  the  morning  Jesus  appeared  on  the  shore,  and  asked  them 
if  they  had  any  meat.  On  their  answering  in  the  negative,  he 
told  them  to  cast  their  nets  on  the  right  side  of  the  ship.  They 
did  so,  and  were  unable  to  draw  the  net  on  account  of  the  great 
multitude  of  fishes.  With  his  usual  quickness  of  impression,  John 
recognized  Jesus,  and  exclaimed,  'It  is  the  Lord."  But  if  John 
was  the  first  to  recognize  him,  Peter  was  was  the  first  to  supple- 
ment thought  with  action.  He  immediately  girt  his  fisherman's 
cloak  about  him,  cast  himself  into  the  sea,  and  swam  to  the  shore. 

In  John's  case  impulsiveness  was  the  outcome  of  reverent 
love  for  his  Master.  This  love  was  mutual,  and  the  proudest  title 
that  John  gives  himself  throughout  his  Gospel,  is  ''that  disciple 
whom  Jesus  loved."  Nor  do  we  think  that  this  is  said  boastingly 
but  with  the  conviction  that  the  love  of  such  a  One  was  enough  to 
satisfy  the  most  holy  yearnings  of  the  human  heart.  It  was  this 
mutual  love  which  prompted  John  to  show  devotion  where  the 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  289 

other  disciples  failed  in  the  supreme  test.  For  what  stronger 
incentive  can  one  have  than  love? 

The  tenderness  and  gentleness  which  John  displayed  in  his 
old  age  may  be  considered  the  durect  outcome  of  the  affectionate 
disposition  he  manifested  toward  the  Savior  and  his  associates.  It 
became  mellowed  and  ripened  with  age,  without  sinking  into  the 
weakness  and  effeminacy  so  often  displayed  by  people  of  this  dis- 
position. Surely  the  opposite  from  effeminacy  is  shown  in  his 
resistance  to  the  demands  of  the  Jewish  and  Roman  officers,  in  his 
endurance  of  pains  and  banishment,  and  in  his  strong  and  wise 
administration  of  the  affaurs  of  the  churches  evidently  under  his 
presidency.  Briefly,  therefore,  his  nature  may  be  summed  up  in 
the  two  words,  strength  and  sweetness. 

It  is  fitting  to  close  this  brief  account  with  the  estimate 
placed  on  the  character  and  disposition  of  John  given  by  Canon 
Parrar  in  his  Life  of  Christ: 

'^he  character  of  St.  John  has  been  often  mistaken.  Filled  as  he 
was  with  a  most  divine  tenderness, — ^realizing  as  he  did  to  a  greater 
extent  than  any  of  the  Apostles  the  full  depth  and  significance  of  our 
Lord's  new  commandment — rich  as  his  epistles  and  his  gospel  are  with 
a  meditative  and  absorbing  reverence — dear  as  he  has  ever  been  in  con- 
sequence to  the  heart  of  the  mystic  and  the  saint — ^yet  he  was  something 
indefinitely  far  removed  from  that  effebiinate  pietist  that  has  furnished 
the  usual  type  under  which  he  has  been  represented.  The  name  Boan- 
erges, or  '^ons  of  Thunder,''  which  he  shared  with  his  brother  James, 
their  joint  petition  for  precedence  in  the  kingdom  of  God,  their  pas- 
sionate request  to  call  down  fire  from  heaven  on  the  offending  village  of 
the  Samaritans,  the  burning  energy  of  the  language  in  which  the  Apoca- 
lypse is  written,  the  impetuous  horror  with  which,  according  to  tradition, 
St.  John  recoiled  from  the  presence  of  the  heretic  Cerinthus,  all  show 
that  in  him  was  the  spirit  of  the  eagle,  which,  rather  than  the  dove,  has 
been  his  immemorial  symbol.  And  since  zeal  and  efathusiasm,  dead  as 
they  are,  and  scorned  in  these  days  by  an  effete  and  comfortable  relig- 
ionism, yet  have  ever  been  indispensable  instruments  in  spreading  the 
Kingdom  of  heaven,  doubtless  it  was  the  existence  of  these  elements  in 
his  character,  side  by  side  with  tenderness  and  devotion,  which  endeared 
him  so  greatly  to  his  Master,  and  made  him  'the  disciple  whom  Jesus 
loved.'  The  depth  and  power  of  his  imagination,  the  rare  combination 
of  contemplativeness  and  passion,  of  strength  and  sweetness,  in  the  same 


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290  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

soul — the  perfect  faith  which  inspired  his  devotion,  and  the  perfect  love 
which  preclnded  fear—these  were  the  gifts  and  graces  which  rendered 
him  worthy  of  leaning  his  young  head  on  the  bosom  of  his  Lord." 


I  HEAR  IT  YET. 


I  hear  it  yet,  that  bugle-note, 
Far  down  our  peaceful  valley  float; 
And  'tis  the  self-same  mournful  blast 

They  blew  the  very  day 
My  love  upon  me  look'd  his  last, 

And  went  away. 

Again  it  peals — so  wild  a  strain 
Were  fitter  for  the  battle-plain: 
Alas!    'tis  thence  indeed  it  comes, 

Mix'd  with  the  cannon's  roar. 
And  maddening  shouts,  and  deafening  drums, 

Heard  evermore! 

No  marvel  they  should  haunt  me  still. 
In  sadness,  wander  where  I  will. 
These  notes,  to  love's  last  deep  adieu. 

So  closely,  darkly  bound: 
No  marvel  if  all  senses  grew 

Absorbed  in  sound. 

0  wo!    his  was  a  bloody  bed! 

With  Spain's  far  earth  beneath  his  head. 

Not  one  to  watch  by  him,  and  mourn. 

Not  one  to  say,  farewell! 
But  that  heart-breaking  bugle-horn, 

And  battle's  swell! 

Kennedy. 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES- 

n. 


AN  OUTWARD  KINGDOM  OP  GOD  NECESSARY  TO 
SALVATION. 

BY  PROFESSOR  N.  L.  NELSON. 


Before  proceeding  to  discuss  the  above  proposition,  let  ns  by 
ivay  of  review  try  to  realize  more  fully  the  meaning  of  its  correl- 
-ative,  as  discussed  in  the  last  number  of  the  Era;  viz:  '*  An  Inward 
Kingdon  of  God  Necessary  to  Salvation." 

Suppose  it  should  suit  the  purposes  of  the  Jesuit  propaganda 
to  select  one  of  its  emissaries  and  give  him  the  mission  to  sift  the 
heights  and  depths  of  "Mormonism."  Under  the  rule  of  the  order, 
''AH  Things  for  Christ/'  nothing  would  hinder  his  conscience  from 
receiving  baptism  at  the  hands  of  our  Elders.  He  would  perhaps 
come  and  live  among  us,  pay  his  tithes  and  offerings,  attend  punc- 
tiliously to  his  Church  duties  and  obligations,  perhaps  go  on  a 
mission,  if  such  a  step  would  tend  to  open  to  him  the  doors  of  the 
Temple — in  short,  to  live  in  outward  seeming  the  life  of  a  Latter- 
day  Saint  for  as  long  a  period  of  time  as  might  be  necessary  to 
accomplish  his  mission  or  demonstrate  the  futility  of  it. 

Whether  his  lamb's  covering  would  be  pulled  off  or  not  is  a 

•question  that  may  be  left  to  await  a  real  case.    For  the  purpose  of 

this  illustration,  we  may  suppose  that  he  so  ingratiates  himself 

that  every  honor  and  privilege  of  the  Church  are  heaped  upon  him. 

He  is  in  the  Kingdom  of  Grod  truly,  but  is  he  qf  it?   No  more  than 


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292  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

a  wolf  in  the  fold  is  a  sheep,  however  carefully  concealed  in  wooL 
The  Kingdom  of  God  is  not  within  him,  hence  it  cannot  be  without 
him;  that  is,  his  outward  acts  will  not  help  to  save  him. 

Whether  or  not  this  case  has  taken  place  or  will  take  place,  it 
is  evident  to  all  of  us  that  occasionally  men  unite  themselves  with 
the  body  of  Christ  for  merely  ulterior  reasons.  Though  in  the 
Church  they  are  not  of  the  Church.  There  is  in  fact  no  way  for  a 
man  to  become  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  Grod,  save  by  having  the 
Kingdom  formed  within  him. 

If  this  thought  be  true  in  totality  it  must  likewise  be  true  in 
part.  Though  all  members  may  be  equally  in  the  Kingdom  they 
are  not  all  equally  of  the  Kingdom,  nor  is  any  one  of  the  Kingdom 
equally  day  arfter  day.  Whatever  part  of  the  Kingdom  is  truly 
formed  within  us  will  be  truly  expressed  without  us.  And  if  there 
be  expressed  outwardly  some  good  that  has  not  its  correlative  con- 
ception or  conviction  within,  no  credit  toward  salvation  will  accme^ 
therefrom;  for  as  observed  in  my  last  paper,  salvation  begins  to- 
take  place  in  the  very  centre  of  the  being,  not  in  his  external  life; 
and  consequently  acts  not  springing  out  of  this  centre,  cannot 
influence  it  for  good,  but  may,  when  they  are  hypocritical,  often 
influence  it  for  bad.  The  Ananiases  and  Sapphiras  of  the  Church, 
though  they  do  not  always  fall  dead,  do  not  on  that  account 
escape  judgment. 

From  the  foregoing  it  will  be  seen  that  having  the  "  Kingdom 
of  God  within  you,"  being  "  born  again,"  passing  "  from  death  unto- 
life,"  and  receiving  a  "testimony  of  the  Grospel"  are  all  expressions 
signifying  the  same  thing,  viz:  the  quickening  of  faith  within  ns. 
The  examples  I  have  adduced  showing  the  futility  of  mere  outward 
acts — acts  unconnected  with  the  heart — are  only  illustrations  of 
the  law  that  works  without  faith  are  dead;  which  (so  far  as  the 
salvation  of  the  doer  is  concerned)  is  quite  as  true  a  law  as  its  con- 
verse: faith  without  works  is  dead. 

Now  this  very  converse  expresses  in  terser  form  the  theme  of 
the  present  papei*;  for  granting  that  the  inward  Kingdom  stands 
for  faith,  what  is  the  outward  Kingdom  but  an  expression  of  that 
faith  in  works?  Let  us  then  proceed  to  trace  the  steps  whereby 
the  outward  Kingdom  results  from  the  inward. 

The  moment  any  being  receives  the  change  which  is  figura- 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES.  293 

-dvely  called  "the  Kingdom  of  Grod  within  yon,"  that  moment  he 
discovers  himself  out  of  joint  with  mankind.  To  pat  it  in  scrip- 
tural terms,  he  is  no  longer  of  the  world,  for  the  Lord  has  chosen 
him  out  of  the  world.  His  life  plans  have  been  upset,  his  ideas  of 
Tight  and  wrong  changed,  his  ideals  re-adjusted.  He  sees  through 
new  eyes— he  is  bom  again. 

It  is  not  wonderful  that  the  world  begins  to  hate  him,  fordoes 
he  not  immediately  manifest  his  hate  for  the  world? — ^for  the 
wrongs  and  shams  that  make  up  the  warp,  if  not  also  the  woof,  of 
the  world's  doings?  It  counts  for  little  or  nothing  if,  by  way  of 
-compensation,  he  manifests  a  love  ten-fold  increased  for  the  beings 
that  consent  to,  these  doings;  that  he,  recently,  one  of  them,  should 
now  turn  round  and  despise  what  they  hold  dear — this  is  not  to  be 
tolerated  nor  lightly  forgiven. 

Thus  is  the  man  isolated,  buffeted,  ostracized.  It  could  hardly 
be  otherwise;  for  he  ia  imbued  with  a  harmony,  be  it  little  or  much, 
which  is  discord  to  the  world.  But  he  feels  and  knows  that  it  is 
the  true  harmony,  the  eternal  harmony  of  the  universe,  which  has 
attuned  his  soul.  He  cannot  consent,  even  if  he  had  the  power,  to 
give  up  this  sweet  music  of  the  spheres  for  the  fragmentary  mel- 
odies of  the  world.  Whatever  betide,  he  must  suffer  the  worst  that 
men  can  do  and  get  balm  for  his  wounds  from  above.  Though  in 
the  world  he  has  ceased  to  be  of  the  world.  Nor  can  he  again  be 
joined  to  the  world  as  long  as  the  Kingdom  of  God  is  within  him. 

This  isolation  then  must  serve  as  a  criterion  of  the  true  con- 
vert. If  after  conversion  he  remain  wedded  to  the  idols  of  his 
previous  life,  if  religion  merely  completes  the  pleasures  of  exist- 
•ence,  and  otherwise  smooths  the  way  for  his  worldliness,  we  may 
well  doubt  whether  it  was  the  Kingdom  of  God  which  was  planted 
in  his  bosom.  In  this  day  of  imitations  we  should  not  be  surprised 
to  find  even  shoddy  conversions.  He  certainly  deserves  least  to  be 
counted  in  the  fold  of  Christ  who  rests  content  in  the  conviction 
that  the  Kingdom  of  God  is  within  him  and  that  therefore  he  need 
take  no  further  thought  of  salvation;  for  true  Converts  cannot  be 
at  rest  in  the  midst  of  worldly  environments.  As  Paul  puts  it, 
these  count  themselves  "strangers  and  pilgrims  on  earth.  For 
they  that  say  such  things,  declare  that  they  seek  a  country  *  *  * 
a  better  country,  that  is,  an  heavenly." 


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294  IMPBO  VEMENT  ERA. 

It  is  out  of  this  very  restlessness,  this  feeling  on  the  part  or 
the  convert  that  he  is  a  pilgrim,  this  longing  for  the  society  of 
beings  with  ideals  and  aspirations  similar  to  his  own,  that  the  out- 
ward Kingdom  of  God  grows.  The  law  is  as  natural  as  that  of 
gravitation.  Who  has  not  witnessed  its  operations  and  perhaps 
been  thrilled  by  personal  experience  of  it?  Here  at  random  is  the 
voice  of  such  a  one — a  young  lady  alone  on  the  Isle  of  Wight,  the 
only  one  of  her  family  who  has  accepted  the  Gospel: 

''When  I  read  in  the  Star  today,  I  felt  to  thank  our  Heavenly 
Father  from  the  depths  of  my  heart  that  ever  I  had  the  privilege 
of  meeting  a  Latter-day  Saint  Elder,  and  of  being  numbered  as  one 
of  the  people  so  despised.  I  have  9uch  a  strong  testimony  of  the 
truth  of  the  Gospel,  and  I  am  glad  to  say  that  the  longer  I  am 
away  from  our  people  the  more  intense  is  my  desire  to  be  amongst 
them  again,  and  to  be  in  some  way  useful  in  helping  to  spread  the 
Gospel  in  its  fullness."  * 

Here  is  a  girl  who  writes  a  heart-to-heart  letter  to  her  mission^ 
ary  friend,  with  no  other  motive  than  to  relieve  the  longing  for  love 
and  companionship.  Her  words  are  the  voice  of  her  soul — no  artifice, 
no  thought  of  the  spiritual  significance  of  what  she  was  saying. 
Least  of  all  did  she  dream  that  she  was  giving  expression  to  the 
divine  law  of  which  I  have  been  speaking.  Yet  note  how  perfect 
is  the  expression.  She  first  declares  that  she  has  a  strong  testi- 
mony of  the  truth  of  the  Gospel;  in  other  words  the  Kingdom  of 
God  is  strongly  formed  within  her.  Then  she  speaks  of  her  intense 
desire,  first,  to  unite  with  the  Latter-day  Saints,  second  to  help 
spread  the  Gospel  in  its  fullness;  which  last  two  ideas  embody,  both 
in  its  essence  and  purpose,  the  outward  Kingdom  of  God.  Note 
that  her  testimony,  or  the  Kingdom  of  God  within  her,  and  her 
desire,  which  points  to  the  Kingdom  of  God  without  her,  are  related 
as  cause  and  effect.  It  is  by  no  means  an  unusual  case.  Every 
convert  in  the  world,  every  missionary  out  of  Zion,  feels  the  same 
intense  longing;  feels  it  with  an  intensity  proportionate  to  the  full- 
ness of  the  Kingddb-of-God  idea  within  him. 

Let  us  now,  before  proceeding  to  the  next  division,  sum  up  Ib 


*  From  a  letter  by  Miss  Jennie  Brimhall  in  the  January  (1899)  num- 
ber of  the  Young  Woman^s  Journal. 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES.  295 

brief  the  points  made  in  this  progress  from  the  inward  to  the  out- 
ward Kingdom.  First,  receiving  of  the  Kingdom  within  (that  is,  a 
testimony  of  the  Gospel)  pnts  a  man  at  cross  angles  with  his  previ- 
ous bearings,  the  extent  of  his  isolation  depending  upon  the  fullness 
of  the  new  ideal  that  has  taken  possession  of  him.  Second,  as  he 
now  hates  what  the  world  loves,  the  world  naturally  turns  round 
and  hates  him,  adding  persecution  by  way  of  interest.  Third,  cut 
loose  from  every  tie  of  kinship  and  friendship,  he  becomes  in  spirit 
a  ''pilgrim  seeking  a  better  country,  that  is,  an  heavenly;"  in  other 
words,  an  outward  Kingdom  that  shall  not  jar  with  his  inward  King- 
dom. 

It  is  really  heaven  that  he  is  seeking;  but  heaven,  it  must  be 
remembered,  is  a  relative  term.  It  means  a  place  where  the  laws 
of  God  are  obeyed.  The  nearest  approach  to  heaven  on  this  earth 
is  the  Church  or  Kingdom  of  God.  He  will  never  be  "at  home"  or 
comfortable  until  he  reaches  that  degree  of  heaven,  or  the  out- 
ward Kingdom,  which  the  ideal  or  inward  Kingdom  fits  him  for;  that 
is,  he  will  never  be  at  ease  in  a  system  of  order  or  harmony  either 
much  above  or  much  below  the  order  and  harmony  that  is  within 
him.  Now  as  there  could  never  be  salvation  where  there  is  unrest, 
I  think  that  I  have  proved  that  an  outward  Kingdom  of  God,  being 
necessary  to  happiness,  must  be  necessary  to  salvation. 

But  there  is  another  side  to  this  question.  Suppose  there 
were  on  earth  no  outward  Kingdom  with  which  to  unite,  what  would 
become  of  those  in  whom  the  Kingdom  had  been  planted  by  the 
Spirit?  Granting  that  they  would  remain  true  to  theu:  "first  love," 
there  would  be  no  spiritual  life  for  them  save  that  of  hermits,  and 
this,  too,  even  though  they  lived  in  the  heart  of  the  most  populous 
city  on  earth.  I  have  often  wondered  if  this  spiritual  isolation  did 
not,  at  a  time  when  the  Kingdom  of  God  was  taken  from  the  earth, 
first  induce  that  migration  of  holy  men  to  deserts  and  lonely  places, 
which  at  length  became  the  reproach  of  human  intelligence.  Who 
shall  say?  It  would  not  be  the  first  instance  of  things  opposite  in 
character  yet  alike  in  outward  seeming.         ^ 

But  returning  to  the  first  question,  if  there  were  no  outward 
Kingdom  with  which  converts  might  unite,  would  men  retain  their 
heaven-bestowed  ideals,  that  is,  keep  themselves  apart  from  the 
world;  or,  granting  that  some  would  keep  alive  within  them  the 


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296  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

glimpse  given  them  of  the  Kingdom  of  God,  would  they  without  an 
outward  Eingdom'advance  beyond  that  first  glimpse  and  get  a  higher 
ideal?  This  question  brings  us  faurly  to  the  next  division  of  my 
theme;  viz:  an  outward  Kingdom  is  necessary  to  keep  alive  and 
make  progressive  the  inward  Kingdom;  and  therefore  of  course 
necessary  to  salvation. 

Consider  for  a  moment  what  would  have  happened  to  Cornelius 
and  his  family,  if,  after  having  had  the  Kingdom  of  God  formed 
within  them,  they  had  refused  to  obey  Peter's  command  to  unite 
themselves  with  the  outward  Kingdom.  Yet  such  things  occur  in 
the  experience  of  every  Elder.  I  am  convinced  that  for  every  per- 
son that  accepted  the  Gospel  under  my  administration  th^e  were 
a  hundred  in  whose  bosoms  the  Spirit  had  planted  the  Kingdom  of 
God;  but  their  testimonies  were  transitory,  lasting  only  long  enough 
for  them  to  make  the  act  of  will  which,  to  say  the  least,  postpones 
indefinitely  their  day  of  grace.  Many  of  those  whose  testimonies 
are  worked  into  the  reality  of  fact,  fall — more's  the  pity — back 
into  the  ways  of  the  world;  but  all  who  receive  of  the  Spirit  yet 
do  nothing,  fall  away.  The  image  of  the  Kingdom  which  the  Spirit 
impresses  upon  their  hearts  may  be  likened  to  that  image  which 
the  sun  prints  upon  the  "proof  paper  of  the  photographer.  If 
*  'developed"  by  further  work,  it  remains  "fixed"  for  all  time;  but  if 
left  as  first  impressed,  it  gradually  fades  into  a  black  indistinguish- 
able surface  comparable  to  nothing  so  much  as  the  mental  and 
spiritual  confusion  out  of  which  mobocracy  grows.  A  Kingdom  in 
the  heart  is  not  possible  for  very  long  -without  the  corresponding 
outward  Kingdom  of  noble  thoughts  wrought  out  in  deeds.  Faith 
when  not  immediately  followed  by  works  lives  only  an  ephemeral 
life. 

The  outward  Kingdom  of  God  is  necessary  to  salvation,  (1)  for 
the  rest  and  happiness  of  him  in  whom  the  inward  Kingdom  had  been 
formed;  (2)  for  the  fixing  of  that  inward  Kingdom;  (3)  for  the  pro- 
gressive growth  and  enlargement  of  that  inner  Kingdom;  and  (4) 
for  the  extension  of  that  Kingdom  to  others.  The  first  two  ideas 
have  been  ahready  discussed,  we  proceed  therefore  to  the  third. 

Man  is  not  fitted  to  advance  by  isolation.  A  hermit  life  can 
help  no  one.  For  he  who  has  the  inner  force  to  profit  by  a  life  of 
contemplation  has  already  enough  power  of  introspection  and  needs 


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GOSPEL  STUDIES.  297 

to  be  developed  in  the  lines  of  action,  while  he  who  has  not  enough 
inner  force  to  keep  his  mind  active  in  a  hermit's  cell,  though  he 
might  profit  by  a  few  years  of  silent  thinking,  cannot  be  trusted  to 
•develop  this  power  by  himself.  Isolation  to  him  would  mean  mental 
atrophy. 

Man  therefore  needs  society — needs  it  first  to  knock  off  the 
rough  comers  and  polish  his  exterior  self.  The  smooth,  round 
Btone  on  the  beach  was  once  a  rugged  fragment  broken  from  some 
shelving  cliff  on  the  mountain.  Its  angles  would  never  have  dis- 
appeared had  it  not  dropped  into  the  stream  and  been  jostled  and 
tossed  a  million  times  on  its  way  towards  its  destination.  Granting 
that  the  bed  of  the  river  and  the  water  may  stand  for  nature's 
share  in  the  fashioning  of  man,  the  ten  thousand  similar  stones 
going  down  the  stream  together  must  stand  for  the  influence  of 
society  upon  him. 

But  there  is  something  besides — ^viz:  the  development  of  the 
inner  life  of  man — which  my  illustration  fails  to  show;  unless  indeed 
some  agency  could  be  supposed  acting  upon  the  unorganized  parti- 
cles of  the  stone,  so  adjusting  them  that  instead  of  the  dull 
gray  and  brown  and  red  of  river  rock,  we  should  have 
pure  crystal  and  sparkling  diamond.  Even  this  agency,  how- 
ever, though  it  comes  direct  from  God,  is  largely  dependent  upon 
the  efforts  of  man  with  his  fellow-man.  No  one  will  deny  that  if 
this  crude  conglomeration  of  conflicting  sins  and  weaknesses  which 
we  denominate  our  inner  life,  is  to  be  attuned  and  harmonized  it 
must  be  done  by  the  Spirit  of  God;  but  who  shall  labor  with  the 
sinner  so  that  he  will  consent  to  admit  this  regenerating  power? 
Who  shall  go  to  him  when  darkness  and  doubt  have  almost  shut 
his  heart  against  heaven?  Man's  upward  growth  is  ''from  faith  to 
f  aitL"  The  Spirit  is  ever  ready  to  put  into  his  heart  a  more  per- 
fect Kingdom  of  God — ^when  he  shall  have  realized  in  deed  the  one 
flrst  given  him.  But  who  shall  urge  him  on  to  renewed  effort, 
when  he  has  come  almost  to  a  stand-still?  On  every  side  man 
needs  the  correcting,  the  supporting,  the  inspiring  arm  of  society. 

What  society?  Not  the  guilds  and  combinations  among  man- 
kind that  pass  under  this  name;  though  these  are  better  for  the 
upbuilding  of  the  race  than  the  isolation  of  the  hermit.  I  refer  to 
an  ideal  society— heaven's  ideal  for  earth — the  Church  or  Kingdom 


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298  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

of  Grod.  In  theory  this  society  is  fitted  perfectly  to  give  men  J07 
in  this  life,  and  prepare  them  for  joy  in  eternity;  prepare  them  by 
correcting  evil  tendencies,  eradicating  sins,  strengthening  weak- 
nesses and  keeping  the  mind  in  that  state  of  humility  whereby  the 
spirit  can  enter  and  adjust  the  inner  life  to  the  harmony  of  the 
universe.  Practically  it  fails  to  do  these  things — at  least  in  part; 
but  it  is  not  because  of  defect  in  the  organization  of  the  society; 
failure  comes  when  it  does  come,  not  from  faulty  laws,  but  from 
faulty  execution. 

Paul  recognized  regeneration  as  the  supreme  function  of  the 
Church,  which  he  said  was  for  the  ''perfecting  of  the  Saints,  for 
the  work  of  the  ministry,  for  the  edifying  of  the  body  of  Christ, 
till  we  all  come  in  the  unity  of  the  faith,  and  of  the  knowledge  of 
the  Son  of  God,  unto  a  perfect  man,  unto  the  measure  of  the 
stature  of  the  fullness  of  Christ."  And  that  man  can  never  attain 
this  fullness  outside  the  Church,  is  abundantly  proved  not  only  by 
the  foregoing  discussion,  but  by  the  whole  tenor  of  New  Testament 
Scripture.  That  the  Kingdom  is  in  imperfect  hands,  counts  nothing 
against  its  divine  functions;  it  is  the  best — ^the  only  society  fitted 
to  nurture  and  develop  to  glorious  realization  the  Kingdom  of  God 
as  planted  in  the  human  heart. 

What  then  shall  be  said  of  those  who,  persuaded  that  the 
Kingdom  of  God  is  an  inner  Kingdom,  which  at  some  camp-meeting 
or  revival  was  planted  in  them,  deny  the  efiicacy  of  an  outward 
Kingdom  and  refuse  to  unite  with  it?  Only  this,  that  of  all  cun- 
ning and  fatal  delusions  invented  by  the  evil  one,  they  are  in  the 
meshes  of  the  worst — ^worst  because  it  seems 'to  promise  them  the 
greatest  security. 


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THE  LAW  OF  TITHING 


BY  W.  B.  PRESTON,  PRESIDING  BISHOP  OP  THE  CHURCH. 

[The  following  question,  answered  by  Bishop  Preston,  was  received 
at  the  Era  office  with  a  request  that  it  be  answei^ed  through  our  pages. 
Thinking  that  the  Presiding  Bishop  of  the  Church  would  be  the  most 
satisfactory  person  to  answer  such  a  question,  it  was  referred  to  him  and 
he  wrote  the  brief  article  following. — Editors.\ 

I  beg  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  the  following  query,  respect- 
ing the  interpretation  of  the  law  of  tithing: 

"Mr.  A. —  contends  that  it  is  the  law  of  tithing  to  pay  one-tenth 
of  all  his  earnings  as  an  honest  tithe  to  the  Lord.  Mr.  B. —  says  not 
so:  I  must  first  pay  my  debts  and  take  out  my  expenses  of  living, 
and  then  pay  one-tenth  of  that  which  is  left;  which  he  claims  is 
the  real  increase.  One  of  our  home  missionaries  also  takes  this 
view.  Which  is  right — Mr.  A. —  or  Mr.  B. — ?  I  understand  that  the 
law  reads  we  should  pay  one-tenth  of  our  interest  annually;  but 
does  the  word  'interesf  mean  increase  as  Mr.  A. —  contends,  or  as 
Mr.  B. —  construes  the  term?" 

The  law  to  Israel  was  that  the  people  should  pay  one-tenth  of 
the  products  of  the  land,  the  fruit  of  the  trees,  of  the.  herds  and 
flocks,  and  in  fact,  one-tenth  of  all  that  they  produced. 

In  the  revelation  given  to  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  the  Lord 
required  all  the  surplus  property  of  the  Saints,  as  a  beginning  of 
their  tithing,  and  after  that,  ''Those  who  had  then  been  tithed 
shall  pay  one-tenth  of  their  irderest  annually." 

During  the  days  of  Nauvoo,  and  while  the  temple  was  being 
built,  and  in  the  early  history  of  Utah,  the  Saints  were  required  to 
pay  one-tenth  of  all  they  produced,  one-tenth  of  all  that  waa 


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800  IMPROVEMENT  ERA, 

accumulated  by  their  industry,  and  laboring  men  usually  worked 
one-tenth  of  then:  time  on  the  temple,  which  was  credited  to  them 
as  their  tithing. 

We  have  been  endowed  with  different  gifts,  and  various 
degrees  of  ability,  by  which  we  may  surround  ourselves  with  the 
necessities  and  comforts  of  life.  God,  our  Father,  through  our 
Elder  Brother  Jesus  Christ,  has  permitted  us  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of 
the  earth,  and  tempered  itbe  elements  for  our  good.  All  the  men- 
tal and  physical  powers  which  we  possess  are  his  gifts  to  us.  It 
might  be  said,  as  a  capital  stock,  for  which  he  requires  one-tenth 
of  all  we  produce  or  earn,  whether  it  be  on  the  farm,  in  the  office, 
or  any  other  occupation.  The  other  nine- tenths  is  for  our  personal 
use. 

The  Lord  has  said  in  the  revelation  to  the  Prophet  Joseph 
Smith,  that  'If  my  people  observe  not  this  law  to  keep  it  holy,  and 
by  this  law  sanctify  the  land  of  Zion  unto  me,  that  my  statutes 
and  my  judgments  may  be  kept  thereon,  that  it  may  be  most  holy, 
behold,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  it  shall  not  be  a  land  of  Zion  unto 
you."  The  Lord  further  says,  through  his  servant  Malachi, 
''Bring  ye  all  the  tithes  into  the  storehouse,  that  there  may  be 
meat  in  mine  house,  and  prove  me  now  herewith,  saith  the  Lord  of 
hosts,  if  I  will  not  open  you  the  windows  of  heaven,  and  pour  you 
out  a  blessing,  that  there  shall  not  be  room  to  receive  it."  There 
is  no  law  given  through  which  we  can  receive  so  many  of  the 
blessings  of  heaven  and  earth,  as  through  obedience  to  the  law  of 
tithes  and  offerings. 

A. —  is  correct.  One-tenth  of  all  his  earnings  is  an  honest  tithe 
to  the  Lord.  B. —  is  in  error,  and  cannot  be  sustained  by  the  spirit 
and  tenor  of  the  revelation  recorded  in  Section  119,  in  the  book 
of  Doctrine  and  Covenants. 


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INCONSISTENCY  OF  AGNOSTICS- 


BY  EDWIN  P.  PARRY. 

In  number  two  of  the  present  volume  of  the  Era  appeared  an 
article  entitled  "What  Agnosticism  is,"  contributed  by  Mr.  W.  H. 
Lamaster.  In  the  following  issue  of  the  Era  the  editor  reviewed 
the  article  mentioned,  and  gave  a  sufficient  answer  to  the  claims 
made  therein.  My  object  in  referring  to  Mr.  Lamasterfs  article  is 
merely  to  call  attention  to  one  statement  which  he  makes.  He 
says:  "The  Christian  relies  on  faith  for  his  belief  in  the  existence 
of  an  infinite  God.  *  *  *  This  may  meet  all  the  requirements 
of  theology,  but  philosophy  demands  something  more  logical  and 
reasonable  in  order  to  satisfy  it  of  the  existence  of  any  being 
either  finite  or  infinite." 

Statements  similar  to  the  above  are  frequently  made  by 
agnostics  and  infidels,  and  they  are  misleading  because  they  do  not 
set  forth  the  whole  truth  respecting  the  Christian's  position. 

It  may  be  true  that  "the  Christian  relies  on  faith  for  his  belief 
in  the  existence  of  an  infinite  God;"  but  he  does  not  rest  satisfied 
with  belief  alone.  In  his  search  for  knowledge  he  recognizes  the 
great  truth  that  faith  is  necessary  to  the  attainment  of  knowledge 
— that  faith  leads  to  knowledge,  and  that  the  only  way  to  acquure 
the  latter  is  through  the  exercise  of  faith.  All  knowledge  is  the 
result  of  action  or  experience,  and  faith  is  the  "moving  cause  of 
all  action;"  hence  knowledge  is  the  result  of  faitL 

True  Christianity  teaches  that  the  way  to  know  God  is  to  keep 
his  commandments.  St.  John  says,  "Hereby  we  do  know  that  we 
know  him,  if  we  keep  his  commandments."  (I  John  2:  8.)  This 
is  true  philosophy.    All  our  knowledge  is  the  result  of  obedience 


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302  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

to  certain  principles  or  laws,  and  intelligent  obedience  is  always 
preceded  by  faith.  It  is  therefore  folly  to  reject  faith  as  a  means 
of  gaining  knowledge. 

The  remark  of  Mr.  Lamaster,  that  "philosphy  demands  some- 
thing more  logical  and  reasonable  in  order  to  satisfy  it  of  the 
existence  of  any  being  either  finite  or  infinite/'  is  most  absurd  to 
the  intelligent  Christian  believer.  There  can  be  nothing  more 
logical  and  reasonable  than  the  Christian  method  of  satisfying  the 
mind  of  the  existence  of  an  Infinite  Being.  The  trae  Christian 
who  has  a  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  God  has  gained  that 
knowledge  in  the  only  logical  and  reasonable  way  there  is  to  arrive 
at  facts.  He  is  informed  that  there  is  a  God.  The  scriptures  tell 
him  how  he  may  know  there  is  a  God.  He  has  faith  sufficient  to 
test  the  promises  of  the  scriptures;  and  after  having  complied 
with  the  requirements  therein  set  forth  he  obtains  the  knowledge 
sought  after,  thus  verifying  the  truth  of  those  scriptures.  This 
is  precisely  the  same  way  in  which  all  facts  sought  for  are  gained. 
Philosophy  cannot  demand  a  more  logical  way  of  arriving  at  truths. 

The  mathematician  claims  to  be  able  to  measre  the  distance 
between  the  earth  and  the  sun.  To  prove  his  claim  philosophy 
demands  that  the  principles  employed  by  the  mathematician  in 
reaching  his  conclusions  be  learned  and  put  into  operation.  To  do 
this  some  faith  in  his  claims  must  be  exercised,  or  no  effort  would 
be  made  towards  a  demonstration.  This  is  the  only  reasonable 
method  of  testing  his  statements. 

The  claims  of  true  theology  will  bear  the  same  test.  Bnt^ 
strange  to  say,  the  agnostic  or  the  infidel  is  not  willing  to  submit 
to  this  process  of  learning  religious  truths.  He  refuses  to  test 
them  in  the  same  way  as  he  would  secular  truths.  He  refuses  to 
entertain  belief  in  the  supernatural  because  he  considers  it  too 
wonderful  or  strange  to  accept.  Thus  he  rejects  the  only  method 
whereby  he  can  make  a  philosophical  test  of  religion.  With  equal 
consistency  a  man  ignorant  of  mathematics  might  refuse  to  investi- 
gate the  principles  by  which  the  mathematician  measures  the  dis- 
tance between  the  earth  and  the  sun,  and  declare  that  such  a  thing 
is  impossible  because  it  is  such  a  remarkable  or'wonderful  feat.  No 
one  is  justified  in  rejectmg  the  Christian's  testimony  that  there  is 
a  Supreme  Being  without  having  exercised  faith  in,  and  rendered 


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INCONSISTENCY  OF  AGNOSTICS  303 

-obedience  to,  the  requirements  necessary  to  the  attainment  of  a 
knowledge  of  the  existence  of  God.  No  investigation  short  of 
this  is  sufficient  to  be  called  a  fair  test  of  the  Christian's  claims. 


THE  LAWS  OP  RELIGION. 

MONTESQUE. 


The  laws  of  religion  should  never  inspire  an  aversion  to  any- 
thing but  vice,  and  above  all  they  should  never  estrange  man  from 
B  love  and  tenderness  for  his  own  species. 

***** 

The  Mohammedan  and  Indian  (Hindu)  religions  embrace  an 
infinite  number  of  people,  the  Indians  hate  the  Mohammmedans, 
because  they  eat  cows;  the  Mohammedans  detest  the  Indians  because 
they  eat  hogs. 


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SCENERY  OF  THE  CLYDR 


ANON. 


Many  people  living  in  Utah  and  the  several  mountain  states 
surrounding  her,  hail  from  the  "Land  o'  the  LeaF — Old  Scotia; 
and  to  thepi  the  scenes  and  tales  of  the  land  of  their  birth  are  still 
dear.  Loyalty  to  the  memory  of  native  land — ^to  her  scenes,  her 
mountains,  her  vales,  her  streams  and  lochs,  her  traditions  and 
customs  —is  the  very  chiefest  of  Scotch  characteristics.  It  is  the 
recognition  of  this  that  leads  one  of  our  writers  for  the  Era  to 
believe  that  the  following  description  of  the  scenery  along  the  Clyde 
will  be  particularly  interesting  to  our  Scotch  readers  and  to  many 
others  of  our  readers  who  have  been  enchanted  with  the  scenery 
along  the  Clyde. 

Most  people,  we  suppose,  have  heard  of  the  Clyde.  It  is  the 
finest  river  in  Scotland;  and  Scotland  is  rich  in  fine  rivers.  There 
is  the  Forth,  which  takes  its  rise  from  a  small,  clear  pool  at  the 
bottom  of  Ben  Lomond,  and  after  winding  away  for  miles,  like  a 
silver  thread,  through  the  wild  and  beautiful  scenery  of  Stirling- 
shire expands  below  Alloa,  into  a  broad  and  majestic  sheet  of  water, 
rolling  on  silently  and  slowly  to  the  German  Ocean.  There  is  the 
Tay,  drawing  its  source  from  the  distant  mountains  of  Breadalbane, 
and  flowing  through  the  enchanting  lake  which  bears  its  name, 
whose  wooded  banks  and  little  tufted  island  (romantic  with  the 
ruins  of  its  ancient  priory)  no  admirer  of  the  picturesque  should 
fail  of  seeing;  and  let  him  follow  the  gentle  stream,  as  it  sweeps 
past  the  royal  borough  of  Perth,  and  gliding  under  the  nine-arched 
bridge,  enters  the  "Carse  of  Gowrie" — the  Caledonian  Arcadia — 
and  at  length,  swelling  into  a  frith,  ceases  to  exist  "betwixt  St. 


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SCENERY  OF  THE  CLYDE.  305 

Johnston  and  bonnie  Dundee.'*  Then  there  is  the  Tweed — the  very 
Avon  of  the  north — with  its  classic  tributaries,  the  "Galla  Water," 
and  the  Tivot,  whose  "wild  and  willowed  shore"  lives  in  immortal 
song.  Then  there  is  the  Esk,  too,  or  rather  the  Esks — the  North 
and  the  South — tracing  their  origin  up  to  the  Grampian  Hills,  and 
after  finding  their  way  by  different  channels,  through  their  native 
shire  of  Angus,  meeting  for  the  first  and  last  time,  just  as  they  are 
passing  into  their  common  grave  in  the  neighborhood  of  Montrose. 
And  there  are  the  Don  and  the  Dee — the  noblest  of  Scotch  High- 
land streams,  whose  course  lies  among  rocks,  and  moors,  and  glens 
and  heathy  hills,  softening  the  stem  aspect  of  the  mountains  of 
Mar  Forest,  and  giving  a  softer  beauty  to  the  vale  of  Braemar. 
And  there  are  the  Nith  and  the  Annan,  rolling  on  in  placid  quiet, 
to  the  boisterous  Solway.  He  who  does  not  know  their  charms 
must  learn  them  from  Cunningham,  not  from  me.  Though  last,  not 
least,  there  is  the  Devron,  a  narrow,  but  romantic  stream,  and  the 
chief  ornament  of  Banffshire,  giving  luxuriance  to  the  sweet  valley 
of  Porgien— sweeping  round  the  foot  of  the  green  hill,  on  whose 
brow  stands  the  cottage  of  Eden — ^winding  among  the  woods  of 
Mount  Coffre — sleeping  like  liquid  crystal  under  the  bridge  of  Alva, 
and  then  meandering  on  through  the  noble  parks  of  Duff  House,  as 
if  loath  to  leave  these  favorite  scenes  for  the  rude  billows  of  the 
Murray  Frith. 

Yet  still  the  Clyde  keeps  its  own  ground,  and  remains  unri- 
valled. Let  me  carry  you  along  with  me,  whilst  we  visit  its  lead- 
ing beauties. 

We  shall  set  out  from  Lanark.  Here  is  a  path  along  the  north- 
em  bank.  It  is  shaded  by  trees,  and  its  aspect  is  rural,  but  you 
may  perceive  by  its  breadth  that  it  is  one  over  which  many  have 
trod.  The  stream  flows  on  beside  us,  somewhat  rapidly,  confined 
within  a  narrow  bed  by  those  high  perpendicular  walls  of  equila- 
teral rocks.  Now  you  may  hear  a  noise  in  the  distance,  like  a 
NoveAiber  wind  sounding  among  the  dry  crashing  branches  of  the 
forest.  It  increases,  and  the  surrounding  trees  and  rocks  throw  a 
deeper  gloom  over  the  path.  Is  it  the  roar  of  approaching  thunder? 
No;  the  sky  is  blue  and  serene,  and  the  sunbeams,  though  they  can- 
not penetrate  here,  have  all  the  brightness  of  April.  We  must 
ascend  out  of  this  darkness.    The  little  by-road  will  conduct  us  to 


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306  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

yonder  old  tower  that  stands  upon  the  height  before  ns.  The  sit- 
nation  here  is  more  airy,  but  the  noise  is  louder  than  ever.  Nay, 
do  not  fear  it.  Follow  me  to  the  tower.  Now,  look  there!  This 
is  Cora-linn!  There  is  the  cataract  before  us,  tumbling  down  from 
rock  to  rock,  dashing  from  chasm  to  chasm,  foaming,  boiling,  roar- 
ing till  the  brain  becomes  dizzy,  and  the  sense  of  hearing  suffers  a 
temporary  annihilation.  See  how  its  waters  seem  to  burst  forth  from 
the  caves  of  the  surrounding  rocks!  See  how  the  boughs  of  the 
impending  trees  are  whitened  by  its  spray!  Look  how  the  river 
slides  along  with  silent  velocity  of  light,  till  it  reaches  the  edge  of 
the  precipice,  and  then  mark  how  it  leaps  into  the  gulf  below,  and 
frightens  the  mountain-echoes  with  its  earthquake  voice.  Look 
yonder,  where  for  a  moment  it  catches  the  sunlight  in  its  fall;  see 
how  every  drop  glitters  with  a  different  hue,  laughing  to  scorn  the 
brightness  of  the  rainbow.  When  did  water  ever  suggest  so  many 
varied  emotions — ^wonder,  fear,  delight  and  awe!  Every  faculty  is 
absorbed;  the  mind  is  put  upon  its  utmost  stretch;  the  very  excess 
of  pleasure  becomes  pain.  We  shall  gaze  no  more.  Yet  it  was  in 
this  savage  retreat,  among  those  rugged,  inaccessible  cliffs,  that 
the  patriot  Wallace  is  said  to  have  concealed  himself  for  a  time, 
meditating  the  deliverance  of  his  injured  country. 

Let  us  pass  on — still  nobler  prospects  await  us.  Those  orchards 
and  luxuriant  fields  through  which  the  stream  now  winds  wiU  not 
detain  us.  We  are  bent  upon  exploring  more  distant  beauties. 
Here  is  the  smoky  city  of  Glasgow.  Let  us  get  through  it,  I  beseech 
you,  as  expeditiously  as  possible.  What  a  multitude  of  steamboats 
are  at  the  quay!  We  shall  ^o  on  board  the  Inverary  CJadle.  It 
is  large  and  commodious,  and,  what  is  more,  sails  fast  and  smoothly. 
Some  of  them  (though  not  many)  are  so  ill  fitted  with  engines,  that 
you  run  some  danger  of  being  shaken  to  pieces. 

For  about  ten  miles  the  river  turns  and  winds  like  a  cork- 
screw. It  presents  a  perpetual  succession  of  sinuosities;  and  in  its 
course  a  painter  may  discover  Hogarth's  line  of  beauty  multiplied 
ad  ivfinitum.  But  in  some  of  its  bolder  sweeps,  as  well  as  in  nriany 
of  its  more  abrupt  and  geometrical  meanderings,  how  beautiful  are 
the  pictures  of  nature  which  are  continually  presenting  them- 
selves! Here,  for  example,  on  the  bank  to  the  right,  is  a  hamlet, 
or  rather  a  few  detached  houses,  to  which  they  have  given  the 


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SCENERY  OF  THE  CLYDE.  307 

name  of  Dunglass.  It  stands  almost  embosomed  in  trees,  and 
immediately  behind,  a  richly-wooded  hill  rises  in  a  gentle  acclivity. 
I  know  not  well  how  to  account  for  the  many  delightful  sensations 
which  this  secluded  spot,  "unsung  in  tale  or  history,"  awakens  in 
the  bosom.  I  have  seen  such  scenes  before,  in  England,  and  I  have 
read  of  others  which  my  imagination  clothed  perhaps  in  ideal 
charms,  but  here  those  charms  are  realized.  They  remind  me  of 
the  vicinity  of  Litchfield.  They  place  before  me  Weston,  the 
*l)eloved  Weston"  of  the  gentle  poetCowper;  and,  for  the  moment, 
I  can  almost  fancy  myself  surrounded  by  the  spirits — but  we  have 
already  left  Dunglass  far  behind. 

Turn  again  to  the  right.  You  have  heard  of  Dumbarton  rock 
and  castle;  they  are  there  before  you.  Whence  came  this  immense 
mass,  you  inquire,  isolated  as  it  is,  and  unnconnected  with  any 
neighboring  mountain?  The  question  is  more  easily  asked  than 
answered.  An  effect  is  often  apparent,  though  the  cause  be  con- 
cealed. Neither  Button  nor  Werner  can  explain  the  mystery.  They 
know  no  more  of  the  matter  than  the  humblest  fisherman.  The  rock 
is  there,  and  there  it  hath  stood  for  ages.  Look  beyond  it,  over 
the  town  of  Dumbarton,  and  across  the  rich  country  that  intervenes, 
and  your  eye  will  rest  upon  a  still  nobler  object,  a  still  more  mag- 
nificent production  of  Nature — Ben  Lomond,  "giant  of  the  North- 
ern landf^  looking,  if  not  over  "half  the  world,"  at  least  over  more 
than  half  of  Scotland.  How  sublimely  does  it  rise  into  the  "second 
heavens  r  hiding  its  haughty  head,  not,  in  the  figurative  signification 
of  poetry,  but  literally  and  truly,  among  the  clouds  of  the  air,  as 
often,  at  all  events,  as  the  air  contains  clouds,  which,  in  this  region, 
is  at  least  during  ten  months  of  the  year.  Far  below,  but  invisible 
from  our  present  station  lies  the  prince  of  Caledonian  lakes— Loch 
Lomond.  Nor  let  me  forget  the  "  Crystal  Leven,"  which,  flowing 
from  the  southwest  end  of  Loch  Lomond,  falls  into  the  Clyde,  after 
a  short  but  beautiful  course  of  a  little  more  than  six  miles.  It  is 
a  stream  unequalled  for  the  pure  transparency  of  its  waves,  and  the 
romantic  loveliness  of  its  banks. 

Hitherto  we  have  been  moving  within  a  narrow  channel,  and 
the  banks  have  been  marked  with  the  characteristics  of  inland  and 
fresh  water  rivers.  But  we  are  now  entering  upon  a  broader 
expanse.     The  banks  are  changed  into  shores,  and  their  minuter 


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308  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

charms  are  seen  indistinctly  in  the  distance.  As  if  to  compensate, 
however,  for  this  loss,  the  features  of  the  scenery  become  at  once 
bolder  and  more  decided.  We  can  hardly  talk  any  longer  of  their 
beauty,  we  must  speak  now  of  their  grandeur  and  sublimity.  How 
noble  the  prospect  which  opens  upon  you!  The  river  itself  is  glit- 
tering in  the  sunshine  like  a  plain  of  liquid  silver.  On  either  side 
appear  towns,  villages  and  hamlets;  and  behind  those,  on  the  right, 
are  seen  the  wild  and  irregular  mountains  of  Argyleshire,  bare  and 
barren,  but,  in  the  clear  atmosphere  of  summer,  rising  with  an 
imposing  solemnity  and  majestic  stillness  into  the  calm  blue  air. 
Yonder  is  Roseneath,.a  beautiful  wooded  peninsula,  where  the  Duke 
of  Argyle  has  left  the  finest  model  of  a  nobleman's  country  resi- 
dence which  Scotland  at  this  instant  possesses.  By  the  way,  talk- 
ing of  Roseneath,  I  cannot  help  adverting  to  the  very  imperfect 
knowledge  of  its  localities  shown  by  the  author  of  "Waverley,"  in 
the  last  volume  of  the  ''  Heart  of  Mid-Lothian.''  He  talks  of  it 
again  and  again  as  an  island — describes  views  to  be  had  from  it 
which  even  an  Argus  could  never  have  discovered — and,  above  all, 
displays  a  total  ignorance  of  the  breadth  and  general  appearance 
of  the  lochs  by  which  it  is  cut  off  from  the  main  land  on  the  east 
and  west.  The  reader  feels  disappointed  when  he  makes  this  dis- 
covery; his  confidence  in  his  author's  accuracy  is  shaken;  and  he 
consequently  peruses  with  less  pleasure  the  descriptions  of  scenery 
with  which  he  may  subsequently  meet. 

We  have  not  yet  come  in  sight  of  the  ocean,  for  even  after  it 
has  increased  to  its  greatest  breadth,  the  Clyde  still  retains  its  love 
of  abrupt  turnings  and  windings;  so  that,  to  the  eye  of  a  stranger, 
it  frequently  appears  land-locked;  and  it  is  not  till  he  has  followed 
its  meanderings  more  than  once  that  he  is  able  to  distinguish  its 
course  from  a  distance.  But  we  have  passed  Port-Glasgow,  with 
its  hanging  steeple — and  Greenock,  with  its  stately  Custom  House— 
and  Grourock,  the  most  celebrated  of  watering  places — and  Dunoon, 
with  its  little  Grothic  church  and  fine  romantic  site — and  we  are 
bearing  rapidly  down  on  the  Cloch  Light-house.  Now  at  length  the 
far-off  Atlantic  appears  in  view.  Where  have  you  seen  a  noble 
river  mingling  more  beautifully  with  the  sea?  The  firth  is  stud- 
ded with  islands,  and  all  of  them  remarkable  for  some  character- 
istic attraction.    In  the  foreground  are  the  two  Cumbrays  placed, 


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SCENERY  OF  THE  CLYDE.  809 

as  if  to  shelter  the  cahn  bay  of  Largs,  and  offering  no  little  temp- 
tation to  the  antiquary  in  the  shape  of  an  ancient  cathedral,  now 
in  ruins — dedicated  to  Saint  Columba.  Further  off  is  Bute,  thei 
most  level  island,  perhaps  in  the  Scottish  seas,  but  rich  and  fertile, 
and  proud  of  its  romantic  kyles,  and  little  sunny  creeks.  On  the 
southwest  lies  Inchmaniock,  as  fair  an  inch  as  eye  can  rest  on,  with 
its  strata  of  coral  and  shells  and  its  old  chapel,  long  since  deserted 
by  its  patron  saint.  At  a  still  greater  distance  rise  the  mountains 
of  Arran — st«m,  rugged,  and  vast.  It  is  there  that  tradition  pre- 
serves the  memory  of  Fingal,  and  there  "The  Lay  of  the  Last  Min- 
strer  places  before  us  "  the  Bruce  of  Bannockbum." 


A  SCOTCH  CHARACTERISTIC. 


Speaking  of  the  familiarity  with  which  the  Scots  treat  the  Creator, 
Max  CRell,  in  his  charming  selection  of  Scotch  anecdotes,  under  the 
title  of  'Triend  MacDonald,''  says  that  the  Scot  addresses  the  Creator 
"very  much  as  if  he  was  his  next-door  neighbor.  He  tells  him  all  his  little 
needs,  and  will  go  so  far  as  to  gently  reproach  him  if  they  are  not  sup- 
plied. "If  he  has  dined  well,  he  is  lavish  in  returning  thanks  to  the 
Lord  for  his  infinite  favors;  his  gratitude  is  boundless.  If  he  has  a  meagre 
repast,  he  thanks  him  for  the  least  of  his  mercies.  The  thanks  are  not 
omitted,  but  at  the  same  time  Donald  gives  the  Lord  to  understand  that 
he  has  made  a  poor  dinner."  And  then  he  sustains  this  opinion  which  he 
formed  of  "Friend  Donald''  by  the  following  anecdote,  the  first  part  of 
which,  however,  0*Rell  admits  is  to  be  found  in  Dr.  Ramsey's  Reminis- 
cences, and  as  for  the  second  part — wherein  lies  the  point  of  the  matter 
— he  leaves  the  responsibility  for  it  upon  his  host  who  related  the  story 
to  him.    Here  it  is: 

"A  Presbyterian  minister  had  just  cut  his  hay,  and  the  weather  not 
being  very  propitious  for  making  it,  he  knelt  near  his  open  window 
and  addressed  to  Heaven  the  following  prayer: 

"  '0  Lord,  send  us  wind  for  the  hay;  no  a  rantin',  tantin',  tearin' 
wind,  but  a  noughin',  winnin'  wind .' 

"His  prayer  was  here  interrupted  by  a  puff  of  wind  that  made  the 
panes  rattle,  and  scattered  in  all  directions  the  papers  lying  on  his  table. 

"  The  minister  straightway  got  up  and  closed  his  window,  exclaiming: 

"'Now,  Lord,  that's  ridik'lousr 

"If  this  ending  of  the  anecdote  is  not  authentic,'' adds  CRell,  "I 
feel  quite  sure  that  none  but  a  Scotchman  could  have  invented  it." 


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EDITOR'S  TABLE. 


ATTITUDE  OP  THE  CHURCH  TOWARDS  REFORM- 
POLITICAL  PARTIES. 


From  M.  D.  Fitzgerald,  of  Lynn,  Massachusetts,  the  editors  of 
the  Era  received  the  following,  under  date  of  January  4th,  in  rela- 
tion to  the  evils  of  the  world  and  the  plans  proposed  by  the  Social 
Labor  Party  to  eradicate  the  same. 


I  am  prompted  to  write  yon  this  letter  because  I  have  been  favored 
in  making  the  acquaintance  of  Elder  Charles  Westover  of  your  Chorch. 
The  doctrine,  etc.,  of  the  Church  so  far  as  I  understand  it  from  a  simple 
study  of  its  cardinal  principles,  are  certainly  "Godlike,"  and  superior  to 
many  conflicting  doctrines  that  surround  me  here.  I  am  a  Catholic  by 
baptism  and  education,  and  can  only  fiod  a  reason  for  deviation  from  the 
doctrine  of  our  Savior  Jesus  Christ  by  so-called  Christian  Churches  in  this 
fact,  that  they  have  admitted  the  right  of  private  ownership  of  the  means 
of  production  and  distribution,  thus  entailing  usury,  the  competitive 
system,  the  disinheriting  of  the  masses,  wars,  having  an  economic  basis, 
and  other  evils  too  numerous  to  recapitulate  in  this  short  letter. 

On  this  New  Eni;:land  coast  are  many  cities  containing  thousands  of 
idle  men  and  women,  living  in  poverty,  in  enforced  idleness,  while  the 
means,  i.  e.  natural  resources  and  machinery,  capable  of  being  united  to 
and  operated  by  their  intelligence  for  the  purpose  of  producing  untold 
wealth,  are  also  lying  comparatively  idle.  Churchmen  and  statesmen  are 
continually  tinkering  or  vainly  endeavoring  to  remedy  this  deplorable 
condition;  I  believe  it  can  only  be  aggravated  by  these  so-called  panaceas, 
viz:  free  trade,  protection,  monetary  reform,  expansion,  (imperialism,)  etc 


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EDITORS  TABLE.  311 

I  know  from  a  study  of  industrial  evolution  that  nothing  short  of 
a  social  revolution  can  emancipate  the  proletariat  from  the  awful  economic 
conditions  that  surround  them  in  the  United  States  and  elsewhere.  Thus 
believing  I  have  allied  myself  with  the  only  political  party  destined  to 
bring  it  about,  i.  e.:  "The  Socialistic  Labor  Party .'^  We  suffer  and  have  had 
martyrs  like  the  Mormon  Church.  I  have  faith  in  Christ,  but  I  also  be- 
lieve in  work,  i.  e.  propaganda  to  bring  his  kingdom  on  earth.  Scientific 
Socialism  is  absolute  truth.  Why  then  do  Christian  Churches  oppose  or 
remain  neutral  on  it?  They  must  exercise  their  franchise  or  else  be 
political  nonenities.  Many  ministers  support  it  in  a  Utopian  manner, 
others  oppose  it,  and  yet  no  one  can  point  out  any  demand  of  modem 
Socialism  that  conflicts  with  the  teachings  of  Jesus  Christ.  I  will  ask 
Elder  Westover  to  send  you  this  letter  with  the  platform  and  constitution 
of  ''The  Socialist  Labor  Party,**  and  if  your  editorial  functions  permit 
you  to  express  the  attitude  of  the  Mormon  Church  toward  our  movement 
I  will  be  duly  grateful  to  you  if  you  will  kindly  forward  to  me  that  num- 
ber of  the  Improvement  Era  containing  it. 

We  begin  our  remarks  on  the  above  with  reference  to  a  clause 
in  the  closing  sentence — "  Express  the  attitude  of  the  Mormon 
Church  toward  our  movement."  The  attitude  of  The  Church 
towards  the  Socialistic  Labor  Party  movement,  is  just  what  the 
position  of  The  Church  is  toward  other  political  parties— ^non-inter- 
f^ence  with  it;  non-cooperation  with  it.  The  Church  is  not  asso- 
ciated with  any  political  party,  nor  does  it  oppose  any  of  them.  For 
their  respective  panaceas  for  the  ills  of  humanity  The  Church  may 
be  said  to  hold  that  they  are  inadequate  to  the  curing  of  those  ills; 
and  it  may  also  be  said  that  The  Church  regards  in  the  same  way 
the  efforts  of  communists  and  socialists,  apart  from  political 
parties.  The  Church  believes  that  the  only  thing  that  can  per- 
manently eradicate  the  evils  under  which  humanity  suffers  is  the 
Gospel  of  the  Son  of  God;  and  that  however  praiseworthy  the 
efforts  of  philanthropists  and  social  and  political  reformers  to 
ameliorate  the  hard  conditions  under  which  mankind  suffers  may 
be,  they  will  not  succeed  to  any  very  great  extent.  It  is  a  world 
that  has  gone  wrong;  it  will  require  the  wisdom  and  power  of  God 
to  set  it  right,  and  do  away  with  the  evils  complained  of. 

This  may  be  a  very  unsatisfactory  statement  to  make  to  those 
who  are  fired  with  a  zeal  to  correct  all  evils,  to  make  of  earth  a 
heaven,  and  who  fondly  believe  that  they  have  at  last  hit  upon  the 


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312  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

right  combination  of  principles  and  forces  to  accomplish  this  very 
desirable  result.  Bat  reformers  before  now  with  equal  zeal,  with 
intentions  as  pure  and  unselfish  as  those  of  our  present  reformers 
have  dreamed  that  they,  too,  had  found  the  .combination  of  prin- 
ciples and  forces  that  would  cure  all  the  ills  that  flesh  is  heir  to; 
but  they  have  awakened  to  find  that  they  but  dreamed;  and  the 
evils  they  so  bravely  fought  still  remained,  and,  in  fact,  increased. 
And  so  they  died,  leaving  the  problems  unsolved,  just  as  our  pres- 
ent generation  of  reformers  will  die  and  leave  social,  political,  and 
economic  problems  unsolved,  and  industrial  evils  uncured.  But  the 
time  will  come  when  the  earth  shall  rest  from  its  sorrows;  when 
mankind  shall  be  emancipated  from  the  injustice  and  inequality 
that  now  obtains,  and  from  which  so  large  a  part  of  earth's  inhabit- 
ants now  suffer.  But  the  relief  will  come  through  the  Gospel  of 
Jesus  Christ — ^the  plan  ordained  of  God  to  redeem  the  world,  from 
all  evils  both  temporal  and  spiritual.  It  has  been  restored  for  that 
purpose.  It  is  beguming  that  work — the  cuhnination  of  which  we 
have  abready  mentioned — ^by  teaching  faith  in  God,  and  repentance. 
By  which  means  righteousness  shall  be  brought  to  pass  and  the 
elements  made  ready  for  the  introduction  of  that  better  order  of 
things  predicted  by  all  the  prophets,  and  which  shall  relieve  man- 
kind of  the  distresses  and  inequalities  under  which  they  now  groan. 
This  is  to  be  brought  about  by — but  we  only  at  this  writing 
undertook  to  say  what  attitude  the  Church  occupied  with  refer- 
ence to  political  parties  and  we  have  not  space  to  do  more. 


NOTES. 


Deliberate  with  caution,  but  act  with  decision;  yield  with  gracious- 
ness,  but  oppose  with  firmness. 

A  character  which  combines  the  love  of  enjoyment  with  the  love  of 
duty  and  the  ability  to  perform  it  is  the  one  whose  unfoldings  give  the 
greatest  promise  of  perfection. 


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NOTES.  313 

It  is  best  to  be  ourselves.  To  ape  the  mannerism  of  another  is  not 
the  wise  way  to  grow.  If  we  devote  ourselves  to  the  cultivation  of  a 
right  spirit  within,  our  outward  ways  will  have  truest  attractiveness. 

Hope  is  a  duty  as  well  as  a  comfort.  He  who  ceases  to  look  forward 
to  the  future  with  hope  ceases  to  work  with  a  will  in  the  present.  As 
long  as  we  have  work  to  do  or  burdens  to  carry,  let  us  hope  for  something 
better  than  is  now  in  our  possession.  We  ought  not  to  be  satisfied  with, 
though  we  have  to  be  contented  in,  that  which  the  present  gives  us. 

It  is  a  beautiful  world  once  we  learn  how  to  live.  There  is  beauty 
in  every  menial  duty,  there  is  inspiration  in  every  hardship  and  sacrifice, 
if  only  once  we  learn  that  each  hardship  and  each  sacrifice  form  but  one 
more  stepping-stone  that  lifts  us  up  above  the  level  of  the  commonplace 
and  nearer  the  heights  of  divine  endurance  that  makes  life  a  glorification 
of  the  spirit. 

Those  who  push  themselves  forward,  recounting  their  own  deeds  and 
successes,  and  claiming  the  applause  and  gratitude  of  the  world,  are  by 
no  means  the  greatest  benefactors  of  their  race.  Often  indeed  they  are 
wearing  the  stolen  plumage  of  their  more  modest  brothers  who  have  done 
great  deeds  without  notice  or  edat,  and  are  contented  to  be  what  the 
others  greatly  wish  to  appear. 

When  it  comes  to  be  realized  by  the  great  majority  of  the  universe 
that  severity  and  harshness  are  usually  the  result  of  a  poverty  of  intellect 
that  fails  to  comprehend  human  nature,  and  that  charity,  sympathy, 
gentleness,  and  good  feeling  are  the  sure  fruits,  not  only  of  a  kindly 
heart,  but  of  an  educated  brain,  a  long  step  will  have  been  taken  towards 
the  increase  of  human  welfare  and  happiness. 

The  lesson,  not  of  stoicism,  but  of  quiet  manly  endurance,  is  one 
which  is  much  needed  in  this  sympathetic  age.  Especially  is  this  the 
isase  in  all  the  smaller  miseries  of  life.  Every  one  has  petty  vexations, 
annoyances,  disappointments,  hindrances,  aches  of  both  body  and  mind, 
some  of  which  can  be  remedied  and  others  only  endured,  but  none  of 
which  he  has  any  right  to  add  to  the  load  which  his  neighbor  has  to  carry. 
A  due  regard  to  the  comfort  of  others  and  also  to  his  own  dignity 
demand  that  such  things  be  relegated  to  silence,  and  not  suffered  to 
intrude  upon  and  spoil  seasons  of  intercourse  which  might  otherwise  be 
gladdening  and  elevating. 


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m  LIGHTER  MOOD. 


An  elderly  fat  gentleman,  in  discussing  a  warm  beefsteak  at  a  High- 
land inn,  called  to  the  waiting  boy:  'Donald,  bring  me  more  bread;  for 
I  eat  a  great  deal  of  bread  to  my  steak." 

"Ay,  and  please  your  honor,  ye  eat  a  great  deal  of  steak  to  your 

bread." 

*  *  » 

Will  Hamilton,  the  ''daft  man  o'  Ayr,"  was  once  hanging  abont  the 
vicinity  of  a  loch  which  was  partially  frozen.  Three  young  ladies  were 
deliberating  as  to  whether  they  should  venture  upon  the  ice,  when  one 
of  them  suggested  that  Will  should  be  asked  to  walk  on  it  first.  On  the 
proposal  being  made  to  him,  he  responded:  "Though*  Fm  daft,  Fm  no' 
ill  bred.    After  you,  leddies." 

*  ♦  * 

Said  a  pompous  man  of  money  to  Professor  Agassiz — "I  once  took 
some  interest  in  natural  science,  but  I  became  a  banker,  and  I  am  what 
lam." 

"Ah,"  replied  Agassiz,  "my  father  procured  a  place  for  me  in  a  bank; 

but  I  begged  for  one  more  year  of  study,  then  for  a  second,  then  for  a 
third.  That  fixed  my  fate.  Sir,  if  it  had  not  been  for  that  little  firm- 
ness of  mine,  I  would  now  myself  have  been  nothing  but  a  bankerP 

*  *  * 

A  story  is  told  of  a  shrewish  old  Scotchwoman,  who  tried  to  wean 
her  husband  from  the  dram-shop  by  employing  her  brother  to  act  the 
part  of  a  ghost,  and  frighten  John  on  his  way  home. 

"Who  are  you,"  asked  the  farmer,  as  the  apparition  rose  before  him 
from  behind  a  bush. 

"I  am  Auld  Nick,"  was  the  reply. 

"Are  ye  really?"  exclaimed  the  old  reprobate,  with  much  satisfac- 
tion, instead  of  terror,  "Man  come  awa';  gi'e's  a  shake  o'  your  haun;  Fm 
merrit  tae  a  sister  o'  yours!" 

*  *  « 
Upon  some  hasty  errand  Tom  was  sent. 
And  met  his  parish  curate  as  he  went; 
But  just  like  what  he  was  —a  sorry  clown. 

It  seems  he  passed  him  with  a  covered  crown. 
The  gown  man  stopt,  and  frowning,  sternly  said: 
"I  doubt,  my  lad,  you're  far  worse  taught  than  fed." 
"Why,  aye,"  says  Tom,  still  jogging  on,  "that's  true; 
Thank  God!  he  feeds  me,  but  Fm  taught  by  you." 


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OUR  WORK. 


GENERAL  IMPROVEMENT  FUND. 


We  desire  to  remind  tha  Superintendents  of  Stakes  and  the  Presidents 
of  Associations  and  the  members  generally  that  by  action  of  the  Y.M. 
M.  L  A.  General  Conference,  held  in  May  last,  what  had  up  to  that  time 
been  called  the  ''fifty  cent  fund"  was  changed  in  title  to  General  Improve- 
ment Fand;  and  the  amonnt  to  be  contributed  by  each  member  of  the 
associations  to  meet  the  general  expenses  of  this  institution,  was  cut 
down  from  fifty  cents  to  twenty-five  cents;  the  full  amount  however  to 
be  remitted  by  the  proper  officers  of  the  associations  to  the  General 
Treasurer,  Thomas  Hull. 

The  first  week  in  December  and  the  first  week  in  February  were 
decided  upon  as  Ck>llection  Weeks  for  this  fund,  audit  was  further  decided 
that  the  ward  treasurers  should  make  remittance  to  the  stake  superin- 
tendents on  January  Ist  and  February  20th;  and  that  the  respective 
stake  treasurers  should  remit  immediately  to  the  General  Treasurer  at 
Salt  Lake  City.  We  call  attention  to  this  matter  at  this  time  because 
the  last  week  set  apart  as  Collection  Week  for  this  fund  has  now  arrived; 
and  up  to  the  present  time  the  returns  from  the  December  collections 
have  been  very,  very  meagre;  and  we  wish  to  urge  upon  the  officers  in 
the  stakes  and  the  wards  that  the  collection  of  this  fund  ought  to  be 
vigorously  pushed. 

We  suggest  to  presidents  that  it  would  be  a  good  thing  to  organize 
a  large  committee  to  attend  to  this  business;  and  apportion  the  names 
of  members  of  the  associations  to  individuals  of  said  committee,  giving 
each  person  say  from  eight  to  ten  or  twelve  names,  and  charge  him  with 
the  duty  of  seeing  each  of  the  persons  whose  names  are  assigned  to  him 
during  Collection  Week,  and  make  this  collection.    If  the  work  is  thus 


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316  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

apportioned  among  the  members  it  will  be  light  and  easy  to  accomplish; 
bnt  it  requires  the  immediate  attention  of  the  officers. 

It  needs  no  argument  to  prove  the  necessity  there  is  for  the  exist- 
ence of  this  fond.  All  the  stake  and  ward  officers  who  were  in  attend- 
ance at  the  General  Conference  were  convinced  of  its  necessity,  and  they 
were  charged  with  the  duty  of  explaining  it  to  the  members  of  the 
associations  and  attending  to  its  collection.  Let  this  business  now  be 
heartily  taken  up  and  pushed  to  a  successful  conclusion. 


READING  NEWSPAPERS. 


A  long  time  ago,  as  early  at  least  as  1832,  the  Lord  gave  a  com- 
mandment to  the  Elders  of  the  Church  to  teach  each  other  diligently  all 
things  that  pertain  unto  the  Kingdom  of  God  that  were  expedient  for 
them  to  understand — ''all  things  both  in  heaven  and  in  earth,  and  und^ 
the  earth;  things  which  have  been,  things  which  are,  things  which  must 
shortly  come  to  pass;  things  which  are  at  home;  things  which  are 
abroad,  the  wars  and  the  perplexities  of  the  nations  and  the  judgments 
which  are  on  the  land  and  a  knowledge  also  of  countries  and  kingdoms." 
And  all  this  that  they  might  be  prepared  in  all  things  to  magnify  the 
calling  whereunto  he,  the  Lord,  had  called  them,  and  fill  the  mission  with 
which  he  had  commissioned  them.  (Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sec»  88; 
77-80.) 

In  this  age  of  immediate  communication  with  all  parts  of  the  world, 
when  events  tread  upon  each  other's  heels,  so  fast  they  follow — ^the  only 
way  to  keep  abreast  of  the  times,  and  comply  with  this  commandment 
that  the  Lord  gave  to  his  servants  so  long  ago,  is  for  our  young  men  to 
read  the  daily  events  as  they  daily  occur;  and  this  makes  necessary  the 
reading  of  the  daily  newspapers.  No  young  man  can  be  up  with  the 
spirit  of  the  times — in  touch  with  the  events  that  are  transpiring  in  the 
world  around  him — without  reading  the  daily  papers)  and  we  therefore 
urge  the  members  of  the  Improvement  Association  to  become  subscribers 
to  and  readers  of  daily  papers;  and  especially  do  we  commend  to  th^ 
attention  the  daily  paper  now  published  by  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of 
Latter-day  Saints,  and  which  is  the  Church  organ,  viz.  The  Deteret 
Evening  News. 


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OUR  WORK.  317 

,  This  paper  recently  reverted  to  the  control  of  the  Church  and  is 
now  published  with  the  announcemet  that  it  is  the  organ  of  the  Church, 
Lorenzo  Snow,  President  and  Trustee-in-Trust.  This  should  cause  every 
member  of  the  Church  to  regard  this  newspaper  with  especial  pride,  and 
take  a  personal  interest  in  its  success.  In  fact,  in  our  judgment,  it 
becomes  the  duty  of  the  Church  members  to  so  regard  it,  and  we  trust 
that  our  young  men  will  be  imbued  with  this  spirit  and  give  their  loyal 
support  to  the  Deseret  I^ews.  When  it  reverted  to  the  control  of  the 
Cbnrch,  on  the  first  of  the  year,  a  new  business  management  and  edi- 
torial staff  was  given  to  the  paper  which  insures  business  capacity  in  its 
management  and  force  and  literary  ability  in  its  editorial  utterances; 
while  unquestionably  its  news  service  will  be  equal,  and  in  some  respects 
superior,  to  that  of  any  other  paper  published  in  the  State  or  even  in  the 
inter-mountain  region  of  the  west.  Horace  G.  Whitney  is  in  control  of 
the  business  department,  and  C.  W.  Penrose  is  at  the  head  of  the  editorial 
staff;  so  that  in  speaking  this  word  for  the  News  to  our  young  men,  we 
do  not  urge  them  to  support  the  Church  organ  as  a  matter  of  duty  alone, 
but  we  feel  sure  that  in  subscribing  for  that  paper  and  in  giving  to 
it  their  support  they  will  be  receiving  the  most  reliable  daily  newspaper 
within  their  reach.  The  area  that  can  now  be  covered  by  the  service  of 
the  daily  mail  should  warrant  a  very  large  circulation  of  the  DaUy  News, 
and  everywhere  it  can  reach  on  the  day  of  its  publication  or  the  morning 
following,  we  would  suggest  to  our  young  men  that  they  get  the  daily 
Evening  News,  and  where  the  mail  service  does  not  warrant  the  people  in 
taking  the  daily  paper,  they  should  most  assuredly  become  subscribers  for 
the  semi-weekly. 

We  have  no  selfish  purpose  in  thus  recommending  the  Deseret  News 
to  the  readers  of  the  Era.  Neither  the  business  management  nor  the 
editorial  department,  nor  any  one  connected  with  the  News  is  aware  of 
the  fact  that  we  are  presenting  this  matter  to  our  young  men.  We  do 
it  because  we  feel  that  we  ought,  first  to  discharge  our  duty  in  the  mat- 
ter of  recommending  the  Church  organ  to  the  attention  of  our  young 
people;  and  second,  because  we  desire  to  do  our  young  people  a  service 
in  urging  them  to  make  themselves  acquainted  with  current  events,  and 
with  current  thought  as  connected  with  those  events. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH. 

BY  THOMAS  HULL,  SECRETARY  OF  THE  GENERAL  BOARD  OF  Y.  M.  If.  L  A. 


December  20th,  1898:  Samuel  Gompers  is  re-elected  president  of 
the  American  Federation  of  Labor  at  the  annual  convention  of  that 
organization  at  Kansas  City. 

2l8t:  Secretary  of  the  Interior  Bliss  having  resigned,  Ethan  A. 
Hitchcock  is  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

22nd:  Governor  Wells  receives  a  petition  signed  by  all  the  officers 
of  the  Utah  Batteries  in  Manila  asking  him  to  use  his  influence  to  secure 
the  muster-out  of  the  troops. 

23rd:  The  first  troop  of  Utah  Volunteer  Cavalry  is  mustered  out 
of  the  service  of  the  United  States. 

24th :  The  American  peace  commission  delivers  to  President  McKinley 
the  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  and  Spain. 

28th:  Dispatches  received  at  the  State  department  in  Washington, 
D.  G.  state  that  Iloilo,  Philippine  Islands  was  captured  December  24th, 
by  the  insurgents. 

29th:  On  account  of  the  refusal  of  General  Brooke  to  permit  the 
Cuban  troops  to  participate  in  the  exercises  of  evacuation  day  in  Havana, 
intense  feeling  is  manifested  there  and  the  United  States  flag  is  torn  down 
from  many  houses.  ♦  ♦  ♦  President  McKinley  approves  an 
executive  order  regulating  the  financial  system  of  Cuba  and  providing 
that  all  customs,  taxes,  public  and  postal  dues  in  the  island  shall  be  paid 
in  the  United  States  money  or  in  foreign  gold  coin  and  fixing  the  Value  at 
which  such  foreign  coin  shall  be  received.  It  also  provides  that  certain 
Spanish  silver  coins  shall  be  received  for  customs,  taxes  and  public  and 
postal  dues  at  rates  fixed  in  the  order. 

30th:  Senor  Don  Maties  Romero,  the  Mexican  Ambassador  to  the 
United  States  dies  in  Washington  after  having  been  operated  upon  for 
appendicitis. 

January  1st,  1899:  The  government  of  the  island  of  Cuba  is  for^ 
mally  surrendered  by  the  Spanish  to  the  United  States  and  the  American 
flag  is  raised  on  all  public  buildings,  etc.,  in  Havana. 

2nd:    President   and  Mrs.  McKinley  hold  their  first  New  Year 
reception  at  the  White  House. 


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EVENTS  OF  THE  MONTH.  319 

3rd:  George  W.  Bartch  is  sworn  in  as  Chief  Justice  and  R.  N. 
Baskin  as  Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Utah: 

4th:  Hon.  George  E.  Roberts,  director  of  the  mint,  issues  his 
estimate  of  the  production  of  gold  in  the  United  States,  showing  a 
total  of  $65,782,677.  Utah  is  credited  with  $2,170,543.  ♦  ♦  ♦ 
The  president  transmits  to  the  senate  the  treaty  of  peace  between  the 
UnitCNi  States  and  Spain.    The  following  is  his  message: 

To  the  Senate  of  the  United  States: — I  transmit, 
herewith,  with  a  view  to  its  ratification,  a  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  United  States  and  Spain,  signed  at 
the  city  of  Paris,  on  December  10, 1898,  together  with 
the  protocols  and  papers  indicated  in  the  list  accom- 
panying the  report  of  the  Secretary  of  State. 

WiLLUM  McKlNLEY. 

Executive  Mansion,  Washington,  D.  C,  January 
4, 1899. 

7th:  The  Salt  Lake  ministers.  Dr.  Iliff,  of  the  M.  E.  Church;  W.  M. 
Paden,  of  the  First  Presbyterian,  and  Clarence  T.  Brown,  of  the  First 
Congregational  church,  forward  to  Washington  a  formal  protest  against 
the  seating  of  B.  H.  Roberts  in  Congress. 

9th:  The  third  Utah  Legislature  convenes  in  Salt  Lake  City.  Aquila 
Nebeker  is  chosen  as  president  of  the  Senate  and  Wm.  M.  Roylance  as 
speaker  of  the  House. 

10th:  Governor  Wells  presents  his  message  to  the  Legislature.  It 
is  a  voluminous  document,  and  refers  to:  the  evidence  of  prosperity,  con- 
gratulating the  State  upon  the  improved  business  conditions;  the  call  for 
Tolunteers  and  the  ready  response  of  the  State;  the  codification  of  the 
laws  of  the  State  and  recommending  new  legislation;  the  election  of  a 
United  States  Senator;  date  of  convening  the  Legislature,  recommending 
that  an  amendment  to  the  constitution  be  proposed  providing  that  the 
Legislature  be  convened  on  the  third  instead  of  the  second  Tuesday  in 
January;  refunding  the  State  bonds;  the  finances  of  the  State,  showing 
that  after  all  revenues  are  collected  and  current  indebtedness  paid,  there 
will  remain  in  the  general  fund  a  balance  of  more  than  $175,000;  the 
State  lands,  submitting  a  statement  of  the  amounts  received  from  the 
sale  of  lands  and  the  investment  thereof;  educational  matters,  showing 
that  great  progress  has  been  made.  Under  the  head  of  ''State  Institutions'* 
the  message  refers  to  and  reports  the  condition  of  the  University,  Agri- 
cultural College,  School  for  Deaf,  Dumb  and  Blind,  Industrial  School, 
Insane  Asylum,  Board  of  Pardons  and  Paroles,  recommending  legislation 
conferring  the  power  on  the  State  Board  of  Pardons  to  exercise  parole 
clemency  and  recommending  the  appropriation  of  $500  for  the  care  of 
Hawaiian  lepers  in  Tooele  County.    Consideration  is  then  given  to  the 


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320  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

National  Guard,  irrigation,  forest  preservation,  Board  of  Health,  horti- 
culture, fish  and  game,  the  Semi-Centennial  Commission;  recommends 
suitable  appropriation  for  a  first-class  State  fair  in  October,  1899;  foster- 
ing legislation  for  home  industries  and  the  creation  of  a  bureau  of  star 
tistics  and  immigration  are  advised.  Reference  is  made  to  outlawry  in 
the  eastern  and  south-eastern  portions  of  the  State,  to  the  charges  made 
against  the  judge  of  the  Fourth  Judicial  district,  to  the  opening  of  the 
Uncompahgre  reservation  and  the  failure  to  open  the  Uintah  reservation; 
for  the  constitutional  provision  requiring  the  Legislature  to  enact  laws 
fixing  reasonable  maximum  charges  for  railway  transportation  and  ex- 
pressing the  earnest  hope  that  action  will  be  taken  upon  the  subject;  to 
the  Paris  Exposition,  recommending  an  appropriation  for  a  State  exhibit 
there.  The  governor  recommends  an  increase  in  the  salaries  of  State 
officials,  and  the  memorializing  of  Ck)ngress  for  public  buildings  in  Salt 
Lake  City  and  Ogden,  and  on  other  subjects,  and  concludes  his  message  in 
the  following  words: 

'In  a  manner  much  less  brief  than  could  have  been  desired,  I  liave 
sought  to  place  before  you  a  comprehensive  account  of  the  affairs  of  the 
State.  My  hearty  co-operation  and  support  are  extended  in  every  effort 
you  may  make  to  advance  the  interests  of  Utah  and  the  welfare  of  her 
citizens. 

In  all  our  deliberations  may  reason  prevail  over  passion  and  preja- 
dice,  and  in  the  discharge  of  our  duties  may  we  be  truly  representative 
of  the  best  thought  and  the  highest  aspiration  of  an  intelligent,  patriotic 
and  progressive  people,  to  the  end  that  our  efforts  may  perpetuate  the 
honor  and  fame  of  our  grand  young  commonwealth."      ♦        ♦        ♦ 

A  great  sensation  is  created  in  the  Montana  legislature  when  $40,000 
is  sent  to  the  presiding  officer's  desk  with  the  statement  of  a  member 
that  it  had  been  paid  to  him  for  bribe  money  in  the  interest  of  the 
election  of  one  of  the  senatorial  candidates. 

11th:  Charles  M.  Cannon,  son  of  President  Angus  M.  Cannon,  of 
Salt  Lake  City,  dies  of  valvular  disease  of  the  heart.  ♦  ♦  ♦  Presi- 
dent McKinley  nominates  Joseph  H.  Choate  to  be  embassador  to  Great 
Britain. 

12th:  Elder  George  Goddard,  well  and  widely  known  throughout 
the  State,  dies  this  morning. 

13th:  Hon.  Nelson  Dingley,  of  Maine,  dies  of  pneumonia,  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. 

14th:  The  United  States  cruiser  Albany  is  successfully  launched 
at  Newcastle,  England. 

17th:  The  Utah  Legislature  begins  balloting  for  United  States 
Senator.  Hon.  W.  H.  King,  A.  W.  McCune,  Judge  0.  W.  Powers  and 
Hon.  Frank  J.  Cannon  are  candidates  for  the  office. 


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IMPROVEMENT  EE^ 


TOL.  n.  MARCH,  1899.       •  No.  5. 


DREYFUS  AND  THE  ADMINISTRATION  OF 
LAW  IN  FRANCE. 

BY  J.  M.  TANNER,  PRESIDENT  AGRICULTURAL  COLLEGE, 
LOGAN,  UTAH. 


No  trial  of  modem  times  has  created  such  nniversal  attention 
as  today  attends  that  of  Dreyfus,  an  Alsatian  Jew  in  the  engineer- 
ing corps  of  the  French  army.  The  circumstances  of  his  trial  and 
conviction  and  the  subsequent  developments,  together  with  the 
tragic  trial  of  Zola  and  the  suicide  of  Col.  Henry,  have  turned  the 
eyes  of  the  whole  world  to  France  and  to  the  peculiarities  of  her 
administration  of  the  law. 

Before  the  circumstances  of  his  trial  are  given,  a  brief  expla- 
nation of  the  administration  of  law  in  France  is  necessary  in  order 
to  comprehend  how  it  is  possible  for  a  man  to  be  tried  and  con- 
victed according  to  the  procedure  adopted  in  the  case  of  Dreyfus. 

France  is  a  republic,  but  a  republic  in  name  only,  for  civil 
rights  and  the  great  bulwarks  of  liberty  are  no  more  enjoyed  on 
the  west  than  they  are  on  the  east  of  the  Rhine.  France,  like 
her  neighbor,  Germany,  is  a  military  despotism,  but  poses  before 
the  world  in  the  name  of  a  republic.  There  is  a  fundamental  differ- 


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322  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

ence  between  the  Germanic  and  the  Romanic  idea  of  the  state. 
The  Roman  power  was  that  of  the  strongest  centralization  wherdn 
the  individual  is  supposed  to  contribute  to  some  ideal  that  is  con- 
stantly held  up  as  the  chief  purpose  of  his  existence.  Among  the 
Teutonic  races  there  is  much  more  of  individual  liberty  enjoyed 
in  the  administration  of  government ;  and  this  liberty  and  the 
principles  of  free  institutions  have  been  most  highly  developed  in 
England  and  America. 

There  are,  therefore,  fundamental  differences  between  the 
administration  of  law  in  France  and  its  administration  in  English- 
speaking  lands.  Inihe  first  place,  France  has  a  peculiar  kind  of 
law,  known,  it  is  true,  to  continental  countries,  but  hardly  compre- 
hensible to  minds  that  have  been  brought  up  under  the  influence 
and  effects  of  the  common  law.  This  French  law  is  sometimes 
called  droit  odminUtrabifj  or  administrative  law.  The  traveler  in 
France  soon  learns,  if  America  is  his  home,  that  the  law  does  not 
work  there  as  in  his  native  land;  that  officers  are  overbearing, 
that  they  are  inconsiderate,  that  they  do  very  much  as  they  please, 
and  that  there  is  often  no  remedy  against  what  may  prove  to  be 
merely  their  whims.  This  grows  out  of  that  pecxdiar  administra- 
tive law,  a  law  by  which  the  administrative  officers  of  the  entire 
government  are  controlled.  In  America  when  an  officer  oversteps 
his  bounds  there  is  always  an  appeal  to  an  independent  system,  to 
the  judiciary.  The  facts  are  gone  into,  and  he  enjoys  all  the  legal 
advantages  of  an  independent  investigation.  Such,  however,  is 
not  the  case  in  France.  If  an  officer  oversteps  his  authority;  if 
he  acts  unreasonably  or  unjust  he  is  in  no  way  responsible  to  an 
independent  judiciary.  He  is  tried  before  his  superior  officers  in 
the  same  department,  whose  chief  question  seems  to  be  whether  or 
not  the  inferior  officer  has  carried  out  the  policy  of  his  superior. 
If  so,  there  is  no  cause  of  action.  All  remedy  is  lost  In  military 
countries  the  executive  department  has  its  policy.  If  that  is  car- 
ried out  inferior  officers  may  generally  depend  upon  the  good-will 
of  their  superiors  and  do  very  much  as  they  please. 

This  is  further  understood  when  we  realize  that  in  France 
there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  habeas  corpus.  If  a  man  is  thrown 
into  prison  he  must  await  there  the  pleasure  of  those  who  sent 
him.    The  executive  department  and  its  officers  cannot  be  ques- 


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DREYFUS.  323 

tioned.  No  judge  can  ask  whether  or  not  the  facts  warrant  his 
imprisonment,  or  whether  it  is  jnst  for  him  to  remain  in  durance 
vile.  Trials,  too,  in  Prance  are  wholly  unlike  those  in  this  country. 
In  the  first  place,  if  a  man  happens  to  be  an  official  his  case  goes 
under  an  administrative  department,  where  there  are  no  scientific 
principles  of  evidence  and  pleadings  to  be  considered.  The  officer  in 
charge  takes  the  case  in  his  own  hand  and  disposes  of  it  in  his 
own  peculiar  way.  He  is  not  hampered  by  any  precedents;  he  is 
not  governed  by  any  principles,  except  those  which  he  chooses  to 
apply  in  each  individual  case.  There  is  no  examination  of  wit- 
nesses, as  it  is  understood  in  this  country.  The  attorney  puts  his 
question  to  the  presiding  judge,  who,  in  turn,  puts  it  in  his  own 
way  to  the  witness  on  the  stand.  There  is  no  system  of  cross 
examination  by  which  it  is  easy  to  break  down  the  testimony,  and 
when  evidence  might  often  be  shaken  the  witness  who  is  frequently 
an  officer  of  the  government,  protects  himself  behind  his  preroga- 
tives by  saying  that  he  declines  to  answer  the  question.  In  almost 
all  criminal  proceedings  these  officers  give  the  great  bulk  of  the 
evidence,  and  the  arbitrary  disposition  of  the  rights  of  the  citizens 
is  something  incomprehensible  to  those  brought  up  under  a  system 
of  the  common  law.  The  whole  thing  is  political;  the  court  room 
is  political,  and  newspapers  do  not  hesitate  to  address  judges  in 
the  same  manner  that  they  would  address  a  candidate  for  election. 
National  policy  dictates  the  court  often  in  an  unusual  manner,  and 
the  truth  of  this  exposition  of  French  law  is  strikingly  exemplified 
in  the  trial  of  Alfred  Dreyfus,  a  eav^e  celebre. 

What  were  the  circumstances  of  his  trial?  and  why  have  they 
produced  so  much  excitement  throughout  Europe  and  America? 

In  the  fall  of  1894  La  Libre  Parole,  an  intensely  anti-Jewish 
paper  in  the  city  of  Paris  announced  the  arrest  of  Captain  Dreyfus 
on  the  charge  of  having  given  away  army  secrets  to  a  foreign 
nation.  Dreyfus  was  called  to  trial,  but  not  without  some  hesi- 
tancy on  the  part  of  those  who  had  his  case  in  hand.  A  number 
of  documents,  conmionly  called  a  bordereau,  had  been  discovered. 
These  documents  were  unsigned,  but  they  had  evidently  been  com- 
municated to  a  foreign  nation,  and  there  was  some  doubt  whether, 
after  all  Mr.  Dreyfus  was  the  author  of  this  bordereau.  Dreyfus 
was  subject  to  a  military  tribunal,  which  is  supposed  to  act  as  a 


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324  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

court  of  justice  in  the  trial  of  the  accused.  The  hesitancy  of  the 
ministry  of  war  was  condemned  at  once  by  an  anti-Semitic  leader, 
Mr.  Drumont,  in  his  paper,  La  Libre  Parole.  This  is  how  Mr. 
Drumont  talks  to  the  ministry  of  war  in  its  capacity  of  a  hi^ 
court  of  justice: 

''Look  at  this  ministry  of  war,  which  ought  to  be  the  sanc- 
tuary of  patriotism  and  which  is  a  cavern,  the  hole  of  perpetoal 
scandals,  the  cloaca  which  cannot  be  compared  to  the  Augean 
stables  because  no  Hercules  has  yet  undertaken  to  clean  it.  Snch 
a  house  should  be  perfumed  with  honor  and  virtue;  instead  it  gives 
forth  a  constant  stench.  *  *  *  Tomorrow,  doubtless, 
they  will  applaud  the  minister  of  war  when  he  boasts  of  the 
measures  he  has  taken  to  save  Dreyfus." 

This  menace  seemed  to  have  had  the  desired  effect,  and  Gen- 
eral Mercier,  minister  of  war,  at  once  proceeded  to  the  trial  of 
Alfred  Dreyfus.  But  the  nature  of  his  trial  must  remain  largely 
secret  to  the  world.  It  was  an  executive  session  of  the  courts  and 
it  was  said  that  even  the  prisoner  himself  had  not  the  opportunity 
of  confronting  some  of  the  accusations  made  against  him.  It 
appears  that  he  was  convicted  largely  upon  a  document  which  he 
had  not  the  opportunity  of  even  seeing;  neither  had  his  counsel 
So  that  he  was  sentenced  to  transportation  for  life  on  the  malarial 
island  called  the  Devil's  Island,  off  the  Cioast  of  South  America. 
He  had  not  even  the  privileges  of  the  French  criminal  when  he 
was  sentenced  to  transportation  to  New  Caledonia  where  he  may  be 
permitted  to  take  his  wife  and  family.  Upon  his  conviction,  Drey- 
fus underwent  degradation  before  the  army  in  the  presence  of 
thousands  of  spectators  who,  fully  sanguine  of  his  guilt,  took  great 
pleasure  in  his  humiliation.  He  was  marched  before  the  soldiers 
of  his  company,  and  in  the  presence  of  his  comrades  he  was 
stripped  of  the  insignia  of  his  office  and  the  buttons  were  torn 
from  his  coat.  His  sword  was  broken  before  his  eyes  and  he  was 
conducted  out  of  the  country. 

He  had  scarcely  been  sentenced  to  this  punishment  of  living 
death  when  suspicions  began  to  arise  because  of  those  who  had 
been  foremost  in  his  conviction,  and  because  of  the  secrecy  of  bis 
trial.  In  the  days  of  Gambetta  the  Jews  had  been  highly  honored 
among  the  ruling  classes  of  France,  and  that  circumstance  had 


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DREYFUS.  326 

aroused,  it  is  said,  the  intense  hatred  and  jealonsy  of  the  Jesuit 
Catholic  portion  of  the  country;  and  the  Jesuits  at  once  got  into 
control  of  the  military  schools  and  began  as  rapidly  as  possible  to 
reverse  the  order  of  things.  The  honored  position  held  by  Drey- 
fus, and  the  distinguished  favor  which  he  had  received,  it  is  said, 
awakened  their  jealousy.  Hence,  they  became  jubilant  over  his 
misfortune.  But  that  excessive  jubilation  awakened  feelings  of 
suspicion  and  gave  rise  to  the  agitation  which  has  followed  it. 

What  was  this  secret  document?  Its  character  has  never 
been  revealed.  Policy  of  state  is  said  to  prevent  its  publicity.  It 
might  bring  on  a  war  between  Germany  and  France.  The  highest 
policy  of  the  state  forbade  any  knowledge  of  it  beyond  the  officers 
who  stood  at  the  head  of  the  army.  It  did  not  appear  at  the  trial 
exactly  what  nation  had  been  guilty  of  buying  the  military  secrets 
of  France,  but  it  was  generally  said  that  these  secrets  were  con- 
veyed to  Germany  and  Italy.  Both  nations  did  not  hesitate  to 
deny  that  they  had  anything  whatever  to  do  with  Captain  Dreyfus, 
and  said  that  so  far  as  the  accusations  against  him  were  associated 
with  them  they  were  utterly  false.  This  gave  rise  to  newspaper 
comment  on  all  parts  of  the  continent  and  in  England.  Protests 
were  made  from  abroad  in  which  it  was  pointed  out  that  the  means 
of  his  conviction  were  indeed  open  to  question.  This  foreign 
interference  inflamed  the  minds  of  the  French  and  their  chief  pur- 
pose seemed  now  to  be  to  convince  themselves  as  firmly  as  possible 
that  Dreyfus  was  guilty  of  the  charges  made  against  him.  Besides 
these  criticisms  affected  the  honor  of  the  French  army,  whose 
generals  must  be  sustained,  because  a  loss  of  confidence  in  them 
on  the  part  of  the  soldiers  would  be  suicidal  to  France.  Besides 
the  matter  had  been  heard.  It  was  in  English  law,  res  ajudicatOy 
what  is  called  in  France  cJiose  jugee.  Why  should  Europe  be 
interested  in  opening  the  question  that  had  already  been  settled 
according  to  the  law  of  France? 

It  appeared  from  the  evidence  that  five  experts  in  writing  had 
been  called  in  to  testify.  Two  were  convinced  that  the  writing  was 
not  that  of  Dreyfus;  three  pronounced  against  him.  Not  long, 
however,  after  his  conviction,  which  took  place  on  the  10th  of 
January,  1895,  his  attorney,  Maitre  Damange,  expressed  his  most 
earnest    conviction  that   Dreyfus  was  innocent  of  the  charge 


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326  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

against  him.  Criticisms  abroad  led  to  an  independent  and  investi- 
gating spirit  at  home.  Col.  Picquart,  one  of  the  chiefs  of  the 
secret  service,  declared  that  in  his  opinion  Dreyfus  was  innocent, 
and  famished  evidence  at  his  command  to  the  vice-president  of  the 
French  Senate,  M.  Scheurer-Eestner.  The  vice-president,  a  man 
of  superior  ability  and  enjoying  the  confidence  of  the  French  peo- 
ple, interpolated  the  government  and  declared  his  intention  to  ask 
for  a  new  trial,  saying  that  he  would  undertake  the  rehabilitation 
of  Captain  Dreyfus ;  that,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  he  was  not  the 
real  culprit.  Thereupon  Mathieu  Dreyfus,  the  brother  of  Alfred 
who  was  convicted,  at  once  visited  the  vice-president  of  the  Senate, 
when  the  following  conversation  took  place: 

''You  know  the  name  of  the  real  author  of  the  bordereau  ? " 

"Yes,''  M.  Scheurer-Kestner,  replied,  **but  I  have  no  authority 
to  speak  of  if 

"But  if  I  should  speak  it,  would  you  not  deny  it?" 

"No." 

"Esterhazy?" 

"That  is  the  name,"  replied  M.  Scheurer-Eestner.  "How  did 
you  know  it?" 

"A  banker,  M.  Castro,  bought  the  fac-simile  of  the  bordereau 
on  the  street.  He  instantly  recognized  the  hand-writing  as  that 
of  one  of  his  former  customers.  He  compared  it  with  the  letters 
which  he  had  received  from  him,  and  on  November  7th  he  came  to 
give  me  this  name  and  the  proofs." 

Mathieu  Dreyfus  now  brought  charge  against  Esterhazy  as 
the  actual  culprit.  This  led  to  the  trial  of  Esterhazy,  but  singu- 
larly enough,  and  notwithstanding  what  appeared  to  be  very  strong 
evidence,  he  was  acquitted  and  complimented  by  the  presiding 
judge.  Esterhazy  was  now  held  as  the  martyr  of  the  Jews  and 
there  seemed  to  be  a  general  disposition  on  the  part  of  the  French 
people  to  insist  upon  the  guilt  of  Dreyfus  as  a  defense  by  France 
against  the  charges  of  foreign  countries.  To  their  minds,  France 
was  on  trial.  Dreyfus  was  a  secondary  consideration,  except  so 
far  as  it  was  necessary  to  establish  his  guilt  in  order  to  maintain 
French  honor. 

When  one  comes  to  consider  the  character  of  Esterhazy  and 
some  of  the  evidence  found  in  his  possession,  it  is  remarkable  that 


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DREYFUS.  327 

he  should  have  been  made  the  hero  of  the  hour,  as  he  was  upon 
his  acquital.  He  seemed  to  be  a  man  of  low  character.  He  had 
ruined  his  wife  and  children.  He  had  become  persona  non  grata 
wherever  he  had  been  in  the  French  army;  was  financially  irre- 
sponsible, and  at  the  time  was  living  with  a  dissolute  woman. 
When  his  house  was  searched  two  letters  were  found.  In  them 
he  expressed  hope  that  Germany  would  conquer  France,  and  in 
further  contempt  of  his  country  declared  that  beyond  a  certain 
I>oint  the  Germans  could  throw  away  their  swords  and  drive  the 
French  back  with  riding  whips.  Among  the  experts  at  the  trial 
of  Esterhazy  and  Dreyfus,  it  seems  that  five  out  of  eight  testified 
in  favor  of  Dreyfus,  two  in  the  declairation  that  the  writing  was 
not  that  of  Dreyfus  and  three  in  the  declaration  that  the  writing 
was  that  of  Esterhazy. 

The  agitation  over  this  celebrated  case  led  to  constant  inter- 
polations of  the  ministry  in  the  chamber  of  deputies  at  Paris,  each 
minister  of  war  declaring  his  absolute  belief  that  Dreyfus  was 
guilty,  Cavagnac,  even,  going  so  far  as  to  say  that  he  had  received 
subsequent  evidence  which  took  the  question  beyond  all  doubt. 
This  was  correspondence  carried  on  between  agents  of  the  German 
and  Italian  governments,  and  had  been  furnished  him  by  Col.  Henry. 
This  additional  evidence  of  guilt  was  now  ordered  to  be  posted  up 
throughout  France  as  fresh  evidence  of  the  just  policy  of  the  army 
officers  who  had  tried  the  unfortunate  Jew.  France  and  Germany 
at  once  hastened  to  deny  the  truthfulness  of  this  latter  evidence, 
and  when  Col.  Henry,  who  had  been  in  the  secret  service,  was 
questioned  as  to  the  truthfulness  of  the  documents  he  had  pro- 
duced, he  confessed  that  he  had  been  guilty  of  forgery.  He  was 
thereupon  seized  and  imprisoned,  not  in  Cherche  Midi,  but  in  the 
fortress  at  Mont  Valerien.  Soon  after  it  was  announced  that  he 
had  committed  suicide  by  cutting  his  throat,  but  the  unusual  cir- 
cumstances of  his  imprisonment  led  to  the  suspicion  that  Col. 
Henry,  who  had  been  known  as  a  straight-forward  officer  and 
whose  work  could  always  be  relied  upon,  had  been  murdered  in 
order  that  some  of  the  army  generals  might  escape  the  disgrace 
from  evidence  that  he  was  likely  to  give  in  the  matter. 

This  has  led  to  a  general  revulsion  of  feeling  throughout 
France,  and  the  belief  began  to  grow  that,  whether  or  not  the 


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328  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

forgery  of  Henry  had  anjrthing  to  do  with  the  establishment  of 
the  guilt  or  innocence  of  Dreyfus,  the  latter  was  etititled  to  a 
rehearing.  Besides  a  new  factor  had  entered  into  this  celebrated 
case  by  an  accusation  made  by  Zola  against  the  French  President 
and  military  tribunal  immediately  after  the  acquital  of  Esterhazy. 
Zola  was  brought  up  and  tried  on  the  charge  of  defamation,  and 
the  publicity  given  to  his  trial  has  brought  forward  some  striking 
peculiarities  in  the  administration  of  French  justice- 

The  Echo  de  Paris,  a  staff  newspaper,  thus  describes  a  scene 
during  the  trial  of  Zola:  ''A  flood  of  insults  drowns  the  voice  of 
the  advocate.  The  audience  rises  to  its  feet.  There  is  whistling, 
groans;  and  canes  are  pounding  the  floor  in  cadence.  If  one  closes 
one's  eyes,  the  illusion  is  complete  that  the  palace  is  about  to  tum- 
ble to  pieces.  Each  minute  the  audience  becomes  more  excited. 
Finally,  it  breaks  down.  The  most  offensive  cries  and  shouts  min- 
gle with  hisses  and  whistles.  One  by  one,  under  the  fixed  stare  of 
the  spectators,  the  jurors  quit  the  hall.'' 

Such  a  scene  in  a  court  of  justice  is  not  more  astounding 
than  the  manner  in  which  testimony  was  offered.  General  Pelliieux 
takes  the  stand.  Read  his  testimony:  '1  have  a  soul  of  a  soldier 
which  revolts  at  hearing  the  infamous  aspersions  shower  upon  us. 
I  can  keep  silence  no  longer.  I  cannot  stand  them  trying  to 
detach  the  army  from  its  chiefs,  for  if  the  soldier  cease  to  have 
confidence  in  them,  what  will  the  chiefs  do  in  the  day  of  danger, 
which  is,  perhaps,  nearer  than  people  think?  Then,  gentlemen  of 
the  jury,  your  sons  would  be  left  to  simple  butchery."  Labori, 
counsel  for  Zola,  protested  against  some  of  these  utterances  and 
proposed  to  question  the  General.  But  we  are  told  that  the  court 
forbade  Labori  to  proceed. 

Zola  was  convicted  of  defamation  and  received  the  extreme 
penalty.  He  now  appealed  to  the  highest  court  of  France,  that 
of  the  Cassation.  This  court  held  that  the  procedure  in  bringing 
Zola  to  trial  had  been  irregular,  and  that  he  was  entitled  to  a 
re-hearing.  Before  his  re-hearing  could  be  heard  Zola  escaped 
from  France,  feeling  as  every  disinterested  person  must  have  felt, 
that  a  re-trial  would  be  a  mockery  of  justice. 

After  the  confession  of  forgery  and  the  death  of  Col.  Henry, 
it  became  certain  that  there  could  be  no  peace  in  France  until  the 


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DREYFUS.  829 

case  of  Dreyfus  received  a  new  hearing.  Feeling  began  to  grow 
throughout  France  that,  after  all,  Esterhazy  might  be  the  real 
culprit.  Whereupon  Esterhazy  fled  from  his  country  to  London, 
where,  it  is  said,  he  is  peddling  confessions  of  his  forgery  that  led 
to  the  conviction  of  Dreyfus. 

Now,  the  court  of  Cassation  has  decided  to  open  the  case 
anew.  There  were  three  courses  open  to  the  supreme  court  of 
France.  First,  a  denial  for  revision;  second,  quashing  of  the 
judgment  and  order  for  a  new  trial;  and,  third,  that  more  informa- 
tion was  needed  in  the  case  of  Dreyfus,  and  that  such  information 
would  be  sought  for  by  the  court  in  secret  sitting,  but  with  full 
power  to  call  for  all  documents,  summon  witnesses,  etc.  The  last 
course  was  adopted,  but  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  more  publicity 
cannot  be  given  to  the  investigations  to  be  carried  on,  although  in 
this  investigation  the  counsel  for  the  defendant  will  undoubtedly 
have  the  opportunity  of  presenting  evidence  in  full  and  of  over- 
throwing, if  possible,  all  evidence  brought  against  his  client.  He 
wiU  also  be  tried  under  the  new  aw  inaugurated  in  1895  and 
extending  in  all  criminal  cases  greater  rights  to  the  accused.  This 
new  law  shows  what  has  existed  in  France  for  centuries  and  is  a 
remarkable  illustration  of  the  process  of  conducting  cases  of 
criminal  procedure  in  a  French  court  of  justice.  A  certain  Mar- 
quis de  Nayve  had  been  accused  of  murdering  his  wife's  illegiti- 
mate son  by  throwing  him  over  the  rocks  near  Naples,  a  crime 
which  he  is  said  to  have  committed  nine  years  before  his  trial. 
There  is  no  grand  jury  in  France,  but  the  indictment — if  such  may 
be  said  to  exist  in  France — is  called  the  dossier^  and  is  gotten  up 
by  one  of  the  judges  of  the  court  called  the  ^'juge-^inisrudionr 
This  judge,  who  is  a  quasi  prosecuting  officer,  may  take  his  own 
time  to  investigate  the  case.  The  judge  kept  him  there  for  seven 
months  before  getting  out  the  indictment,  or  dossier.  The  trial  of 
Nayve  resulted  in  his  acquittal.  So  outrageous  an  abuse  of  power 
led  the  French  government  to  adopt  measures  for  the  trial  of 
criminals  which  are  more  in  consonance  with  the  principles  of  right 
and  liberty. 

The  world  will  now  await  with  deep  interest  and  some  anxiety 
the  results  of  the  additional  investigations  to  be  made  in  the  case 
of  Dreyfus;  and  yet,  so  far  as  the  case  is  of  interest  to  the  Anglo- 


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330  IMPRO  VEMENT  ERA. 

Saxon,  there  is  the  wish  that  Dreyfus  might  enjoy  the  oppor- 
tunites  of  a  new  trial  under  the  common  law  system;  that  is,  that 
he  might  have  the  privilege  of  confronting  the  witnesses  against 
him,  of  having  the  investigation  open  and  public  and  the  greatest 
scrutiny  given  to  the  bordereau  upon  which  he  is  said  to  have  been 
convicted,  and,  above  all,  that  he  might  enjoy  the  right  of  that 
common  law  presumption  that  he  is  innocent  until  proven  guilty, 
and  also  enjoy  the  resolving  of  all  doubt  in  his  favor. 

There  are  no  motives  assignable  today  why  Dreyfus  should 
have  betrayed  the  interests  of  France.  He  is  a  wealthy  Jew,  of  a 
wealthy  family.  Money  could  not  be  a  consideration.  There  is  no 
reason  why  he  should,  have  favored  Germany  more  than  his  native 
country,  in  which  he  enjoyed  honors  and  emoluments,  and  to  which 
he  was  attached  by  all  the  ties  of  birth  and  patriotism.  The  Drey- 
fus case,  however,  as  a  eaiue  eekbre,  whatever  may  happen  to 
Dreyfus,  will,  in  a  large  measure,  alienate  the  sympathies  of  all  &ee 
people  for  the  republic  of  France.  It  will  publish  to  the  world 
the  fact  that,  although  France  is  a  republic  in  name,  it  is  repub- 
licanism little  in  common  with  that  of  this  country.  The  spirit 
of  liberty  and  justice  as  found  in  the  republicanism  of  France  is 
but  a  shadow  of  those  undying  principles  of  free  institutions  as 
exemplified  in  the  administration  of  law  and  order  in  England  and 
America.  Indeed  the  President  of  the  French  republic,  M.  Faure, 
has  but  little  more  genuine  liberty  than  has  the  Czar  of  Russia. 
Compared  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  he  is  in  absolute 
bondage,  bound  by  the  traditions  and  military  rules  that  hamper 
and  strangle  civil  liberty,  wherever  the  military  arm  is  dominant 


NOTE. 

Since  the  above  was  written,  M.  Quesnay  de  Beaurepaire,  president 
of  the  civil  section  of  the  court  of  Cassation,  has  resigned  his  position 
and  now  charges  the  tribunal,  with  which  he  was  associated,  with  bad 
faith  and  corruption  in  what  he  anticipates  will  be  a  favorable  action  in 
the  revision  of  the  Dreyfus  case.  The  fact  that  M.  de  Beaurepaire  is 
now  contributing  to  the  papers  and  charging  the  court,  of  which  he  was 
formerly  a  member,  with  bad  faith,  and  appeals  to  the  public  to  repudiate 
it  and  disrespect  its  integrity,  must  appeal  to  the  crdinary  Anglo-Saxon 
mind  as  something  very  remarkable.  It  shows  that  lack  of  respect  which 


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DREYFUS.  331 

the  Latin  mind  has  always  shown  for  the  judiciary.  Should  such  a  thing 
happen  in  this  country  or  in  England,  the  act  would  be  resented  as  an 
outrage  upon  the  judicial  system,  which  here  receives  such  high  respect, 
and  which  in  France,  evidently,  is  treated  as  a  mere  political  institution 
not  entitled  to  more  respect  than  is  shown  to  a  legislative  candidate  for 
office. 


LAMENTATION  ON  THE  DEATH  OF  A  FATHER. 


Oh  heart,  my  heart,  when  that  brave  spirit  soared 
Above,  beyond  the  bonds  of  earth  and  time, 
And  those  dear  eyes  forever  closed  on  earth, 
Whose  glance  was  wont  to  dwell  with  love  on  mine; 
And  those  kind  hands  accomplished  their  last  task, 
Which  had  so  oft  been  busy  for  mv  weal, 
Did  not  some  premonition  haste  thy  beat. 
And  thou  prescience  of  disaster  feel? 

Oh  sad,  sad  heart!  though  many  weary  miles 
Divided  me  from  him  who  loved  me  best, 
Ck)uld'st  thou  not  know  that  other  loyal  heart 
Lay  cold  and  pulseless  in  that  manly  breast? 
Could'st  thou  not  feel  some  chill  presentiment 
That  thou  had'st  lost  thy  counselor  and  friend? 
And  that  last  look  must  bridge  the  stream  of  time 
Between  we  two  till  earth  and  time  shall  end? 

Ck)uld'st  thou  not  know,  when  we  came  home  again 
No  answering  welcome  we  could  meet  from  him — 
Instead  of  shouts  of  joy  at  our  return 
Each  face  averted  and  each  eye  grown  dim? 
That  we  could  meet  no  loving,  sheltering  arms, 
No  echo  of  that  blessing  which  he  gave? 
But  go  alone,  oh  anguish-bursting  heart! 
To  throb  unanswered  on  his  new-made  grave. 

Sarah  E.  Pearson. 


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^TROM  FAITH  TO  FAITH/^ 

BY  NEPHI  ANDERSON. 


As  in  the  beginning  God  made  all  things  spiritually  before 
they  took  the  form  visible  to  mortal  eyes,  so  ever  after  has  it 
been  the  natural  workings  of  the  human  mind  to  create  first  in 
the  imagination  the  things  that  later  have  been  fashioned  by  the 
hand  or  materialized  in  the  daily  life. 

The  imagination  flies  before  and  spies  out  the  land  for  the 
safer  tread  of  fact.  Faith  leads  to  works.  The  idea  precedes 
the  expression.  Fancy  beckons  from  unknown  lands.  In  vision 
we  see  the  dim  regions  into  which  time  soon  sets  us  down  and  we 
experience  its  reality.  ''The  fantasies  of  one  day  are  the  deep 
realities  of  a  future  one,''  says  Hawthorne. 

The  inventor  builds  his  machine  of  the  finer  material  of  the 
mind  ere  it  assumes  tangible  shape.  The  painter's  most  beautiful 
picture  is  on  the  sensitive  canvas  of  the  mind,  and  that  which  he 
puts  on  the  coarse-grained  cloth  by  means  of  his  pigments  and 
brushes,  is  but  an  imperfect  copy. 

The  song  which  echoes  through  the  inner  chambers  of  the 
poef s  soul  is  not  perfectly  reproduced  by  the  insufficient  words 
of  man.  The  novelist's  characters  walk  and  talk  in  spiritual 
reality  before  they  are  delineated  by  the  pen. 

Take  the  child.  His  sole  ambition  is  a  pocket  knife,  the  end 
of  his  brightest  hope  is  to  be  in  possession  of  a  bag  of  marbles. 
A  few  years  and  these  are  trifles.  His  ideal  has  moved  on  until 
it  is  now  perchance  a  horse  or  a  bicycle.  Then  when  these  have 
become  commonplace  his  fancy  mounts  higher,  and  the  occupation 
of  some  exalted  station,  the  reaching  of  some  noble  place  in  life, 
becomes  his  objective  point.    These  are  also  reached,  and  then 


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''FROM  FAITH  TO  FAITHr  333 

the  ever  moonting  ambition  Boars  still  higher,  and  the  mind 
through  its  sabtle  eye  of  fdth  sees  newer  and  grander  possibili- 
tiesy  which  if  life  and  energies  last,  may  also  be  folly  realized. 

Then  old  age  comes,  and  the  physical  senses  become  dnlled; 
but  the  ever-living  sonl  within  looks  on  and  on.  Death  may  be  a 
short  passage  throngh  a  dark  valley,  but  the  hills  are  shining 
brightly  beyond  the  shadow.  To  the  believer,  whose  inner  eyes 
are  touched  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  the  grave  is  not  the  limit  of 
thought  or  hope,  but  merely  an  incident  in  the  onward  march,  an 
experience  in  God's  school  of  immortality.  By  a  divine  faith  he 
sees  far  into  the  eternities  of  the  Father,  into  the  kingdoms  of 
glory,  and  the  soul  leaps  in  joy  at  the  beautiful  sight. 

If  the  highest  aspirations  of  the  child  come  true,  may  we  not 
from  analogy  reason  that  our  highest  conceptions  of  the  future 
life  will  some  day  be  realized?  We  are  the  children  of  God, 
created  in  his  image,  and  holy  writ  assures  us  that  when  Christ 
reveals  himself  again,  they  who  have  had  this  glorious  hope  and 
have  purified  themselves  as  he  is  pure,  will  see  that  they  are  like 
him. 

In  thus  reasonmg  on  this  hope  that  ''springs  eternal  in  the 
human  breast^  we  have  many  analyses  to  establish  its  truth.  For 
example,  we  can  plainly  see  the  effect  that  environment  has  on 
life,  both  plant  and  animal.  The  geranium,  which  in  Utah  can 
reach  to  a  height  of  about  eighteen  inches  only,  in  other  climates 
grows  to  the  size  of  a  small  tree.  The  tall  willow  and  pines  of 
the  temperate  zone  become  mere  dwafs  in  the  arctic  regions. 
Recently  a  French  scientist  has  discovered  the  secret  of  the  Hin- 
doo mango  trick,  in  which  a  seed  is  planted  in  the  presence  of  the 
audience  and  made  to  grow  to  a  plant  a  foot  high  in  an  hour. 
The  investigation  showed  that  a  prepared  earth  was  used,  obtained 
from  ant  hills  and  charged  with  formic  acid  which  wonderfully 
quickened  the  germination  of  the  seed  and  the  growth  of  the 
plant. 

So  in  like  manner  animal  life  depends  very  much  on  its  envi- 
ronments, and  man  is  no  exception.  The  child  has  all  the  attri- 
butes of  the  man;  training  and  favorable  surrounding  develop  some, 
while  others  lie  dormant.  Is  it  not  equally  true  that  man  is  a 
child  of  the  Eternal  Father,  inheriting  all  his  nature  in  germ  form 


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334  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

as  yet,  very  little  of  which  may  have  made  a  begimiing  in  growth? 
But  all  the  attributes  are  there,  and  when  the  transplanting  is 
done  and  the  mortal  is  taken  from  out  the  stunting  effects  of 
earthly  environments  into  the  divine  influence  of  heavenly  elements, 
is  it  not  possible  that  man's  inherent  energies  will  expand  in  all 
directions  towards  the  perfectness  of  his  Father  and  God? 
'1  dimly  guess  from  blessings  known 
Of  greater  oat  of  sight.** 

says  Whittier;  but  he  does  not  put  it  nearly  as  strong  as  does  the 
inspired  apostle  when  he  says:  ''Eye  hath  not  seen,  neither  ear 
heard,  neither  have  entered  into  heart  of  man,  the  things  which 
God  hath  prepared  for  them  that  love  him." 

May  we,  then,  not  safely  go  from  faith  to  faith,  and  build  our 
castles  in  the  air?  Build  them  of  gleaming  marble  and  shining 
precious  stones,  and  adorn  them  with  all  the  beauties  that  the 
imagination  can  supply.  All  we  have  to  do  is  to  place  founda- 
tions under  them  and  illumine  their  towers  with  that  glory  which 
poets  have  caught  a  glimpse  of  and  which  the  unbeliever  has 
called — 'The  light  that  never  was  on  sea  nor  land." 


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SAMOA  AND  HER  NEIGHBORS. 

BY  W.   0.   LEE,   SAMOAN  MISSIONARY. 


Generally  speaking  there  are  two  races  of  people  that  inhabit 
the  division  of  the  earth  called  Oceania.  The  reader  can  readily 
understand  where  the  two  races  meet  by  turning  to  a  map  of  the 
Pacific  Ocean  and  drawing  a  line  a  little  west  of  south,  from  the 
west  side  of  the  Sandwich  Islands  to  the  west  side  of  the  Ellice 
group;  thence  south  through  Fiji  and  west  of  New  Zealand.  This 
line  from  north  to  south  is  a  little  over  4,000  miles  long,  starting 
some  twenty-two  degrees  north  of  the  equator,  and  ending  at  least 
forty-seven  degrees  south  latitude.  All  of  the  native  inhabitants 
on  the  islands  east  of  this  race-line  belong  to  the  finely-formed, 
brown  Polynesians;  while  the  inhabitants  of  the  islands  on  the  west 
of  this  line  belong  to  what  are  called  Papuans — a  diminutive  negro 
race  supposed  to  have  come  originally  from  Africa,  and  nick-named 
"Black  Boys"  by  foreigners  in  the  South  Pacific,  because  of  their 
small  stature  and  thin  limbs. 

Growing  out  of  these  two  races,  the  Polynesians  and  the  Papu- 
ans where  they  have  met  and  intermarried,  there  is  a  third  race 
found  on  the  Fiji  and  other  groups  near  the  center  of  the  South 
Pacific. 

The  Samoan  or  Navigator  Islands,  which  group  with  its  inhab- 
itants will  form  the  main  topic  of  our  article,  will  be  found  near 
the  center  of  what  we  call  Polynesia,  and  are  situated  between 
thirteen  and  fifteen  degrees  south  latitude  and  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-nine  and  one  hundred  and  seventy-three 
degrees  west  longitude.     Samoa  is  5,000  miles  from  Salt  Lake  .- 


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336  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

City,  and  it  takes  two  weeks  by  steamer  to  reach  there  from  San 
Francisco  in  a  south-westerly  direction,  via  Honolulu,  which  is  the 
only  land  sighted  and  the  half-way  house  en  route. 

North  of  Samoa  2,100  miles  are  the  Sandwich  Islands,  (Hawaii;) 
1,500  miles  east  are  the  Society  Islands,  (Tahiti);  400  miles  south 
are  the  Friendly  Islands,  (Tonga);  the  same  distance  west  of  Samoa 
are  the  Fiji  Islands,  and  some  1,600  miles  south  is  New  Zealand, 
(Maoriland.)  On  all  of  the  above  groups,  except  Fiji,  the  Latter- 
day  Saints  have  established  missons,  and  there  is  as  much  differ- 
ence between  the  native  inhabitants  of  these  islands  as  there  is 
between  the  Indian  tribes  of  South,  Central  and  North  America. 
Yet,  like  our  own  Indians,  the  Polynesians,  or  brown  race,  of  the 
Pacific  isles,  undoubtedly  all  sprang  from  the  same  source,  but 
time  and  location  since  their  separation  have  made  many  changes  m 
their  language,  mode  of  living  and  habits,  the  same  as  among  the 
various  tribes  of  American  Indians.  Most  writers  on  the  subject 
of  their  origin  agree  that  the  Polynesians  belong  to  the  Malay  race 
of  the  East  Indian  Archipelago.  The  similarity  in  the  language  of 
the  natives  of  these  two  places  being  the  weightiest  argument  in 
favor  of  this  theory.  It  seems  strange  to  the  writer  that  withtiie 
winds  and  ocean  currents  against  the  above  supposition,  some  of 
its  adherents  did  not  look  to  the  American  continent  for  a  more 
natural  solution  to  the  problem  of  the  origin  of  the  Polynesians. 

On  this  subject  we  copy  the  following  from  the  Encyclopedia 
Britannica: 

'^he  brown  people  who  occupy  the  islands  of  Eastern  Polyneda 
are  generally  regarded  as  having  affinities  with  the  Malays  of  the 
Indian  Archipelago,  and  are  sometimes  spoken  of  as  a  branch  of 
the  Malay  race,  or  family.  They  cannot,  however,  with  any 
accuracy  be  so  described.  The  Malays,  as  they  now  exist,  are  a 
comparatively  modem  people,  who  have  become  what  they  are  by 
the  mixture  of  several  elements  not  found  in  the  most  primitive 
race.  The  Sawaioris  (Polynesians)  and  the  Tarapons  (mixed  race) 
of  Polynesia,  the  Malagasy  (Hovas)  of  Madagascar  and  the  Malays 
are  allied  races,  but  no  one  of  them  can  be  regarded  as  the  parent 
of  the  rest.  The  parent  race  has  disappeared;  but  the  Sawaiori 
(Polynesian)  as  the  earliest  off-shoot  from  it,  and  one  which  owing 
to  the  conditions  under  which  it  has  lived,  has  remained  almost  free 


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SAMOA  AND  HER  NEIGHBORS.  837 

from  admixture  of  blood,  may  be  taken  as  most  nearly  representing 
what  the  parent  was.'' 

We  readily  agree  with  all  of  the  above  except  this  statement, 
'^e  parent  race  has  disappeared/'  We  Latter-day  Saints  believe 
that  there  are  millions  of  the  parent  race  of  the  Polynesians  now 
living  on  the  Western  Hemisphere  known  as  the  red-brown  race,  or 
Indians;  and  we  argue  this  way:  Driftwood  from  the  western 
shores  of  America  is  constantly  being  cast  upon  the  shores  of 
Hawaii,  what  more  natural  then,  than  the  supposition  drawn  from 
the  Book  of  Mormon  account  of  lost  ships,  that  parties  coasting 
from  one  place  to  another  on  our  Pacific  shores,  and  being  lost  at 
sea,  should  drift  where  the  wind  and  ocean  currents  would  naturally 
take  them — ^to  some  of  the  Pacific  isles? 

How  interesting  it  will  be  some  day  if  our  United  States  gov- 
ernment awakes  to  find  that  its  new  Hawaiian  citizens  and  its 
Indian  protegees  are  first  cousins  and  as  such  entitled  to  the  same 
privileges!  We  are  reminded  of  the  fact  that  our  Hawaiian  Saints 
in  Utah  came  nearly  being  classed  with  the  heathen  Chinee,  and 
denied  papers  of  American  citizenship.  Then  again,  what  if  the 
Malay  part  of  the  population  on  our— to  be,  or  not  to  be — ^Philip- 
pine Islands,  has  Lamanite-Polynesian  blood  in  their  veins? 

WhQe  the  '  Ved  men"  of  America  are  classed  as  a  different  race 
from  the  Polynesians  yet  we  contend,  where  the  conditions  are  the 
same,  both  being  civilized  and  dressed  alike,  only  an  expert  can  tell 
one  from  the  other.  Indians  are  red  men  for  the  same  reason  that 
some  women  have  rosy  cheeks— because  they  are  painted. 

Once  when  we  were  showing  some  Samban  natives  the  por- 
traits of  their  American  cousins  (Indians)  they  immediately  ex- 
claimed,   E  ttisa  lava  ma  Samoa!    Exactly  like  Samoans! 

On  the  islands,  native  legends  all  point  to  the  east  as  the 
direction  they  came  from. 

Surely  the  natives  of  Samoa  came  from  Hawaii,  or  vice  versa, 
because  they  called  the  largest  island  in  their  new  home  after  the 
one  they  had  left  behind  them,  that  is,  Hawaii  and  Savaii,  the  native 
names  for  the  two  largest  islands  on  the  Sandwich  and  the  Samoan 
Islands  respectively.  The  last  mentioned  group  we  will  describe  in 
our  next. 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS- 


CONFUCIANISM. 

BY  KtJNG  HSIEN  HO,  OP  SHANGHAL 
{Prom  the  DaUy  Reports  cf  the  Parliament  ofReligunu,  Chicago,  1893.) 

The  most  important  thing  in  the  superior  man's  learning  is  to 
fear  disobeying  Heaven's  will.  Therefore,  in  our  Confncian  Relig- 
ion the  most  important  thing  is  to  follow  the  will  of  Heaven.  The 
book  of  Yih  King,  says,  'In  the  changes  of  the  world  there  is  a  great 
Supreme  which  produces  two  principles,  and  these  two  principles 
are  Yin  and  Yang."  By  supreme  is  meant  the  spring  of  all  activity. 
Our  sages  regard  Yin  and  Yang  and  the  five  elements  as  acting 
and  reacting  on  each  other  without  ceasing,  and  this  doctrine  is  all 
important,  like  as  the  hinge  of  a  door. 

The  incessant*  production  of  all  things  depend  on  this  as  the 
tree  does  on  the  root.  Even  all  human  affairs  and  all  good  are  also 
dependent  on  it;  therefore  it  is  called  the  Supreme,  just  as  we 
speak  of  the  extreme  points  of  the  earth,  as  the  north  and  south 
poles. 

By  Great  Supreme  is  meant  that  there  is  nothing  above  it 
But  Heaven  is  without  sound  or  smell,  therefore  the  ancients  spoke 
of  the  Infinite  and  the  Great  Supreme.  The  Great  Supreme  pro- 
ducing Yin  and  Yang  is  law  producing  forces.  When  Yang  and 
Yin  unite  they  produce  water,  fire,  wood,  metal,  earth.  When  these 
five  forces  operate  in  harmony  the  four  seasons  come  to  pass.  The 
essences  of  the  Infinite,  of  Yin  and  Yang,  and  of  the  five  elements 
combine,  and  the  Heavenly  becomes  male,  and  the  earthly  becomes 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  339 

female.  When  these  powers  act  on  each  other  all  things  are  pro- 
duced and  reproduced  and  developed  without  end. 

As  to  man,  he  is  the  best  and  most  intelligent  of  all.  That  is 
what  is  meant  in  the  book  of  Chung  Yung  when  it  says  that  what 
Heaven  has  given  is  the  spiritual  nature.  This  nature  is  law.  All 
men  are  thus  bom  and  have  this  law.  Therefore  it  is,  Mencius 
says,  that  all  children  love  the  parents,  and  when  grown  up  all 
respect  their  elder  brethren.  If  men  only  followed  the  natural  bent 
of  this  nature  then  all  would  go  the  right  way;  hence  the  Chung 
Yung  says,  "To  follow  nature  is  the  right  way." 

The  choicest  product  of  Yin  Yang  and  the  five  elements  in  the 
world  is  man,  the  rest  are  refuse  products.  The  choicest  among 
the  choice  ones  are  the  sages  and  worthies,  and  the  refuse  among 
them  are  the  foolish  and  the  bad.  And  as  man's  body  comes 
from  the  Yin  and  and  man's  soul  from  the  Yang  he  cannot  be  per- 
fect. This  is  what  the  Lung  philosophers  called  the  material  nature. 
Although  all  men  have  at  birth  a  nature  for  goodness,  still  if  there 
is  nothing  to  fix  it  then  desires  arise  and  passions  rule,  and  men 
are  not  far  from  being  like  beasts;  hence,  Confucius  says,  "Men's 
nature  is  originally  alike,  but  in  practice  men  become  very  differ- 
ent" The  sages  knowing  this  sought  to  fix  the  nature  with  the 
principles  of  moderation,  uprightness,  benevolence,  and  righteous- 
ness. Heaven  appointed  rulers  and  teachers,  who  in  turn  estab- 
lished worship  and  music  to  improve  men's  disposition,  and  set  up 
governments  and  penalties  in  order  to  check  men's  wickedness.  The 
best  among  the  people  are  taken  into  schools  where  they  study  wis- 
dom, virtue,  benevolence  and  righteousness,  so  that  they  may  know 
beforehand  how  to  conduct  themselves  as  rulers  or  ruled.  And, 
unless  after  many  generations  there  should  be  degeneration  and 
difficulty  in  finding  the  truth,  the  principles  of  Heaven  and  earth, 
of  men  and  of  all  things  have  been  recorded  in  the  book  of  Odes 
for  the  use  of  after  generations.  The  Chung  Yung  calls  the  prac- 
tice of  wisdom  religion.  Our  religion  well  knows  Heaven's  will,  it 
looks  on  all  under  Heaven  as  one  family,  great  rulers  as  elder 
branches  in  their  parents'  clan,  great  ministers  as  chief  officers  of 
this  clan,  and  the  people  at  large,  as  brothers  of  the  same  parents; 
and  it  holds  that  aJl  things  should  be  enjoyed  in  common,  because 
it  regards  Heaven  and  earth  as  the  parents  of  all  alike. 


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340  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

And  the  commandment  of  the  Confucian  is  to  ^Tear  greatly 
lest  you  offend  against  Heaven/' 

But  what  Confucians  lay  great  stress  on  is  human  affairs. 
What  are  these?  These  are  the  five  relations  and  the  five  constants. 
What  are  the  five  relations?  They  are  those  of  sovereign  and  min- 
ister, father  and  son,  elder  and  younger  brother,  husband  and  wife, 
and  that  between  friend  and  friend.  Now  the  ruler  is  the  son  of 
Heaven,  to  be  honored  above  all  others;  therefore  in  serving  him 
there  has  to  be  loyalty.  The  parents'  goodness  to  their  children  is 
boundless,  like  Heaven's,  therefore  the  parents  should  be  served 
faithfully.  Brothers  are  branches  from  the  same  root,  therefore 
mutual  respect  is  important.  The  marriage  relation  is  the  origin 
of  all  human  relations,  therefore  mutual  gentleness  is  important 
As  to  friends,  though,  as  if  strangers  to  our  homes  it  is  important 
to  be  very  affectionate. 

When  one  desires  to  make  progress  in  the  practice  of  virtue  as 
ruler  or  minister,  as  parent  or  child,  as  elder  or  younger  brother, 
or  as  husband  and  wife,  if  any  one  wishes  to  be  perfect  in  any  rela- 
tion, how  can  it  be  done  without  a  friend  to  exhort  one  to  good 
and  check  one  in  evil?  Therefore  one  should  seek  to  increase  his 
friends.  Among  the  five  relations  there  are  also  three  bands.  The 
ruler  is  the  band  of  the  minister,  the  father  is  that  of  the  son,  and 
the  husband  is  that  of  the  wife.  And  the  book  of  the  Ta  Hsioh 
says,  ''From  the  Emperor  down  to  the  common  people  the  funda- 
mental thing  for  all  to  do  is  to  cultivate  virtue.  If  this  fundamen- 
tal foundation  is  not  laid,  then  there  cannot  be  order  in  the  world. 
Therefore  great  responsibility  lies  on  the  leaders.  That  is  what 
Confucius  means  when  he  says:  "When  a  ruler  is  upright  he  is 
obeyed  without  commands." 

Now  to  cause  the  doctrine  of  the  five  relations  to  be  carried 
out  everywhere  by  all  under  Heaven,  the  ruler  must  be  intelligent 
and  the  minister  good,  then  the  government  will  be  just;  the  father 
must  be  loving  and  the  son  filial,  the  elder  brother  friendly,  the 
younger  brother  respectful,  the  husband  kind,  and  the  wife  obedi- 
ent, then  the  home  will  be  right;  in  our  relation  with  our  friends 
there  must  be  confidence,  then  customs  will  be  reformed,  and  the 
order  will  not  be  difficult  for  the  whole  world,  simply  because  the 
rulers  lay  the  foundation  for  it  in  virtue. 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  341 

What  are  the  five  constants?  Benevolence,  righteousness, 
worship,  wisdom,  faithfulness.  Benevolence  is  love,  righteous- 
ness is  fitness,  worship  is  principle,  wisdom  is  thorough  knowledge, 
faithfulness  is  what  one  can  depend  upon. 

He  who  is  able  to  restore  the  original  good  nature  and  to  hold 
fast  to  it  is  called  a  Worthy.  He  who  has  got  hold  of  the  spiritual 
nature  and  is  at  peace  and  rest  is  called  a  Sa^e.  He  who  sends 
forth  unseen  and  infinite  influences  thoroughout  all  things  is  called 
Divine.  The  influence  of  the  five  constants  is  very  great,  and  all 
living  things  are  subject  to  them. 

Mencius  says,  ''He  who  has  no  pity  is  not  a  man,  he  who  has 
no  sense  of  shame  for  wrong  is  not  a  man,  he  who  has  no  yielding 
disposition  is  not  a  man,  and  he  who  has  not  the  sense  of  right  and 
wrong  is  not  a  man."  The  sense  of  pity  is  the  beginning  of  benevo- 
lence, the  sense  of  shame  for  wrong  is  the  beginning  of  righteous- 
ness, a  yielding  disposition  is  the  beginning  of  religion,  the  sense 
of  right  and  wrong  is  the  beginning  of  wisdom.  Faithfulness  is 
not  spoken  of,  as  it  is  what  makes  the  other  four  real,  like  the 
earth  element  among  the  five  elements;  without  it  the  other  four 
manifestly  cannot  be  placed. 

The  Chung  Yung  says,  ''Sincerity  or  reality  is  the  beginning 
and  end  of  things.  There  is  no  such  thing  as  supreme  sincerity 
without  action.    This  is  the  use  of  faithfulness.'' 

As  to  benevolence,  it  also  includes  righteousness,  religion  and 
wisdom;  therefore  the  sages  consider  that  the  most  important 
thing  is  to  get  benevolence.  The  idea  of  benevolence  is  gentleness 
and  liberal  mind6dness,  that  of  righteousness  is  clear  duty,  that  of 
religion  is  showing  forth,  that  of  wisdom  is  to  gather  silently. 
When  there  is  gentleness,  clear  duty,  showing  forth  and  silent 
gathering  constantly  going  on,  then  everything  naturally  falls  to 
its  proper  place,  just  like  the  four  seasons;  e.  g.,  the  spring  influ- 
ences are  gentle  and  liberal  and  are  life-giving  ones;  in  summer 
life-giving  things  grow,  in  autumn  these  show  themselves  in  harvest, 
and  in  winter  they  are  stored  up.  If  there  were  no  spring  the 
other  three  seasons  would  have  nothing;  so  it  is  said  the  benevo- 
lent man  is  the  life.  Extend  and  develop  this  benevolence,  and  all 
under  heaven  may  be  benefitted  thereby.  This  is  how  to  observe 
human  relations. 


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342  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

As  to  the  doctrine  of  future  life,  Confucianism  speaks  of  it 
most  minutely.  Cheng  Tsze  says  the  spirits  are  the  forces  or  ser- 
vants of  Heaven  and  earth,  and  the  signs  of  creative  power.  Chn 
Fu  Tze  says,  ''Speaking  of  two  powers,  the  demons  are  the  intelli- 
gent ones  of  Yin,  the  gods  are  the  intelligent  ones  of  Yang;  speak- 
ing of  one  power,  the  supreme  and  originating  is  called  God;  the 
reverse  and  the  returning  is  Demon.'' 

Space  cannot  be  without  force,  and  force  cannot  but  produce 
results,  which  is  creation;  therefore  where  things  are  fast  pro- 
duced the  living  force  increases  daily  and  there  is  growth. 

The  things  produced  cannot  but  return  to  space  again.  There- 
fore after  all  things  are  fully  matured,  the  living  force  begins  daily 
to  recede  and  be  dissipated;  just  like  the  coming  and  going  of  the 
sun  and  moon,  cold  and  heat — all  inevitable.  The  book  of  changes 
says,  ''The  essence  of  things  from  nothing  produces  something,  and 
wandering  ghosts  again  change  from  something  into  nothing." 
Confucius,  replying  to  Tsai  Wo,  says:  "When  flesh  and  bones  die 
below  in  the  dust  the  material  Yin  becomes  dust,  but  the  imma- 
terial rises  above  the  grave  in  great  light,  has  odor  and  is  very 
pitiable.  This  is  the  immaterial  essence."  The  Chung  Yung, 
quoting  Confucius,  says,  "The  power  of  the  spirits  is  very  great! 
You  look  and  cannot  see  them,  you  listen  and  cannot  hear  them, 
but  they  are  embodied  in  all  things  without  missing  any,  caasmg 
all  men  to  reverence  them  and  be  purified,  and  be  well  adorned  in 
order  to  sacrifice  unto  them."  All  things  are  alive  as  if  the  gods 
were  right  above  our  heads,  or  on  our  right  hand  and  the  left 
Such  being  the  gods,  therefore  Yih  King  makes  inuch  of  divinmg 
to  get  decision  from  the  gods,  knowing  that  the  gods  are  the  forces 
of  Heaven  and  earth  in  operation.  Although  unseen,  still  they 
influence;  if  diflBcult  to  prove,  yet  easily  known.  The  great  sages 
and  great  worthies,  the  loyal  ministers,  the  righteous  scholars,  tiie 
filial  sons,  the  pure  women  of  the  world,  having  received  the  purest 
influences  of  the  divinest  forces  of  Heaven  and  earth,  when  on 
earth  were  heroes,  when  dead  are  the  gods.  Their  influences  con- 
tinue for  many  generations  to  affect  the  world  for  good,  therefore, 
many  venerate  and  sacrifice  unto  them. 

As  to  evil  men,  they  arise  from  the  evil  forces  of  nature;  when 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  343 

dead  they  also  infiueiice  for  evil,  and  we  must  get  holy  influences 
to  destroy  the  evil  ones. 

As  to  rewards  and  punishments,  the  ancient  sages  also  spoke 
of  them.  The  great  Yu,  B.  C.  2,255,  said,  "Follow  what  is  right 
and  you  will  be  fortunate;  do  not  follow  it  and  you  will  be  unfortu- 
nate. The  results  are  only  shadows  and  echoes  of  our  acts."  Tang, 
B.  C.  1766,  said,  **Heaven's  way  is  to  bless  the  good  and  bring 
calamity  on  the  evil."  His  minister  Yi  Yin,  said,  ''It  is  only  God 
who  is  perfectly  just;  good  actions  are  blessed  with  a  hundred 
favors,  evil  actions  are  cursed  with  a  hundred  evils."  Confucius, 
speaking  of  the  Book  of  Changes  (Yih  King)  said:  ''Those  who 
multiply  good  deeds  will  have  joys  to  overflowing;  those  who 
multiply  evil  deeds  will  have  calamities  running  over." 

But  this  is  different  from  Taoism,  which  says  that  there  are 
angels  from  heaven  examining  into  men's  good  and  evil  deeds,  and 
from  Buddhism,  which  says  that  there  is  a  purgatory  or  hell 
according  to  one's  deeds.  Rewards  and  punishments  arise  from 
our  different  actions,  just  as  water  flows  to  the  ocean,  and  as 
fire  seizes  what  is  dry;  without  expecting  certain  consequences 
they  come  inevitably.  When  these  consequences  do  not  appear, 
they  are  like  cold  in  summer  or  heat  in  winter,  or  like  both  happen- 
ing the  same  day;  but  this  we  say  is  unnatural.  Therefore  it  is 
said:  Sincerity  is  the  way  to  Heaven.  If  we  say  that  the  Gods 
serve  Heaven  exactly  as  mandarins  do  on  earth,  bringing  quick 
retribution  on  every  little  thing,  this  is  really  to  make  them  appear 
very  slow.  At  present  men  say,  "Thunder  killed  the  bad  man.** 
But  it  is  not  so,  either.  The  Han  philosopher,  Tung  Chung  Shu 
(second  cetury  B.  C.)  says:  "Vapors,  when  they  clash  above,  make 
rain;  when  they  clash  below,  make  fog.  Wind  is  nature's  breath- 
ing. Thunder  is  the  sound  of  clouds  clashing  against  each  other. 
Lightning  is  light  emitted  by  their  collision.  Thus  we  see  that 
when  a  man  is  killed  it  is  by  the  collision  of  these  clouds." 

As  to  becoming  genii  and  transmigration  of  souls,  these  are 
still  more  beside  the  mark.  If  we  become  like  genii  then  we  would 
live  on  without  dying;  how  could  the  world  hold  so  many?  If  we 
transmigrate,  then  so  many  would  transmigrate  from  the  human 
life  and  ghosts  would  be  so  numerous. 

Besides  when  the  lamp  goes  out,  and  is  lit  again,  it  is  not  the 


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844  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

former  flame  that  is  lit.  When  the  cloud  has  a  rainbow  it  rains, 
but  it  is  not  the  same  rainbow  as  when  the  rainbow  appeared  before. 
From  this  we  know  also  that  these  doctrines  of  transmigration 
should  not  be  believed  in.  So  much  on  the  virtue  of  the  unseen 
and  hereafter. 

As  to  the  great  aim  and  broad  basis  of  Confucianism,  we  may 
say  it  searches  into  things,  it  extends  knowledge,  it  has  a  sincere 
aim,  i.  e.:  to  have  a  right  heart,  a  virtuous  life,  so  as  to  regulate 
the  home,  to  govern  the  nation  and  give  peace  to  all  under  Heaven. 
The  book  of  Great  Learning,  Ja  Hsigh,  has  ahready  clearly  spoken 
of  these,  and  the  least  thing  is  to  govern  the  country  and  give 
peace  to  all  under  Heaven.  The  foundation  is  laid  in  illustrating 
virtue;  for  our  religion  in  discussing  government  regards  virtue  as 
the  foundation,  and  wealth  as  the  superstructure.  Mencius  says: 
''When  the  rulers  and  ministers  are  only  seeking  gain  the  nation  is 
in  danger."  He  also  says:  ''There  is  no  benevolent  man  who 
neglects  his  parents,  there  is  no  righteous  man  who  helps  himself 
before  his  ruler."  From  this  it  is  apparent  what  is  most  impor 
tant. 

Not  that  we  do  not  speak  of  gain;  the  Great  Learning  says: 
"There  is  a  right  to  get  gain.  Let  the  producers  be  many  and  the 
consumers  few.  Let  there  be  activity  in  production,  and  economy 
in  the  expenditure.  Then  the  wealth  will  always  be  sufficient.  But 
it  is  important  that  the  high  and  low  shall  share  it  alike. 

As  to  how  to  govern  the  country  and  give  peace  to  all  under 
Heaven  the  nine  paths  are  most  important.  The  nine  paths  are: 
(1)  cultivate  a  good  character,  (2)  honor  the  good,  (3)  love  your 
parents,  (4)  respect  great  officers,  (5)  carry  out  the  wishes  of  the 
ruler  and  ministers,  (6)  regard  the  common  people  as  your  children, 
(7)  invite  all  kinds  of  skillful  workmen,  (8)  be  kind  to  strangers, 
(9)  have  consideration  for  all  the  feudal  chiefs.  These  are  the 
great  principles. 

Their  orign  and  history  may  also  be  stated.  Far  up  in  mythi- 
cal ancient  times  before  literature  was  know  Fu  Hi  arose  and  drew 
the  eight  diagrams  in  order  to  understand  the  superhuman  powers 
and  the  nature  of  all  things.  At  the  time  of  Tang  Yao  (B.  G.  2,356) 
they  were  able  to  illustrate  noble  virtue.  Nine  generations  lived 
together  in  one  home  in  love  and  peace,  and  the  people  were  firm 


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ORIENTAL  RELIGIOUS  FAITHS.  345 

and  intelligent.  Yao  handed  down  to  Shun  a  saying:  ''Sincerely 
hold  fast  to  the  'Mean/"  Shun  transmitted  it  to  Yu  and  said: 
'The  mind  of  man  is  restless — prone  to  err;  its  aflSnity  for  the 
right  way  is  small.  Be  discriminating,  be  undivided  that  you  may 
sincerely  hold  fast  to  the  "Mean."  Yu  transmitted  this  to  Tang 
of  the  Siang  dynasty  (B.  C.  1766.)  Tang  transmitted  it  to  Kings 
Wen  and  Wu  of  the  Chow  dynasty  (B.  C.  1122.)  These  transmit- 
ted it  to  Duke  Rung.  And  these  were  all  able  to  observe  this  rule 
of  the  heart  by  which  they  held  fast  to  the  "Mean."  The  Chow 
dynasty  later  degenerated,  then  there  arose  Confucius  who  trans- 
mitted the  doctrines  of  Yao  and  Shun  as  if  they  had  been  his 
ancestors,  elegantly  displayed  the  doctrines  of  Wen  and  Woo^ 
edited  the  Odes,  and  the  History,  reformed  religion,  made  notes  on 
the  Book  of  Changes,  wrote  the  Annals  of  Spring  and  Autumn,  and 
spoke  of  governing  the  nation,  saying,  "Treat  matters  seriously 
and  be  faithful,  be  temperate  and  love  men,  employ  men  according 
to  proper  times,  and  in  teaching  your  pupils  you  must  do  so  with 
love."  He  said  to  Yen  Tsze:  "Self-sacrifice  and  truth  is  benevo- 
lence. If  you  can  for  one  whole  day  entirely  sacrifice  self  and  be 
true,  then  all  under  Heaven  will  become  benevolent."  Speaking  of 
being  able  to  put  away  selfishness  and  attaining  to  the  truth  of 
Heaven,  ever3rthing  is  possible  to  such  a  heart.  Alas!  He  was  not 
able  to  get  his  virtues  put  into  practice,  but  his  disciples  recorded 
his  words  and  deeds  and  wrote  the  Confucian  Analects,  His  disci- 
ple Jseng  Tsze  composed  the  Great  Learning.  His  proud  son  Tsze 
Sze  composed  the  doctrine  of  the  Mean  (Chung  Yung.)  When  the 
contending  states  were  quarreling,  Mencius,  with  a  loving  heart 
that  could  not  endure  wrong  arose  to  save  the  times.  The  rulers 
of  the  time  would  not  use  him,  so  he  composed  a  book  in  seven 
chapters.  After  this,  although  the  ages  changed,  this  religion 
flourished.  In  the  Han  dynasty  Tung  Chung  Shu  (twentieth  century 
B.  C.)  in  the  Sui  dynasty  Wang  Tung  (A.  D.  573-617);  in  the  Tang 
dynasty  Han  Yo  (A.  D.  768-824)  each  made  some  part  of  this 
doctrine  better  known.  In  the  Sung  dynasty  (A.  D.  960-1260)  these 
were  the  disciples  of  the  philosophers  Cheng,  Chow,  and  Chang, 
searching  into  the  spiritual  natue  of  man,  and  Chu  Fu-Tsze  collected 
their  works  and  this  religion  shone  with  great  brightness.  Our 
present  dynasty,  respecting  scholarship  and  considering  truth  im- 


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346  IMPROVEMENT  ERA 

portant,  placed  the  philosopher  Chow  in  Confucian  temples  to  be 
reverenced  and  sacrificed  to;  Confucianists  all  follow GhnFu-Tsze's 
comments.  From  ancient  times  till  now  those  who  followed  the 
doctrines  of  CJonfucius  were  able  to  govern  the  country;  whenever 
these  were  not  followed  there  was  disorder. 


THE  SWORD. 


Twas  the  battle  field,  and  the  cold,  pale  moon 

Looked  down  on  the  dead  and  dying, 
And  the  wind  passed  o'er  with  a  dirge  and  a  wail, 

Where  the  young  and  the  brave  were  lying. 
With  his  father's  sword  in  his  red,  right  hand, 

And  the  hostile  dead  around  him. 
Lay  a  youthful  chief;  but  his  bed  was  the  ground, 

And  the  grave's  icy  sleep  had  bound  him. 
A  reckless  rover,  'mid  death  and  doom, 

Pass'd,  a  soldier,  his  plunder  seeking; 
Careless  he  stopped  where  friend  and  foe 

Lay  alike  in  their  life-blood  reeking. 
Drawn  by  the  shine  of  the  warrior's  sword. 

The  soldier  paused  beside  it; 
He  wrenched  the  hand  with  a  giant's  strength. 

But  the  grasp  of  the  dead  defied  it. 
He  loosed  his  hold,  and  his  English  heart 

Took  part  with  the  dead  before  him. 
And  he  honor'd  the  brave  who  died  sword  in  hand, 

As  with  sof ten'd  brow  he  leaned  o'er  him. 
"A  soldier's  death  thou  hast  boldly  died, 

A  soldier's  grave  won  by  it; 
Before  I  would  take  that  sword  from  thine  hand 

My  own  life's  blood  should  dye  it. 
''Thou  shalt  not  be  left  for  the  carrion  crow. 

Or  the  wolf  to  batten  o'er  thee; 
Or  the  coward  insult  the  gallant  dead, 

Who  in  life  had  trembled  before  thee." 
Then  dug  he  a  grave  in  the  crimson  earth 

Where  the  warrior  foe  was  sleeping; 
And  he  laid  him  there  in  honor  and  rest. 

With  his  sword  in  his  own  brave  keeping. 

Miss  Landon 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE 

CHURCH 

BY  OLIVEE  COWDEEY. 


LETTER  m. 

Deae  Beothee. — After  a  silence  of  another  month,  agree- 
ably to  my  promise,  I  proceed  upon  the  subject  I  proposed  in  the 
first  number  of  the  Advocate.  Perhaps  an  apology  for  brevity  may 
not  be  improper,  here,  as  many  important  incidents  consequently 
transpiring  in  the  organization  and  establishing  of  a  society  like 
the  one  whose  history  I  am  about  to  give  to  the  world,  are  over- 
looked or  lost,  and  soon  buried  with  those  who  were  the  actors, 
will  prevent  my  giving  those  minute  and  particular  reflections 
which  I  have  so  often  wished  might  have  characterized  the  "Acts 
of  the  Apostles,''  and  the  ancient  saints.  But  such  facts  as  are 
within  my  knowledge  will  be  given,  without  any  reference  to  incon- 
sistencies, in  the  minds  of  others,  or  impossibilities,  in  the  feel- 
ings of  such  as  do  not  give  credence  to  the  system  of  salvation 
and  redemption  so  clearly  set  forth  and  so  plainly  written  over 
the  face  of  the  sacred  scriptures. 

Upon  the  propriety  of  a  narrative  of  this  kind,  I  have 
briefly  to  remark:  it  is  known  to  you  that  this  church  has  suffered 
reproach  and  persecution,  from  a  majority  of  mankind  who  heard 
but  a  rumor,  since  its  first  organization.  And  further,  you  are 
also  conversant  with  the  fact,  that  no  sooner  had  the  messengers 
of  the  fullness  of  the  Gospel  began  to  proclaim  its  heavenly  pre- 
cepts and  call  upon  men  to  embrace  the  same,  than  they  were 
vilified  and  slandered  by  thousands  who  never  saw  their  faces. 


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348  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

and  much  less  knew  aught  derogatory  of  their  characters  moral  or 
religious—upon  this  unfair  and  unsaint-like  manner  of  procedure 
they  have  been  giving  in  large  sheets  their  own  opinions  of  the 
incorrectness  of  our  system  and  attested  volumes  of  our  lives  and 
characters. 

Since,  then,  our  opposers  have  been  thus  kind  to  introduce 
our  cause  before  the  public,  it  is  no  more  than  just  that  a  correct 
account  should  be  given;  and  since  they  have  invariably  sought  to 
cast  a  shade  over  the  truth,  and  hinder  its  influence  from  gaining 
ascendency,  it  is  also  proper  that  it  should  be  vindicated,  by  laying 
before  the  world  a  correct  statement  of  events  as  they  have 
transpired  from  time  to  time. 

Whether  I  shall  succeed  so  far  in  my  purpose  as  to  convince 
the  public  of  the  incorrectness  of  those  scurrilous  reports  which 
have  inundated  our  land,  or  even  but  a  small  portion  of  them,  will 
be  better  ascertained  when  I  close  than  when  I  commence;  and  I 
am  content  to  submit  it  before  the  candid  for  perusal,  and  before 
the  Judge  of  all  for  inspection,  as  I  most  assuredly  believe  that 
before  him  I  must  stand  and  answer  for  the  deeds  transacted  in 
this  life. 

Should  I,  however,  be  instrumental  in  causing  a  few  to  hear 
before  they  judge,  and  understand  both  sides  of  this  matter  before 
they  condemn,  I  shall  have  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  them  embrace 
it,  as  I  am  certain  that  one  is  the  inevitable  fruit  of  the  other. 
But  to  proceed. 

You  will  recollect  that  I  informed  you,  in  my  letter  published 
in  the  first  number  of  the  Messenger  and  Advocate,  that  this  histoiy 
would  necessarily  embrace  the  life  and  character  of  our  esteemed 
friend  and  brother,  Joseph  Smith,  Jr.,  one  of  the  presidents  of  this 
church,  and  for  information  on  that  part  of  the  subject,  I  refer 
you  to  his  communication  of  the  same,  published  in  this  paper.*  I 
shall,  therefore,  pass  over  that,  till  I  come  to  the  seventeenth  year 
of  his  life. 

It  is  necessary  to  premise  this  account  by  relating  the 
situation  of  the  public  mind  relative  to  religion,  at  this  time:  One 
Mr.    Lane,  a  presiding  Elder  of  the  Methodist  Church,  visited 


*See  Joseph  Smith's  letter,  preceding  the  letters  of  0.  Cowdery. 


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EARLY  SCENES  AND  INCIDENTS  IN  THE  CHURCH.       349 

Palmyra^  and  vicinity.  Elder  Lane  was  a  talented  man  possessing 
a  good  share  of  literary  endowments  and  apparent  humility.  There 
was  a  great  awakening,  or  excitement  raised  on  the  subject  of 
religion,  and  much  inquiry  for  the  word  of  life.  Large  additions 
were  made  to  the  Methodist,  Presbyterian,  and  Baptist  churches. 
Mr.  Lane's  manner  of  communication  was  peculiarly  calculated  to 
awaken  the  intellect  of  the  hearer,  and  arouse  the  sinner  to  look 
about  him  for  safety — ^much  good  instruction  was  always  drawn 
from  his  discourses  on  the  scripture,  and  in  common  with  others, 
our  brother's  mind  became  awakened. 

For  a  length  of  time  the  reformation  seemed  to  move  in  a 
harmonious  manner,  but,  as  the  excitement  ceased  or  those  who 
had  expressed  anxieties,  had  professed  a  belief  in  the  pardoning 
influence  and  condescension  of  the  Savior,  a  general  struggle  was 
made  by  the  leading  characters  of  the  different  sects,  for  pro- 
selytes. Then  strife  seemed  to  take  the  place  of  that  apparent 
union  and  harmony  which  had  previously  characterized  the  moods 
and  exhortations  of  the  old  professors,  and  a  cry — I  am  right — 
you  are  wrong — ^was  introduced  in  their  stead. 

In  this  general  strife  for  followers  his  mother,  one  sister,  and 
two  of  his  natural  brothers,  were  persuaded  to  unite  with  the 
Presbyterians.  This  gave  opportunity  for  further  reflection;  and 
as  will  be  seen  in  the  sequel,  laid  a  foundation,  or  was  one  means 
of  laying  a  foundation  for  the  attestations  of  the  truth,  or  profes- 
sions of  truths,  contained  in  that  record  called  the  word  of  God. 

After  strong  solicitations  to  unite  with  one  of  those  different 
societies,  and  seeing  the  apparent  proselyting  dispositions  mani- 
fested with  equal  warmth  from  each,  his  mind  was  led  to  more 
seriously  contemplate  the  importance  of  a  move  of  this  kind.  To 
profess  ficodliness  without  its  benign  influence  upon  the  heart,  was 
a  thing  so  foreign  from  his»  feelings,  that  his  spirit  was  not  at  rest 
day  nor  night.  To  unite  with  a  society  professing  to  be  built 
upon  the  only  sure  foundation,  and  that  profession  be  a  vain  one, 
was  calculated  in  its  very  nature,  the  more  it  was  contemplated, 
the  more  to  arouse  the  mind  to  the  serious  consequences  of  moving 
hastily,  in  a  course  fraught  with  eternal  realities.  To  say  he  was 
right,  and  still  be  wrong,  could  not  profit;  and  amid  so  many, 
some  must  be  built  upon  the  sand. 


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350  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

In  this  situation  where  conld  he  go?  If  he  went  to  one  he 
was  told  they  were  right,  and  all  others  were  wrong.  If  to 
another,  the  same  was  heard  from  those.  All  professed  to  be  the 
true  church;  and  if  not,  they  were  certainly  hypocritical,  because, 
if  I  am  presented  with  a  system  of  religion,  and  enquire  of  my 
teacher  whether  it  is  correct,  and  he  informs  me  that  he  is  not 
certain,  he  acknowledges  at  once  that  he  is  teaching  without 
authority  and  acting  without  a  commission! 

If  one  professed  a  degree  of  authority  or  preference  in  con- 
sequence of  age  or  right,  and  that  superiority  was  without 
evidence,  it  was  insufficient  to  convince  a  mind  once  aroused  to 
that  degree  of  determination  which  at  that  time  operated  upon 
him.  And  upon  further  reflection,  that  the  Savior  had  said  that 
the  gate  was  straight  and  the  way  narrow  that  leads  to  life  eternal, 
and  that  few  entered  there;  and  that  the  way  was  broad, 
and  the  gate  wide  which  leadeth  to  destruction,  and  that  many 
crowded  its  current,  a  proof  from  some  source  was  wanting  to 
settle  the  mind  and  give  peace  to  the  agitated  bosom.  It  is  not 
frequent  that  the  minds  of  men  are  exercised  with  proper  deter- 
mination relative  to  obtaining  a  certainty  of  the  things  of  God. 
They  are  too  apt  to  rest  short  of  that  assurance  which  the  Lord 
Jesus  has  so  freely  offered  in  his  word  to  man,  and  which  so 
beautifully  characterizes  his  whole  plan  of  salvation,  as 
revealed  to  us. 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES- 

IIL 
PAUL. 

BY  PROFESSOR  WILLARD  DONE,  PRESIDENT  OF  LATTER-DAY  SAINTS' 
COLLEGE,  SALT  LAKE  CITY. 


In  the  southern  part  of  Asia  Minor  was  a  Roman  province 
known  as  Cilicia.  The  chief  city  of  this  province  was  called  Tarsus. 
As  a  centre  of  culture  and  learning  this  city  was  a  rival  of  Athens 
and  Alexandria.  From  the  regions  round  about  the  youth  flocked 
to  Tarsus  to  sit  under  the  voices  of  its  numerous  teachers  and 
philosophers.  It  had  a  mixed  population,  one  of  the  strongest 
elements  being  the  Jews,  some  of  those  who  had  left  Palestine 
and  who  lived  in  all  the  chief  cities  of  the  Roman  empire.  Some 
of  the  Jews  who  lived  at  Tarsus  were  Roman  citizens,  doubtless  on 
account  of  services  they  had  rendered  the  emperor.  To  one  of 
these  families  was  bom  a  son  whom  the  parents  named  Saul,  the 
name  meaning  ''asked  for."  From  this  we  are  led  to  infer  that  he 
was  the  oldest  son,  and  that  such  a  gift  had  been  eagerly  hoped 
for  by  the  parents. 

Saul  was  by  birth,  therefore,  a  Jew,  and  heir  to  the  traditions 
of  that  race,  and  a  free  Roman  citizen,  entitled  to  all  the  privileges 
and  inmiunities  belonging  to  that  condition.  A  reading  of  his  his- 
tory shows  how  the  latter  fact  was  of  value  to  him  in  certain  crit- 
ical circumstances.  We  also  know  that  Saul  was  of  the  sect  of 
the  Pharisees,  and  educated  in  all  the  ideas  and  prejudices  of  that 


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352  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

class.  (Acts  xxiii:  6;  26:  5.)  We  are  left  entirely  in  the  daric 
as  to  the  age  of  Saul.  His  early  life  isalso  unknown  to  ns,  except 
as  it  is  revealed  to  ns  in  occasional  glimpses  throughout  his  dis- 
courses and  epistles.  From  these  brief  references  we  learn  of  his 
birthplace,  of  his  being  bom  a  Pharisee  and  a  Roman  citizen,  of  his 
learning  the  tradeof  a  tent-maker,  and  of  his  being  taught  at  Jeru- 
salem by  the  great  Jewish  teacher,  Gamaliel.  As  to  the  amount  of 
learning  he  acquired  in  Greek  philosophy,  we  are  uncertain,  as  the 
quotations  and  allusions  of  this  character  which  appear  in  his 
talking  and  writing,  may  have  been  the  outgrowth  of  a  profound 
or  a  limited  knowledge  of  this  philosophy. 

Saul  first  comes  into  New  Testament  history  in  connection 
with  the  stoning  of  Stephen,  the  first  Christian  martyr.  This  event 
occurred  about  the  year  34,  A.D.  Saul, we  would  judge  from  the  words 
of  the  historian,  took  rather  more  than  the  part  of  merely  nega- 
tive consent  in  this  tragedy,  for  the  witnesses  laid  their  cloaks  at 
his  feet  while  they  were  engaged  in  the  stoning.  After  this,  Sanl 
drops  out  of  notice  until  the  accoxmt  of  his  conversion  is  given. 
But  we  know  that  during  the  period  of  one  or  two  years  between 
the  atoning  of  Stephen  and  his  own  conversion,  Saul  was  prominent 
in  the  vast  system  of  persecution  which  was  instituted  agamst  the 
Christians  throughout  Palestine  and  Syria.  It  was  while  he  was 
on  the  way  to  Damascus,  the  chief  city  of  Syria,  with  a  commis- 
sion from  the  high  priest  to  arrest  all  Christians  and  bring  them 
bound  to  Jerusalem,  that  he  was  smitten  with  blindness  and  con- 
verted by  the  power  and  the  Voice  of  Jesus.    (Acts  9:  1-6.) 

I  am  not  one  of  those  who  believe  that  during  this  journey 
Paul  had  gradually  become  prepared  for  this  conversion  by  his  own 
musings  on  the  course  he  was  pursuing.  Apparently  he  was  just 
as  obdurate  and  determined  in  his  i^erspcution  of  the  Christians 
when  he  approached  Damascus,  as  when  he  left  Jerusalem.  As  a 
devout  Jew,  he  considered  that  he  was  doing  God's  service  in  thus 
persecuting  those  who  openly  accused  the  Jews  of  having  slain 
the  Son  of  God.  And  it  required  the  personal  appearance  and 
annoxmcement  of  the  resurrected  Messiah,  to  show  him  that  his 
course  was  wrong.  All  his  training  from  youth  to  manhood  had 
been  such  as  to  convince  him  of  its  rightfulness.  When  the  voice 
from  heaven  called  to  him,  ''Saul,  Saul,  why  persecuteet  thou  mer 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  353 

he  had  to  ask  the  question,  "Who  art  thou,  Lord?"  and  received  the 
answer,  '1  am  Jesus,  whom  thou  persecutest;  it  is  hard  for  thee 
to  kick  against  the  pricks,"  before  he  was  fully  convinced  of  the 
Messiahship  of  Jesus.  But  so  thoroughly  was  he  converted  then 
that  he  never  doubted  it  from  that  day  until  he  was  called  to  lay 
down  his  life  in  testimony  of  it. 

Saul  was  led  into  the  city  of  Damascus  by  his  attendants  and 
there,  in  obedience  to  the  commandment  of  the  Lord,  Ananias 
came  to  him  and  laid  hands  on  him  for  the  restoration  of  his  sight. 
Immediately  afterward  he  was  baptized.  According  to  his  own 
statement  (Gal.  1:  17)  Saul  went  from  Damascus  to  Arabia  and 
spent  the  next  three  years  there.  We  do  not  know  his  purpose 
in  going  to  Arabia,  but  it  may  have  been  to  prepare  himself  by 
solitary  meditation,  study  and  prayer  for  the  great  work  required 
of  him.  After  his  sojourn  in  Arabia  he  returned  to  Damascus,  but 
he  met  with  such  harsh  treatment  at  the  hands  of  the  Jews  there, 
that  he  barely  escaped  with  his  life,  by  being  let  down  in  a  basket 
from  the  window  of  a  house  built  on  the  wall  of  the  city. 

This  was  the  occasion  of  his  first  visit  to  Jerusalem  after  his 
conversion.  He  was  looked  upon  at  Jerusalem  with  a  certain 
degree  of  suspicion  on  account  of  the  remembrance  of  his  bitter 
persecutions  of  the  disciples.  Barnabas  came  to  his  assistance 
and  vouched  for  the  sincerity  of  his  conversion.  Saul  also  allayed 
the  fears  of  the  disciples  by  publicly  preaching  the  Messiahship  of 
Jesus,  and  disputing  with  the  unbelievers,  both  Jews  and  Greeks. 
This  so  incensed  his  enemies  in  the  city  that  they  attempted  his 
life.  The  other  disciples  spirited  him  away  to  Csesarea  and  sent 
him  thence  to  Tarsus,  his  native  city,  xmtil  the  anger  of  his  ene- 
mies should  have  abated.  This  event  occurred  about  the  year  38, 
A.  D. 

Not  long  afterward  Barnabas  was  sent  down  to  Antioch  for  a 
ministerial  purpose,  and  he  went  over  to  Tarsus  and  brought  Saul 
back  to  Antioch  with  him.  Here  they  established  their  head- 
quarters for  a  year,  preaching  and  ministering  among  the  people. 
At  the  end  of  that  time  Saul  and  Barnabas  went  up  to  Jerusalem  with 
donations  which  had  been  given  by  the  saints  in  Antioch  for  the 
worthy  poor  in  Judea.  Returning  to  Antioch  shortly  afterward, 
they  two,  with  John,  sumamed  Mark,  set  out  upon  their  first  great 


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854  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

missionary  journey.  They  first  crossed  over  to  Cyprus,  and  trav- 
eled through  that  island  preaching  the  Grospel  and  doing  many  mighty 
works.  It  was  here  that  Saul  was  first  called  Paul  by  the  historian 
Luke.  This  may  have  been  a  softened  form  of  the  name  Saul,  or 
his  Roman  name,  Saul  being  his  Jewish  one,  or  it  may  have  been  a 
surname  applied  to  him  on  account  of  his  short  stature  {PaviiUf 
"little").    At  any  rate,  he  is  best  known  to  us  by  this  title. 

From  Cyprus  they  went  to  the  southern  coast  of  Asia  Minor, 
traveling  through  those  regions,  preaching,  exhorting,  performing 
miracles,  and  suffering  persecution;  Paul  being  worshiped  as  a 
god  in  Lystra,  and  afterward  stoned  almost  to  death  in  the  same 
city.  During  this  journey,  for  some  unknown  cause,  John  Mark 
left  them  and  went  to  Jerusalem.  Returning  through  the  regions 
where  they  had  established  churches,  Paul  and  Barnabas  confirmed 
them,  and  then  sailed  directly  from  Asia  Minor  to  Antioch  in  Syria, 
where  their  headquarters  were.  Here  they  reported  their  mis- 
sionary labors,  and  dwelt  with  the  Saints  for  some  time. 

About  the  year  53  A.D.  Paul  and  Barnabas  went  up  to  Jerusalem, 
the  occasion  of  their  visit  being  the  dispute  which  had  arisen 
regarding  the  circumcision  of  converted  gentiles.  Happily  for 
the  peace  of  the  church  this  question  was  decided  wisely,  and  then 
Paul  and  Barnabas,  with  Silas  and  Judas  Barsabas,  returned  to 
Antioch.  Here  they  remained  for  a  time  and  preached  the  word 
of  the  Lord  concerning  circumcision.  Paul  then  suggested  to 
Barnabas  that  they  visit  the  cities  where  they  had  previously 
established  branches  of  the  church,  and  they  made  preparations  for 
the  journey.  A  contention  arose  between  them  as  to  their  com- 
panions, Barnabas  desiring  John  Mark,  his  nephew,  and  Paul  being 
of  opinion  that  on  account  of  his  having  deserted  them  previously, 
he  was  unworthy  of  the  sacred  responsibility.  The  dispute  ended 
by  Barnabas  choosing  Mark,  and  Paul  Silas,  and  separating  never 
to  meet  again. 

Paul  and  Silas  traveled  through  the  regions  of  Asia  Minor 
where  churches  had  been  established,  finding  Timothy  at  Lystra 
and  taking  him  as  a  companion.  Passing  through  the  western 
portion  of  Asia  Minor  they  crossed  the  Hellespont  into  Macedonia, 
this  being,  so  far  as  we  know,  the  first  introduction  of  the  Gospel 
into  Europe.    At  Philippi,  the  first  city  of  importance  visited  by 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  355 

them  in  Macedonia,  occurred  the  well-known  incidents  of  the  con- 
version of  Lydia,  the  healing  of  the  Greek  divining  girl  and  the 
conversion  of  the  jailor  and  his  family.  Here  the  Roman  citizen- 
ship of  Paul  stood  him  in  good  stead,  and  secured  for  him  and 
Silas  an  honorable  release  from  the  prison  and  escort  from  the 
city.  Thessalonica  and  Berea  were  next  visited,  and  some  success 
was  met  with;  but  the  continued  enmity  and  opposition  of  the  Jews 
forced  Paid  to  precede  the  other  two  brethren  to  Athens.  Here^ 
on  the  Areopagus  or  Mars  hill,  he  preached  his  famous  sermon 
which  was  brought  out  by  his  seeing  an  altar  inscribed,  'To  the 
Unknown  God."  C!orinth,  "the  eye  of  Greece,"  was  next  visited 
by  him,  and  here  he  gained  so  large  a  following  that  he  remained 
a  year  and  a  half.  Thence  he  crossed  the  Aegean  sea  to  Ephesus^ 
and  went  from  there  to  Jerusalem,  af ter^'ard  returning  to  Antioch. 
This  completed  his  second  missionary  journey. 

After  a  stay  in  Antioch,  he  commenced  his  third  missionary 
journey  passing  through  Galatia,  Phrygia  and  other  portions  of 
Asia  Minor,  to  Ephesus.  Here  he  found  certain  disciples  who 
claimed  to  have  been  baptized  by  a  disciple  of  John  the  Baptist; 
but  as  they  had  not  heard  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  Paul  doubted  the 
validity  of  their  claim  and  baptized  them  anew,  conferring  upon 
them  the  Holy  Ghost.  Great  miracles  were  performed  by  Paul  at 
Ephesus  and  a  number  of  important  events  occurred  there,  some 
of  the  most  prominent  being  the  disgrace  of  the  seven  Jews  who 
attempted  without  authority  to  cast  out  an  evil  spirit,  and  the 
uproar  caused  by  the  silversmiths  under  Demetrius.  The  patron 
goddess  of  Ephesus  was  Diana,  and  a  great  temple  was  erected 
there  in  her  honor.  The  silversmiths  gained  great  profit  from  the 
manufacture  and  sale  of  small  silver  shrines,  supposed  to  be  min- 
iature copies  of  this  temple.  But  as  Paul  was  converting  so  many 
of  these  worshipers  of  Diana,  the  silversmiths  saw  that  their 
'•craft  was  in  danger;"  therefore  they  raised  a  commotion  which 
was  quelled  by  the  good  sense  of  the  town  clerk. 

From  Ephesus,  after  he  had  stayed  there  two  years,  Paul 
passed  through  Macedonia  into  Greece  and  back  to  Asia  Minor, 
visiting  the  churches  in  those  cities,  for  the  last  time.  In  this 
town  he  was  accompanied  by  a  number  of  the  brethren,  including 
Luke,  the  writer  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles. 


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356  IMPROVEMENT  ERA. 

At  Troas,  on  the  return  jonrney^  Paul  preached  his  all-night 
sennon,  in  the  course  of  which  Eutychus  fell  f rom  a  window,  in  his 
sleep,  and  was  taken  up  dead  to  be  restored  to  life  through  Paul's 
administration.  Paul's  farewell  to  the  disciples  in  the  variouB 
cities  was  very  touching  and  shows  the  great  esteem  in  which  he 
was  held. 

Going  up  to  Jerusalem  he  reported  his  mission  to  James  and 
the  other  brethren,  and  on  their  advice  attempted  to  gain  the 
favor  of  the  Jews  by  entering  into  the  temple.  But  they  accused 
him  of  taking  gentiles  into  the  holy  house  and  polluting  it;  and  so 
great  was  the  indignation  that  Paul  was  thrown  out  of  the  temple 
and  would  have  been  killed  if  he  had  not  been  rescued  by  Roman 
soldiers.  Paul  was  then  permitted  to  speak  in  his  own  defense. 
The  Jews  listened  in  patience  until  he  spoke  of  his  ministry  to 
the  gentiles;  then  they  broke  into  such  a  violent  uproar  and  made 
such  threats  that  the  Homan  officers  determined  t6  scourge  him  in 
order  to  force  him  to  confess  his  fault.  He  escaped  this  torture 
by  appealing  to  his  Roman  citizenship.  Upon  his  defending  him- 
self before  the  Sanhedrim,  another  tumult  was  created,  from 
which  he  was  rescued  and  then  confined  in  the  castle.  A  con- 
spiracy of  the  Jews  to  kill  him  was  revealed  by  his  sister's  son, 
and  he  was  sent  under  an  escort  of  Roman  soldiers  to  Csesarea. 
Here  he  was  kept  upwards  of  two  years,  being  vehemently  accused 
by  his  enemies,  the  Jews,  and  defending  himself  with  great  skill 
and  successfully  before  Felix,  Pestus  and  Agrippa. 

Finding  that  his  imprisonment  at  Csesarea  was  likely  to  be 
interminable,  Paul  appealed  his  case  to  Caesar  in  order  that  he 
might  be  carried  to  Rome;  for  the  Lord  had  promised  that  Paul 
should  bear  witness  of  him  in  the  great  city.  Accordingly  he 
embarked  with  a  guard  and  in  company  with  other  prisoners,  sailed 
from  Gsesarea.  They  touched  at  Crete,  and  Paul  tried  to  per- 
suade them  to  pass  the  winter  in  port  at  Fair  Havens.  Thinking 
however  that  they  could  find  a  more  suitable  place  they  set  sail, 
and  encountered  a  great  tempest,  which  drove  them  to  shipwreck 
on  the  island  of  Melita.  Through  the  coolness  and  faith  of  Paul, 
the  lives  of  all  were  saved  and  they  remained  on  the  island  until 
spring.  Here  occurred  the  healing  of  one  of  the  chief  men  of  the 
island,  and  the  incident  of  the  viper  biting  Paul's  hand,  the  poison 


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LIVES  OF  THE  APOSTLES.  357 

being  neutralized  through  the  power  of  Grod.  In  the  spring  they 
fonnd  a  ship  which  was  sailing  to  Italy,  and  completed  their  voy- 
age to  Rome.  Here  Paul  remained  for  two  years,  enjoyin